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CHAP. 1.
கடவுளவாழ்த்து The praise of God.

The literal meaning of the title of this Chapter is preserved in the translation. According to established rule all Tamil compositions ought and, with few exceptions, all do commence by an invocation of the Deity, varying according to the sect of the writer. Tiruvalluver has devoted the whole of this Chapter to this subject.

அகரமுதல் வெழுத்தெல்லாமாதி

பகவன் முதற்றேயுலகு
As ranked in every alphabet the first
The self-same vowelstands, so in all worlds,

Th' eternal God is chief. Literally As A is the first letter &c: the first of our vowels, when pronounced short, is here intended, which is actually the first letter in all alphabets and the meaning of the distich, therefore, is, that, as this letter, however varying in form, is the first in all alphabets, so the same Deity, however varying in his energies and attributes, governs all nature. By translating the word 64$ SN letters instead of “ alphabet” the sense of this couplet would bc-As the vowel A stands first among the letters (of the Tanil alphabet) so the eternal God stands first in the worlchand this in fact, is the meaning given to it in the Latin Commentary. The foregoing version, however, agrees with the reading of Parimèl-azhager, who commenting on it says-sS @448 $60ow our own டவெழுத்திறகு முதலாதனோககியெழுததெல்லாமென்றார் It is not confin. ed to the Tamil alphabet alone ; secing it to be the first, also, in the Northern


(or Sanscrit) Alphabet he says all alphabets. It must not be objected to this that ens the world is in the siogular number, as this word like many similar terms in Tamil, bas frequently a plural and general signification, as in the 3rd Couplet of Chap. 3rd, where it means the inhabitants both of heaven and earth. Here, moreover, generality may more especially be attributed to it, the adjective 6700 @mis all being so placed in the sentence as to qualify both 6! lettcrs and 206 worlds ; thus affording two readings, namely, அகரமுதல வெழுததெல்லாம as thic lttcr' A is fin'st in all alphabets, and 013) SIGLO QU8207.39 MC mun the eternal God is chief in all worlds: instances of such double application of a single term are not uncominon in Tamil..

" Soin all worlds”--Tlie Hindus believe not only in a plurality of worlds but in a plurality of systenis called yow bool of which the entire collection constitutes the usus I ETT LLD the universe; this belief is thus alluded to in the Tiruvdy-mozhi the words of the holy mouth, a translation of the substance of the Védam, according to the Vaishnayas, into Tamil,

வினமீதிருபபாயம வலமேனி றபாயகடலசேர்வாய
மனமீதுழ லவாயிவறறுளளெங்கு மறைந் துறைவாய
எணமீதி யனறபுறவனடத்ததாயென தாவி

யணமீதாடி யருககாடடா தேயொளிப்பாயோ. Thou art in the heavens, thou art above the mountains, thou dwellest in the ocean,

Thou revolvest in the earth, but among all these, though every where present, thou art every where hid ;

Thou art (mong other worlds, among systems beyond the reach of thought,

And thou sporiest, also, in my soul: wilt thou ever thus remain concealed withollt manifesting thy form?

This verse involves philosophic ideas of no small importance, and to impress, therefore, the truth of my translation it may be right to analyze the original expressions. That translated thou revolvest in the earth,which so inmediately opposes the Puranic system of geography and astronomy and which isin itself so just, is in the original composed of the words a Man' the earth, som anidu in, on, ahore, anong, it must here have the first meaning because it takes the second in the first line and the others in the two last, were it otherwise the rhyme would be incorrect, andes autrw uzhclvày the second person singular of the future tense of the verb ein 6) uzhelel to revolve, used according to idiom in a frequentative scnse; the literal meaning, therefore, is thor continuest revolving &c. The line translated " Thou art among other worlds, among systeins beyond the reach of the thought,is composed of the following words, எண En' thought, மீது nidu above, இயனற iyan da , the participle past of the verb Qum ) iyelel to become unite, or collected incompanies, pura other, and

L a w an'ilailùy, an appellative noun conjugated in the second person, derived from the Sanscrit word gou , an dam which literally signifies an egg, or any thing ovul, here a sphere, a solar system;

Y STL-D 97c an'daitàn the first form of the appellative, according to the rules of Tamil grammar means either he who presides over, possCSSCS, or inhabits a system of worlds ; the whole sentence, therefore, might more literally be translated, Thou dwellest among other systems of worlds collected in compunics beyond the reach of thought.-Tlienotion of a plurality of worids, which Fontenelle has in modern tinies made popular in Europe, seems to have been known and admitted in India in the earliest ages.

“ Th’ eternal God”-The compound & LEV BT, thus rendered, bears correctly that signification, but the literal meaning of the first member of it

2 is the first, the begining; both the terms are of Sanscrit derivation, and the compound, which follows, therefore, the rules of that language, is the only instance of the kind that occurs in this division of the work.

gjerm lhe lelter A. the ac, sing. governed by the following verb.-Bosca conjugated from of the noun yosh the beginning, having the force of the third per. plu. pass. and meaning they begin by, commence wilh.-6449@swaan all lellers ; the nom. governing the preceding word conjugated as a rerb.-G ruall, this term, as is usually the case, here follows the word with which it is compounded.-Owes a Sangcrit compound from 95 W lhe first, the beginning, and ow your) Deily, the final syllable being shortened.- 388 Com the third per. sing. neu. terminate:l by the emphatic s, from soon and governed by the preceding term, which, although in the masc. takes a verb in the neuter gender as all words signifying God may do.-es the worlds, the universe thesiag. used for the ply, and the nom, for the ac. governed by 395

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II. கற்றதனாலாய பயனென்கொல்வாலறிவ னறறாடொழா அரெனின What is the fruit that human knowledge gives, If at the feet of him, who is pure knowledge,

Due reverence be not paid ? This version is nearly literal and requires no explanation: The terms here used to designate the Deity aun

m ayor he who is pure intelligence has immediate referenceto Swea sor in the preceding distich, as have all similar phrases throughout this chapter.

" If at his feet "-In this and the following couplets the words, the wore shippers of his feet, to express reverence, and those who are united to his feet, to express obedience, are used in the original; such use probably originated in the practice of substituting in the act of worship a material image for the inmaterial idea. The sacred writers, however, do not reject similar phrases and they are no doubt employed by Tiruvalluver in a figurative sense, as the being he addresses in this chapter is evidently the Eternal One,“ to whom there is none similar;" whom no symbol can express and no form design.

& M Sow from that which was learned ; the 3d or instrumentive case of the neuter pronominal participle past of D Da to learn. - de which comes ; the contracted participle of sw to become used for @ 2.-ww 607 fruit, produce, profit; the nom. governing the substantive verb understood.---3 @ what ?'the contracted form of the neuter interrogative pronoun or St01.-6or a particle, sometimes, as here, expletive, sometimes hike e implying doubtful interrogationi-ants) purily, trulh ; here used adjectively and qualifying the following term.- Major he who is knowledge, or he who possesses knowledge; the former is themore general meaning of similar derivatives, thus n bor means he who is a bowman, not merely the possessor of a bow, and when conjug: @mar I am a bowman, 9 OU thou art a bowman &c; an appellative conjugated in the 3d Per. masc. from my knowledge, the nominative being used for the 6th or Genitive Case: - ன றறாடொழாஅர் , for நல good, som a fool, the nom, used for the 2nd or ae. case, and @gayonit, the final being lengthened by e 29 67 OUDOL, they who do not revere ; the negative participle in the masc, and sem, gender and plu. num. of $2256 to if said, the subjunctive form of 67 627 po to say ; it has here, however, simply the sense of g if and, united with the preceding negative term, means unless they revere.


மலர்மிசையேகினானமாண்டி சேர்ந்தார்
நிலமிசை நீடுவாழவார்
They who adore his sacred feet, whose grace
Gladdens with sudden thrill the fervent heart,

High o'er the earth shall soar to endless joy. The allusion in the original could not by any form of words be preserved so as to be intelligible to the European reader ; in this version, therefore, the commentary rather than the text, is followed. Low from cris to blow as a flower means literally a full blown flower, and siguratively u glad heurt, arejoicing mind, thus som M IDI IBS his mind or heart blew as a flower, that is rejoiced, gjou QU 617 5 ) SIANG est 6 he caused his heart to rejoice. The original, accordingly, is conic2015 Cu r he who passes suddenly over the full blown flower, that is, who passes sudderily over the rejoicing heart and it alludes to the sudden afflatus of the divine spirit into the mind of the favored devotee, which purifies him from sin, detaches him from all mundane affections, and exempts bim from the misery of future birth ; to the effects of that grace, which “ passeth all understanding,” which at onee converts tinrighteousness into righteousness, and which is youchsafed to the sinful Publicain while it is withheld from the sinless Pharisee. The passage is thus interpreted by Parimèl-azhager y GOT HIGHWADIŽ 53 67 07 6 4 10 6 567 வர் சிவனந்த வடிவொடு விரைந்து சேறலினேகினான which may be thus freely rendered, he who passes suddenly over the lotos-flower of the heart of those who think on him with affection, appearing to their mind's eye in that form in which their several systems of religious belief lead their imagin nation to represent him. He adds @ saltowLD! LEST @@TOT LG St Qu wiw

p o 306L-M65 gou os cocni They are some who apply

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