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and Ad herma, the consciousness of evil are the causes of the transmigration of the soul; the former securing to it happiness and a higher rank in the scale of being, either on earth or in the celestial worlds, and the latter producing the contrary effect. This law of nature is in Tamil called e a, which literally signifies, old, ancient, and u.4oogoor old, or former works. Appended to the second part of the First Book of this work, is a chapter under the former title, and in the Náladi-nánúi'u, one under the latter ;: from which and the commentaries thereon, the following extracts are taken, which will better and more authentically explain this notion than any dissertation which could be written upon it. Admitted to be true, it accounts satisfactorily for the existence of good and evil, as experienced in the world and for the effects by many ascribed to fate or destiny and by some to chance; and which in common language, in default of more adequate expressions, we have agreed to call fortune and luck; but, unless the doctrine of the Jainer be received, which maintains the eternity of the universe as it actually exists, it does not extend far enough, as, though it accounts for it's existence, it affords no explanation of the origin of evil.

The following extracts consist of the postscript of Parimèl-azhager to the Second Part of the First Book of the Curas On Religious Virtue, During of part of his introduction to the next Chapter On Destiny, € 64, and of the Ist, 3rd, 6th, 7th, 9th & 10th verses of the latter. Although this chapter is arranged as one of those belonging to the IDUNN, or First Book, it is not properly included in it, but, as the words of the commentator imply; forms a connecting link between the subjects of this and the following Books.

இவ்வா றறானி மமை மறுமை வீடெனனுமூன ற வனயும் பயத்தற் சிறப் புடைத்தாய வறங் கூறினாரினிப் பொருளுமினபமுங்கூறுவாரவறறின முதற்காரணமாகியஆழினவலிகூறுகின்றார்.

உளம் உள அஃதாவது - இருவினைப்பயன செயவதவனசசென்றடைதற்கே துவாய நியதி . உளழ - பால - முறை - உண்மை - தெயவம் - நியதி - விதி யென்பனவொருபொருடகிளவி.

In this manner the author has spoken of Virtue, as regards the three states, namely Earth, Heaven, and Eternity ; he will hereafter speak on Wealth, and now proceeds to treat on Pleasure and on the primary cause of these, Destiny.

DESTINY. Destiny is in this wise. That which is decreed is the immediate cause of the retribution received by a person as the fruit of the good or evil deeds he hath done, and is called Destiny, Nature natural disposition), Vicissitude, Certainty (necessity), God, (the act of God), Decree, Fate; which several words denote but one thing.

ஆகூழாறறோன றுமசைவினமைகைப் பொருள

போகூ பாறறோன்றுமடி. By the decreed effect of the works of former births, industry is excited and incalth accrues, and by the same, indulence prevucis and wealth departs.

நுண்ணிய நூல்பலகறபினுமற றுந்த

னுணமைய றிவேமி கும் Although he have acquired various and profound learning, his natural disposition will overcome his knowledge.

NOTE. Parimel-azhager's paraphrase of this verse is addecl; as it assigns more dircctly than the text a cause for a fact, for which, though undoubted, it would puzzle the philosophers of Europe to account ; that is, wby great scholars are often great blockheads..

பேதைப்படுக்குமூழுடையானொருவனணணியபொருளகவாயுணரத்து நூல்பலவறறையுங்க றறானாயி னுமவனுக்குப்பின னுந்தன்னூமி னாகிய பேதைமையுணரவே மறபடுமென்றவாறு

If one by the effects and BT DU

If one by the effect of his former works is naturally foolish, although he may have attained to the knowledge of the subtilest subjects and have acquired rarious science, the folly, which is the destined result of his former acts and which alwuys pursues him, will prevail over his knowledge. This is the meaning.

பரியி னுமாகா வாமபாலல்லவுயத்துச்

சொரியி னுமபோகா தம That which is not by nature theirs, no labor can obtain, and that relich is, though they reject it, will not quit them.

வகுத்தான வகுத்தவகையல்லா றகோடி

தொகுத்தாரக்குந்துய ததலரிது Those who have accumulated millions can enjoy nothing but what the apportioner has apportioned to theni.

Note. The word here rendered literally apportioner is paraphrased by Parimèlazhager தெயவம் God and thus explainecl in the comment.

ஒருயிர செயதவி வனயின்பயன பிறிதோருயிரின் கட செல்லாமலவவு யிரக கேவகுததலினவகுத்தாமனன்றார

He calls him (God) the apportioner from his apportioning the fruit of the deeds which a soul hath done to that very soul and to none other.

நன்றாங்கானல் லவாககாணபவர

அன்றாங்கால்லறபடுவ தெவன Why should those who see that good only happens in the destined season of prosperity be grieved in the season of adversity ?

உளழிற பெருவலியாவுள மறறொனறு
சூழினுந்தான முந்துறும

What is more powerful than the destined effect of former works? it anticipates even thy thoughts while considering how to avoid it.

The following are the introduction by one of the commentators to the 11th Chapter 1st Book of the Naladi-nanuru, entitled பழவிவy and the 1st, 4th, 7th, 8th and 10th verses.

பழவி வனயூழென்பதும தவன - அஃதாவது முறபிறப்பிறசெயதவிவளை யிப்பிறப்பிலேயனுபவிக்கையுமிப்பிறப்பிற செயதவி வன்மறுபிறபபி லேயனுபவிககையுமாகியிப்படி மாறி வருகின றவை யறிகையெப்படி யெனனில் - யாதொருபிறப்புக்காணப்பட்டபிரபபிலேயினப துன்பங்க ளயாடுதானற னுபவிக்கிறானிது முற்பிறப்பிற செய்த புண்ணிய பாவங்க ளெனறு மிப்பிறப்பிலே தானொரு தான் தறமங்கள சசெய்கிறான் செய்த பொழு தேமறு பிறப்புக்கிவைபசிக்குமென்று நதான தன மனத்திலேயுண ருமென்பதாம் .

Former acts, the tille of this Chapter, called , also, That which is ancient (Destiny), are in this wise. The influence of the works of former births on the present life and of the works of the present life on future births, and the knowledge of their effects is thus to be stated. As either good or evil, ar in other words pleasure.or pain, is experienced inevery successive birth, he (the author) has considered in his own mind that this arises from the good or evil he did in a former birth, and that whatever acts of charity or benevolence he may perforin in the présent, will be compensated in a future birth,

பலலாவுளுயததுவிடினுங்கு ழக்கன்று
வல்வதாந்தாய நாடிககோட வலத - தொல் வலப்
பழவி வனயுமனன தகைததேதறசெய்த

கிழவவனநாடிக் கொளறகு As a young calf wlien let loose among a number of cows, naturally seeketh out and attacheth itself to it's own mother, in like manner doth the act of a for. mer state of existence seek out and attach itself to him who hath performed it.

உற்றபால் நீகக லுறு வாக்கு மாகா
வற்றபால நோன்றலுமனனவாமாரி
வற்பயிற றருவாருமில் வலயதவனச

சிறப்பிற் றணிப்பாருமில் To avoid those things which are to happen, or to detain those which are to depart is alike impossible even to Saints; even as there is none who can give rain out of season, or prevent its falling in season.

நெடுங்கடை நினறு மூலவதெல்லா - மடமபமபூ
வனனங்கிழிக்கும் வங்கடற்றண்சேரப்ப
முன்வனவி வணயாயவிடும்

Behold all those whose bosoms are goaded by distress and who wander forlorn through the long streets, and know, O Lord of the cool shore of the billowy ocean, where the playful swans tear in pieces the water-flowers, that this proceeds from the acts of former births.

பழியோடு பட்டவை செய்தல் - வளியோடி
நெயதன்றவுயிராக்கு நீளகடற்றண சேரப்ப

செயதவி வன்பான வரும When those, who not only are not ignorant but have learned that which they ought to know, do that which is blumeable ; this, O King of the coul shore of the broad ocean, where the water-lilly flings ils odors to the winds. proceeds froin the acts they have formerly done.

சிறுகா பெருகாமுறைபிறழந்துவாரா
அறுகாலத் தூறறாகாவாமிடததேயாகுஞ
சிறுகாவலப்பட்ட பொறியு மதனா

விறுகால்ததென பைரிவு The effect of the acts of former births doth not full below, nor exceed its due proportion, nor doth it fail to come in its turn, neither doth it assist out of season, but where it ought to be, tñere it is; of what utility, therefore, is sorrow when it offlicteth thee?

In further explanation of this subject, to which I shall revert in my remarks on the final verse of this Chapter, I insert a note added by the Latio commentator to the Chapter On Destiny, e74.

"Non me latet vocem em , cui ego divinorum decretorum significationem tribuo, ab aliis usurpari pro wc aso quod significat opera antiquitus facta, neque ignoro eosdem bumanarum rerum vices tribuere operibus antiquitus factis, sive bonis, sive malis, pro effectuum diversitate; dicunt enim, virum probum pauperem esse, ob peccata quæ antiquitus patravit, (sive antcquam nasceretur in alia generatione, uti Tamuleoses stulte putant, sive postquam natus est in adolescentia vel pueritia) quæque adhuc non luit ferendo supplicium iis debitum; yirum vero improbum felicem esse, ob vir. tutes quas antiquitus exercuit, et pro quibus, adhuc præmium iis debitum non retulit; atque, eodem modo, virum industrium ac indefesse laborantem pro divitiis acquirendis nil acquirere iu pænam peccatorum veterum ; virum vero omnino ineptum atque pigrum sine ullo labore divitem evadere in præmium veterum virtutum ; ita ut quidquid vulgus malam fortunam, aut bonam fortunam appellat, id ipsi refundant in opera antiquitus facta. In hoc vero capitulo dictam vocem eo melius explicari et proprius significare divina decreta, patet, tum ex serie tota sententiarum in hoc capitulo

contentarum, tum ex illo versu speciatim- வகு ததான வகுதத வகையல்லாற கோடி தொகுத தாரக்குந் துயத தலரிது - in quo ne per somnium quiden Auctor meminit operum antiquitus factorum, sed solum divini statuti, quod llemo præterire potest: et quamvis detur quod opera antiquitus facta suum locum habeant in humanarum rerum vicibus, quarum causam ignoramus, cum tamen dicta opera antiquitus facta, sive bona, sive mala, hic et nunc, et non antea neque postea suum sortirieffectum, sive bonum, sive malum, non dependeat, nisi a divina voluntate, quæ statuit tempus in quo alicujus virtus præmiari, peccatum pupiri debeat, cumque omnis vis operum antiquitus factorum ad divinorum decretorum virtuti premium, peccato pænam statuentium irrefregabilitatem reducatur, recte voci e.divinorum decretorum significatio tributa est; eo vel magis, quod vox e.6742 ex sua natura nil significat nisi antiquum quid, quod æque competit operibus antiquitus factis, quorum vim nunc quis experitur, ac divino statuto decernenti, ut dicta opera nunc suan vim exerceant, nam nil est divinis decretis antiquius.”

This dogma, which may be considered as the governing tenet of Indian morality, necessarily involves the doctrine of the Metempsychosis; it does not indeed preclude the idea that acts of virtue or vice may be rewarded or punished within the life time of the individual performing them, but it more immediately respects the retribution to be received in the present birth for the acts of fornier births, or to be expected in future births for the acts of the present birth. This retribution, as appears from Parimèl-azhager's list of Synonyms, is the same as Destiny, 76, and God, guals, both of which may be rendered by the terms employed in the preceding extractdivina decreta," with this reservation, that they always imply a retributive, never an arbitrary act. To those who remember the scope of the controversy between the Jansenists and the Jesuits, though this, like other phantasies of the same kind, is fast fading from human cognizance, the following quotation will not be unpleasing: it is curious, also, as a specimen of the dexterity with which the author seizes every handle offered him, if it seem likely to become a useful instrument in the prosecution of his labors, and of the sophistical, but characteristic, ingenuity, with which he endeavours to reconcile doctrines in reality incompatible. The terms sans 9 the destiny of the head, and som @w2g the writing of the head, used in this extract belong properly to Mythology, which feigns, that, previously to birth, the destiny of every individual is written by Brahma in the head of the embryo; this writing, it is sopposed, is seen in the indented line which marks the sutures of the skull..See the 27th Canto (con 50W32) of the Témbávani: the controversy here detailed between Sivasiven, who supports the character of a Hindu Guru, and Joseph, commences with the doctrine of the Metem psychosis, from which it naturally deviates to the subject of destiny and the origin of good and evil.


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