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PAGE 69.

3. For wähnen compare note on p. 11, 7.

4. fowie, 'just as': note on p. 1, 1.—wohl, 'occasionally.'

7. alitisch, see note on p. 3, 23.

II. in Zweifel ziehen is somewhat more forcible than the simple bezweifeln.

14. Vezier, the prime-minister of a Mohammedan ruler. The Arabic form is wezîr, wazîr from the verb wazara ‘to carry.'

16. The words in diesem Augenblicke das Wichtigste form a kind of apposition belonging to the whole sentence. They might be easily expanded into a parenthetical sentence, e.g. was...das Wichtigste war.

21. Be-voll-mächtigte 'plenipotentiary,' an ambassador with full powers (plein pouvoir = Vollmacht).—allerhand various.' This word is always treated as an adverb and remains unchanged.

23. erst, not before the Christians had reached Arca.

26. He complained that his Syrian possessions had been treated in a hostile manner. We might also say er klagte darüber, daß seine Be fizungen feindlich behandelt worden wären.

29. Read of between two and three hundred pilgrims.'—nach vers richtetem Gebete=sobald sie ihr Gebet verrichtet hätten.

31. They returned a defiant answer, without allowing themselves to be influenced by the rich presents sent by Mosta.


PAGE 70.

We might also say ohne sich um seine Einwendungen zu kümmern. 5. For the following description we may refer to the plan of

Jerusalem at the end of the present volume.

II. erscheint 'appears' to the eye (without being so).


ersteiglich is quoted by Grimm from Goethe; it is, however, less usual than the synonymous adj. ersteigbar. We might also say ein leicht zu ersteigender Berg.

25. überdies=obendrein, noch dazu, außertem, moreover.'

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4. Werkstücke is the technical designation of the largest stones used for building, compare Sanders 3, 1251 B.

5. un-auf-lös-lich 'that cannot be dissolved' into its component parts, 'indissoluble.'

8. Mervan I. reigned 683-685, Mervan II. 744-750. The first is probably meant here.

II. bedeckte Gänge 'colonnades.'

15. The Mohammedans do not employ bells to invite people to

prayers, but the 'muezzin' proclaims the hours of praying from one of the small towers of the mosques.

19. liefen...gleich=liefen...parallel.

22. es sei denn 'except' = außer, ausgenommen.

24. hielt=maß. In this way we speak of the Inhalt ('content') of a plane.

26. We have retained the form of the plural, aftern, as it appears in the German edition of Raumer's work, though we do not consider it to be correct, instead of Klafter. Sanders 1, 914 quotes instances of the plural Klaftern from Voss, Forster, and Lichtwer; the instance quoted from Goethe in Grimm's Wört. 5, 903 is due to an error, as the original edition of Goethe's works (1828, I. p. 182), the library edition of 1857 (1. p. 178), and Hempel's edition (I. p. 231) read hundert Klafter.

9. vornehmst 'principal.'


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'Who had been appointed commander by the caliph of Egypt.' 14. eiligst (adv.) = in aller Eile.

16. Even without devastation (ohnedies), the country around Jerusalem was very barren-just as it is at present.

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25. We say zu einer Religion übertreten 'to become a convert to a religion'; hence our author has adopted the phrase zu einer Religion zurück treten (instead of the more usual zurück kehren) 'to join again a religion previously given up.'


29. bei with dat. on account of.' We might also say burch with

30. Observe the employment of the preposition von instead of the simple genitive. This is permitted in good style, whenever another genitive follows the first, but is frequently employed by careless speakers without this condition.

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10. Though lagern itself is intransitive, it becomes transitive in the compounds umlagern and belagern.

23. eigenmächtig - =aus eigener Machtvollkommenheit, 'on his own authority,' without the consent of the other princes.

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7. Neapolis is the name constantly given by Greek and Latin writers to the town of Sychar or Sychem (St John iv. 5; Acts vii. 16).

It is also called Flavia Neapolis, probably in honour of the emperor Flavius Vespasianus.


'Since the Egyptians had laid siege to Jerusalem,' compare p. 69, 17.

14. sachkundig lit. 'one who is cunning [in its old English sense] in a thing,' a competent workman.


16. lediglich ausschließlich, allein.


eine baare Unterstüßung 'an assistance by way of ready money.' 21. zeigten bewiesen, bethätigten.

23. unmittelbar 'by his own immediate work.'

24. Ge-sträuch is the collective of Strauch, just as Ge-birg is of Berg, Gewölk of Wolke, etc.

27. In such a phrase as the present, we might also use the compound erhoffen.

30. ausdörren is a more emphatic word than austrocknen.-Observe the spelling versiegen, which is the right one, though some dictionaries prefer versiechen, after an erroneous derivation of the word from the adj. fiech='sick.'

31. un-schmack-haft 'bad to the taste' (schmecken, Geschmack).

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1. verschütten 'to cover up by heaping soil and rubbish (Schutt) upon something.' Compare the verb aufschütten.

3. gefährlich adv.=in gefahrbringender Weise.

5. In the sense of sufficing the compounds ausreichen and hinreichen are also frequently used.

7. Instead of über, we might here also employ um.

13. die Hoffnung des Regens is less usual than die H. auf Regen.

15. The ground was cooler than the air, which they breathed while above ground.

18. Niederschlag denotes the dew which falls in the night.-widerlich =widerwärtig.



erliegen lit. 'to succumb,' i.e. 'to fall a prey to.'

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Franken is the term applied in the East to all nations of the West indifferently.

4. verhältnißmäßig ' proportionate.' There was a greater number of infantry, as is usual in such cases; but it was in proportion to the number of cavalry despatched on this expedition.-We might also say Anzahl von Fußgängern.

10. unausbleiblich = unvermeidlich.

18. Ascalon (at present Askalan), one of the earliest cities of the Philistines.

22. überließen=preisgaben. They allowed the ships to be captured by the enemies.

24. der Heerhaufen 'division, troop.'

28. bei denotes here the cause, and might therefore also be explained as equivalent to wegen.

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3. Vorräthe here 'materials.'

5. fowie 'just as.'

6. Hand anlegen lit. 'put one's hand to' the work, i.e. assist in working.

II. vereinzelte 'isolated,' i.e. pilgrims who had strayed away from the main army.

14. forglos, without any apprehension.

20. schleudern 'to throw' by means of an instrument.

21. Observe the construction eines kläglichen (jämmerlichen) Todes fterben, and compare Aue § 349, note. This should, however, be considered as a genitive of manner: ib. § 374, P. 309.

24. erzwingen 'to lead by force to something'; we might also say zwang jezt die Belagerer zu dem Beschluß.

28. sich ordnen 'to arrange themselves according to their rank.'

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5. ja expresses an emphatic gradation of the preceding statement; 'they even went so far as to wound some pilgrims.'

7. They did not allow themselves to be moved from their purpose. 9. gleich=sogleich 'immediately, directly.'

12. hiebei, while making these preparations.

21. Stadtthurm, a tower belonging to the fortifications of the town. 25. They erroneously conceived that he had gone altogether.

28. Kostenaufwand 'expense.' Compare the phrase viel Geld aufwenten' to lay out (expend) a great deal of money.'

I. Bauart construction.'

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4. oberwärts on the upper part.'-Fallbrücke ' drawbridge.'


Kriegszeug, the engines employed against the walls.

21. ungeachtet 'in spite of'; see Aue § 249.

24. On both sides, apprehensions were entertained of sudden sallies

and surprises.

26. gegeben verlichen, verstattet.

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I. Observe the omission of the auxiliary waren in the dependent sentence. The Saracens guessed what their fate would be, in case Jerusalem should be taken.

12. Werkzeuge=Kriegszeug p. 79, 15.

19. They recommended that the men should be allowed some time for rest (Raftung).

22. sich einer Sache freuen is a less usual and somewhat poetical phrase instead of sich wegen einer (or über eine) Sache freuen.

25. Are you aware that we have assistance sent from heaven?

27. heilbringende Gefahren, 'dangers which brought salvation with them.'

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2. galt den Pilgern für... 'was looked upon, considered by the pilgrims as...'

11. jene Fallbrücke, the drawbridge previously mentioned.

17. geringere Pilger 'pilgrims of lower rank.'-sprengen 'to force open.'

19. unaufhaltsam 'irresistibly '-nobody could stop (aufhalten) their further progress.

26. gegen in return for.' They obtained the count's promise that he would afterwards set them free and conduct them safely as far as Ascalon.

31. erbrüdt, 'crushed to death.'

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1. fechtend kämpfend (i.e. not 'fencing,' but 'fighting").

2. Herr, erbarme dich unser 'Lord, have mercy upon us'-an ancient burden in the litany of the Greek Church-Κύριε, ἐλέησον.

4. etwaig, an adj. derived from the adv. etwa, 'what may possibly happen, eventual.'

8. Heiligthumsschänder 'one who pollutes (schändet) what is sacred (Heiligthum),' a sacrilegious person.

10. megeln (derived from the Italian macellare, which comes from macellum shambles') denotes indiscriminate slaughter and murder. 11. Dunst 'exhalation, reeking atmosphere.'

The great treasures accumulated in the Temple might have

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