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OF A PART OF THE ARMY.

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the advanced guard quitted his men and took a short cut across the common under Mustapha, and the men carried their muskets in any way that most suited their ideas of comfort. On arriving at the Jardin d'Essai, a halt for a quarter of an hour took place, and the officer again quitted his men to have a chat and a cup of coffee in the café opposite. I availed myself of the opportunity to feel the weight of one of the knapsacks; but the owner informed me, with a smile, that on actual service it would weigh twice as much, for that on these occasions they made it as light as possible. The ammunition boxes on the mules were, if I might judge from the sound as they shook, similarly emptied. This regiment might, possibly, have recently arrived from France, and be an exception to the ordinary rule; but it certainly made an indifferent figure. The road was excessively muddy, and the men expressed their annoyance very generally, although in a good-humoured way. Probably a good deal of tact is required in bringing new arrivals up to the proper standard of efficiency.

Military punishments are extremely common. Scarcely a week takes place without something of the kind. One day I was a spectator of the expulsion of a soldier from the army. He was placed in the centre of the Place Royale, around which several companies were drawn up. The commanding officer read aloud a paper containing his sentence and the

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MILITARY PUNISHMENT.

grounds of it. A musket was then put into his hands, and he went through the manual exercise backwards, after which the piece was lowered from his shoulders to the ground, and he was compelled to step over it. The military buttons were then cut from his dress, and, no longer a soldier, he was made over to the civil power for the further punishment of seven years' hard labour. This man's offence had been disorderly conduct in one of the natives' houses, and resistance to the authorities who were called in to put a stop to it; in the course of which he struck his commanding officer. He had been in a military prison for two years before, and was just discharged when he committed the offence which led to his further punish

ment.

NOTE TO PAGE 143.

The following considerations induce me to believe that the language now spoken by the Kabyles is substantially the same as that which prevailed in the north of Africa more than two thousand years ago; a language bearing, probably, about the same relation to that of an educated Carthaginian, as the spoken dialect of the Saxon boors in the reign of Edward III. might to the written language of Wiclif:

1. St. Augustine, on an occasion of explaining the word "Messias," remarks that the Punic word "Messe" is equivalent to the Latin "ungue." (Tract. 15, in Johan. Evang. c. iv. § 27.) The student is naturally surprised that, in employing such an illustration, Augustine should have selected an imperative mood. But, in fact, the imperative mood is in the Kabyle language the root of the verb, all other forms of which are moulded upon this one. It seems an obvious inference that the same remarkable peculiarity existed in the language that Augustine calls "Punic."

2. But the "Punic" of Augustine is "the only language besides

NOTE ON KABYLE LANGUAGE.

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Latin in use in the parts where the Donatist tenets found support." (Tract. 2, in Ep. Johan. § 3.) It must, therefore, be the common African, the popular language of his time, not any dialect which may be supposed to have been employed by literary Carthaginians and to have become obsolete upon the destruction of the Carthaginian State. And it was the language of the country, not of the townspeople; for, if spoken in the towns, Augustine's congregation would not have been so entirely ignorant of it as he assumes them to be. (See Opp. vol. iv. p. 1234, ed. Ven.) It is, therefore, the language of the hillsmen, of the inhabitants of those chains of mountains which run along the coast westward from Hippo (Bona) to the neighbourhood of Cape Matifou,-a region which at this day is occupied exclusively by Kabyles.

3. In the extent of coast just mentioned, the Antonine Itinerary and Ptolemy give the following towns,-Rusicada (on the site of Philippeville), whose name still may be traced in the modern Skikda, Rusazus, Rusubeser, Rusuccurus or Rusicurium, Rusicibar or Rusubbicari, and Rusgunium. In all these manifestly native names the first syllable is a Kabyle word, which in its various forms of Rus, Ras, Ros, or Ris, signifies "head" or "cape."

4. The name by which the natives of North Africa called their gourbis, a century before Christ, was "magalia," which Bochart has shown is merely a corruption of the genuine Punic word "magaria,” the well-known name of one quarter of Carthage. But “magalia” still survives in the Kabyle phrase "'l mehalla" (a camp).

5. The Kabyles of the present day use one and the same word indifferently to denote an European and a Christian. This word is Iroumi, which is obviously derived from Roma, and, consequently, must have been adopted in the times when to be a Roman and a Christian were nearly convertible terms. This would be the case in the time of Augustine, when the Christian Churches in Africa were composed almost exclusively of the Roman population in the towns on the coast and the commercial routes.

6. Herodotus relates a story of one of the chiefs of Cyrene, to whom a strange oracle was given in figurative terms. In the event of his pursuing a certain policy he is menaced with death, in which he will have for a partner "the surpassing bull" (ravρos & KaλλσTEÚWV). He did not take the warning, and he paid the penalty of his rashness in being assassinated, together with his father-in-law Alazir, by the people of Barca, of which place Alazir was king. The modern Kabyle language explains the oracle, which the father of history has left in obscurity. In it the word "ezghir" signifies "a bull,” and this, with the prefix of the definite article, "'l'ezghir," is at once recognised as the name of the Barcæan chief, gh being merely the strong aspirate.

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THE WESTERN PROVINCE.

CHAPTER VII.

Ar the beginning of March, there being every appearance of the winter rains having passed over, I determined to proceed by sea to Oran, the seat of government of the Western Province of Algeria, with the intention of devoting a fortnight to visiting the most remarkable localities in the neighbourhood, after which the season would be sufficiently advanced to allow of my going to the high plateaux of the Central and Eastern Provinces without prejudice to the main object of my sojourn in Africa. The Government steamers run every ten days between Algiers and Oran; but the chance of a berth in these is very uncertain, for they are, in fact, intended merely for the postal service of the littoral, between the two extremities Oran and Bona, and the little cabin accommodation they possess is liable to be forestalled for the use of the military staff. It is impossible to take a berth beforehand; and when the boat arrives, there is a rush, it may be at five and six o'clock in the morning, to secure such places as are

COASTING VOYAGE.

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to be had. But there is a private company, whose vessels every twenty-four or twenty-five days run between Marseilles and Malta, crossing from the former to Oran, and thence making a coasting voyage as far as Tunis, from which port they stand across to the other extremity of their course. In one of them, the Vincent, I was fortunate enough to obtain a berth immediately after being disappointed of one in the Government steamer; and on the night of the 2d of March we left the harbour of Algiers with a bright moon but a contrary wind. The barometer fell very much on the 1st, and the Vincent was kept back twelve hours on account of the strength of the wind which followed this indication. But at sunset on the 2d there seemed to be a lull, and at 11 P.M. we put to sea in hopes that the gale was over. The expectation was not realized, and after proceeding between forty and fifty miles, we were compelled to turn about, and seek for shelter once more in the harbour of Algiers. At the time of turning (about 7 A.M. on the 3d) we were nearly abreast of Cherchell; and although the west wind had become insuperable, the weather was beautifully clear, and we returned, except when stretching across a bay, at a distance of not more than three or four miles from the shore. Not suffering from sea-sickness, I rather rejoiced at our mischance, as it enabled me to examine at my leisure the whole of the coast

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