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the power; the nom. of these terms is used for the gen. and the latter, notwithstanding the intermediate terms, governs the concluding member of the sentence. -expanded; this is the root of the verb 2006) to spread, extend neu. and as an indefinite part. governs the following term.-9.oy the sensible heaven, the head
man of those who inhabit ; either from ear the interior or the defective verb உள் to be. - கோமான the king. - இந்திரனே Indren; a proper name made emphatic by the particle 6.-En which is sufficient; the fu. part. of 06@ to suffice, befit, governed by the preceding and governing the following terin.--$a witness, evidence. The proper version of the last sentence, the sub. verb. being understood, is Indren himself is a sufficient witness, that is of the power of the devotee which he had experienced,
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சுவையொளியூறோசை நாற்றமெனறைந்தின வகை தெரிவான கடடேயுலகு
(எ) Taste, light, touch, sound, and smell, if these be known And with them all connected, of the world in
* The whole is known. “ Taste, light, touch, sound, and smell"-The meaning of the terms corresa ponding with these in the original are comprehended in the collective phrase Boy ner which properly signifies the five objects of sense; they are here translated literally, though in English the object and the faculty are not always distinguished. The compound 86@uod means the five organs of sense ; for the faculties of sense@wir es Sausia there is no common term, but they are particularized by the corresponding verbs, as well hearing, so டல touching. பாரத்தல் seeing, சுவைத்தல் tasting, மோத்தல் smeling. It must be observed, however, that, though year and @und may each occasionally be rendered by the general term sense, they are never actually confounded by Tamil writers; thus in the last of the two preceding couplets ஐந்தும் the five senses is rendered by the commentator புலனகள் and in the first Qua dom. This distinction will be further exemplified by comparing the following verse from the Náladi-nánúru with this couplet.
um facilius in der Indian, with some
விலங்காமல்வீடுபெறும He who has power to observe the rule he has professed and to keep himself undisturbed by the operation of the organs of seuse, namely, the body, month, eyes, nose, and ears, shall assuredly obtain eternal beatitude.
The simple meaning of the Author in this verse is, that, as it is by the senses only that the mind can derive knowledge, human kpowledge of all kinds must be connected, or, to adhere closely to the original, must be according to the way of the objects of sense here ennumerated; he, therefore, who has a clear understanding of them, of their powers and effects, isalone complete in know ledge. Such is the contemplative sage, who having reduced his sensual organs to entire subjection, must, beyond all others, have acquired a more perfect comprehension of the senses and of their operations. The Latin commentator, therefore, says, -'"Exaltat hic Religiosasob contemplationen, quam mortificationi jungunt, quaque ex rerum naturalium attenta consideratione veri notitiam assequendo ad Deum facilius diriguntur." This simple exposition, however, by no means satisfies the profounder Indian, Parimel-azhager, whose excursus on this verse I shall give and endeavour, with some latitude of explanation, to translate.
சுவையுமொளியுமூறுமோசையு நாற்றமுமெனறு சொல்லப்பட்ட தன மாத்திரைகவரநதின துகூறுபாடடையுமாராயவானறிவின கணணதேயுல கம - எ - று .
அவற்றின கூறுபாடாவன - பூதங்கடகு முதலாகிய வவைதாமைந்து மவற்றின கட்டோனறியவபபூதங்கவளந்து மவற்றின கூறாகியஞானேந்தி ரியங்கவளந்துங்கருமேந்திரியங்களை நதுமாகவிருபதுமாம் - வகைதெரிவா னகட்டெனவுடமபொடு புணரதத்தனாறறெரிகின்ற புருடனுமவனறெ ரிதற்கருவியாகியமானகங்காரமனங்களும் - அவற்றிறகு முதலாகிய மூலப் பகுதியும் பெற்றாம் - தததுவமிருபத்தைந் தவனயும் தெரிதலாவது மூலபப குதியொனறிறறோன றிய தனமையிற்பகுதியேயாவ தல்லது விகு தியா காதெனவும் - அதன் கட்டோன றியமானும் - அதன் கடடோனறியவகங் காாமும - அதனகட்டோன றியதனமாத்திரைகளுமாகிய வேழு - தததமக்கு முதலாயதவனநோககி விகுதியாதலுநதங்கட்டோனறுவனவறறைநோக கபபகு தியாதலுமுடையவெனவும் - அவற்றினகடடோன நியமனமும் ஞானே நதிரியங் - கருமெந்திரியங்களும் - பூதங்களுமாகிய பதினாறு - தங கடடோன றுவன வினமையின விகுதியேயாவதல்லது பகுதியாகாதென வும் - புருடனொனறிறறோன்றாமையானுந்தனகடடோன றுவனவின்மை யானு மிரண்டு மலலனெனவுஞ - சாங்கிய நூலுளோதியவாற்றானாராயதல இவ்விருபத்தைந்து மல்ல து லகெனப் பிறிதொன் றில்லை யெனவுலகின் துைைமயறிதலினவனறிவின கணண தாயிற்று
The whole world is within the knowledge of him who fully comprehends the objects of sense, taste, light, touch, sound, and smell, and the modificati. on of these five sensible species.
These modifications are the five particulars here specified, which are the causes of the five elements: the five elements proceeding from them; the five organs of perception and the five of aclion (the hands, feet &c.), which are modifications of them; constituting in the whole twenty. The ea pressionwithin his knowledge who understands the way—is to be thus explained: the soul, (Purud' a) which is intelligent by its connection with the body and by it's means of intelligence, the active agency of nature, individual consciousness and the reasoning faculty; these and the cause of these, primitive nature, or homogeneous matter, with those before enumerated, are known as the twentyfive Tatwas, or principles. That which proceeds immediately from primitive, homogeneous matter is in it's nature the generating cause (pagudi), not the generated affect or created object (vigudi); from this proceeds power, or active nature; from this individual consciousness ; from this the objects of sense, or the sensible species of the elements; and each of these seven, with respect to that which precedes it, may be considered as the generated effect, but, with respect to that which proceeds from it, as the generating cause The reasoning faculty which proceeds front these seven, the organs of sense and of action and the elements in the whole sisteen, as nothing proceeds from them, must be considered als generated effects, not as generating causes. As the soul does not proceed from any thing and nothing proceeds from the soul, it is neither cause, nor effect, néither simple matter, nor any of the diversities produced from it. Whosoever coinprehends what is thus taught by the Sangiya school and knows, that, besides these twenty five, there is no other modifications of principles in the world, by truly knowing the world has it within his power..
This is a short but comprehensive exposition of the philosophy of the Sánc hya school, which makes pature the cause of nature and the modifications of matter to originate from matter. Like the Jainer the disciples of this school maintain the eternity of matter, which they consider primitively to be, not a confusion of elements, as the Chaos of the Hebrews and Greeks, but simple, homogeneous, inactive and powerless. By the accession of motion to prini. tive matter, Pracrïti, it becomes, from it's own energies, active and powerful and is then called Mahat active nature. These are the two primary Tntwas or principles and from these, or rather from the operation of active nature on primitive matter, proceed, mediately or immediately, the sensible species of the elements, the elements themselves, and all the diversities of the material world, Spirit, Purusha, is distinct from primitive matter and is in no respect effected by any of it's changes, but it is the omaiseient and omnipresent witness of all its light, refracrom a mirror toelonging to matter ise described the
operations; it is pure intellect and cannot be otherwise described; those which are apparently it's qualities really belonging to matter, from which they are reflected as an image from a mirror to the eye by which it is seen, or, more exactly, as light, refracted through a prism, throws its colored says on objects by their nature colorless. Spirit, therefore, being both impassive and inoperative has no part in the creation of the universe, which, as already stated, proceeds wholly from matter and its energies.-From this school originates the worship of Durga and the S'actis, which, philosophically, are only symbols of primi. tive matter and of the various modifications of active nature, though religion has attributed to these, and to the several orders of Deities, Brahmà, Indra and the rest, specific form and appointed various rites and ceremonies for their worship ; these, though of utility in regulating and controlling the grosser minds of the ignorant, the enlightened Sage knows to be illusive and fruitless, and, as inferred from the text by the commentator, attains the state of final beatitude solely by the right comprehension of the nature of matter and spirit.
This is the doctrine taught originally by Capila-maharishi, but, according to Patanjali, the founder of the school named after him, which is a reformation of the Sánchya tenets, motion proceeded from the operation of spirit on primitive matter by which active nature, the immediate cause of creation, was produced. All that is, therefore, arvse into existence by the immediate agency of spirit, by the providential intelligence of which the laws that go. vern the universe were established ; in such mode, bowever, that spirit, though not inactive, is yet impassive. The school of Patanjali prescribes rules for the performance of the Yógam, silent contemplation, which it divides into several degrees-and, conjoined to the entire subjection of the organs of sense, considers as the means by which, proceeding" though nature up to nature's God," the contemplatist acquires a perfect knowledge of intellect and the essence of intellect; of intellect as connected with matter and expressed by: the general term mind and of intellect as the supreme spirit, from which knowledge rightly used eteroal felicity results.
The whole reasoning of both these schools it will be observed rests on the assumption, which has obscured the philosophy of all ages, that matter.is essentially homogeneous; that there is a substance into which all other substances are resolvable. The inductive inquisition of the Moderns has proved the reverse of this and shewn that what was previously mistaken for simple is compound, and it must be admitted, in opposition even to the subtilist deductions, that all reasoning, as to the material origination of the universe, must, if true, coincide with the results of experimental science, before the light of which all theories fade to nothing. The researches of the indefatigable practi. cians of Europe tend forcibly to establish that there are two principles (the real primary Tatwas) in nature, not only essentially different, but directly oppo.
site; an active, moving, elastic, exciting, aëriformed fluid, and an inactive, fixed, inelastic solid, not exciting but capable of great excitation ; the former gas, the latter metal. Neither of these substances, however, are homogeneous; the gases and metals being so various that their number has not yet been determined. Though agreeing with others of the same order in general properties, each of these varieties possesses it's own specific quality, distinguishing it from all other substances, with which it may be conibined but cannot be confounded. The doctrine of the bomogeneity of matter is in fact as futile as the dream of the Alchymis , to which, probably, it gave origin.
On the four Couplets concluding with the present one, the third of which isnot translated, Parimel-azhager remarks - இவை நான்கு பாட்டானும் பெ ருமைககேது வைந் தவித்தலும் யோகபயிறசியு நத்தது வவுணாவுமென பன en uwe 6 by these four verses the subjection of the senses which is the cause of the greatness of devotees, the practice of contemplation and reflection on the principles of nature are enjoined. That is to say the first, the subjection of the senses, is enjoined by the text and the others by his own com. mentary. As connected with this subject and that of the Chapter generally, the following selections have been made. To them I have added the para. phrase of a poem from Moore's Sacred Melodies, in which disgust at the agi: tations of the material world and aspiration after the final rest of the soul are expressed in terms so similar to those used by Hindu authors that it might itself be mistaken for a translation from their writings; it has required. there fore, only a slight occasional variation of the imagery to accommodate it exactly to their style.
B.HAGAVAT:GI TA'. பாடுமபனுவறபலவோ தியவறறால றியும் பயனறெரிந்து நீடும் புலனகளவை வென்று வலயி ற கலககறகரியனா யோடும் பொனனுமொருபொருள்போவொககப்பாரககு மவனேயிங் காடும் பெரியமாயக்கூத்தாடாத்துகண்டமைந்திருப்பான கைமமாறில்லாதன செயவானகாதற றோசனகடும்பகைஞன விமமாதெவறறுமொத்திருப்பான வேண்டப்படுவான வேண்டாதா னமமாமறை நூனெறிபுரிவானாகா தனவாக்கிடுவானென றிமமானிடவரவனவரக்குமொப்பானயோகியெனப்படுவான தவவியாமிநதயோகத்தைத் தவக நினறொழுகுந்தனமைகே ளுவியாவான சயறமாறறியொன றுந்தன ககென்றொழுகாதே மவலயாரமுழஞசைமுதலாகயோகங்ளுக்குவகுத்துனாதத நிலையாவையி னுமொன றினிலவந்தியாது நலியாநிலத்தில் ஒக்குமவகையாறகுசமபரப்பியதனமேலுழையினறோல் படுத்துத தககபுடைவையதனமேலே விரிதது ததானகக திருநது மிககமன் வனயறவொருககிவேறு செய்யுமவிவனகளுடன றொக்குபுலன களிவனயடக்கியுணாவு தூயதாவதன பொருட்டால்