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26. 3ug is used in the sense of 'expedition'; compare der Kriegszug. Peter promised to exhort the faithful to join the expedition in great numbers.

31. übermannen, 'to overpower,' is often used metaphorically as here, of the influence of some natural or physical power.-The expression is here a close imitation of the Latin: precantem eum somnus occupavit. More commonly beim Beten or während er betete.


3. The verb auferlegen is used of laying a difficult task or strict command upon some one.

4. Diener, the servants of Christ, i. e. faithful believers.

7. Bari, a sea-town in Apulia (Puglia), now-a-days the capital of the province called Terra di Bari.

14. Instead of zum Beistande we might also employ an infinitival sentence: den Christen...beizustehen.

19. Piacenza (the ancient Placentia), on the river Po (not far from where the Trebbia flows into it), formerly the capital of a small Italian duchy ('Parma and Piacenza'). The town was once of greater importance and numbered more inhabitants than now.

21. einer Sache denken or gedenken means to remember a thing.' Bosporus, or the Straits of Constantinople, divides Asia from



24. angeblich (adv.), 'according to a statement' (Angabe).

26. Ladung Einladung.

27. Philip I. of France reigned 1060-1108. It was in his reign that his vassal William of Normandy conquered England.-Clermont (now often called Clermont-Ferrand) is the capital of Basse-Auvergne, not far from Puy de Dôme. The historian Gregory of Tours and Pascal, the philosopher and theologian, were born there.

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8. For Buy see note on p. 9, 27.


We say both einer Sache beiwohnen and anwohnen, in the sense of an einer Sache theilnehmen.—Properly speaking the verb dürfen is here tautological, as it is already implied in the noun Erlaubniß. It would be sufficient to say dem heiligen Zuge beizuwohnen.

10. Drange, a town in the modern department of Vaucluse, formerly the capital of the principality of Orange, from which the younger (royal) branch of the house of Nassau derived their title (William III. of England).

11. Laie, ʻlayman,' from the Greek Maïkós, ‘appertaining to the people.'

15. das Kreuz predigen means to exhort the people to join the crusade.' Predigen, from Latin praedicare, whence also Anglo-Saxon predician.

17. beide, the bishops and the laymen.

19. alles Volk, 'people of all descriptions.'


25. The Crusade is styled 'a new migration of nations.' name is properly applied in history to the great migration of Germanic tribes by which the Roman empire was overthrown (in the fourth, fifth and sixth centuries) and German kingdoms were founded in the Roman provinces.

29. wandeln is a dignified term of slow and stately walking (like the Latin incedere).

30. sich erheben, 'to be lifted up.'

31. Andrang=das Andringen, a hostile advance.'


2. Gottesfriede ('treuga Dei') was an injunction published in 1041, chiefly owing to the efforts of the bishops of Arles and of Avignon and of the abbot of Cluny. According to this command, no hostilities were to take place among Christian combatants throughout France and Germany after the sounding of the vesper bell on the fourth day of each week until the rising of the sun on the second day of the week following. The maintenance of the Treuga Dei was a splendid victory obtained by the peaceful endeavours of the clergy over the indomitable and warlike conduct of the nobility.


4. erkunden sich Kunde zu holen (verschaffen)=kennen zu lernen.

5. It is, perhaps, more usual to say Hoffnung auf Beute.—kaufmännisch, "mercantile, commercial.'

6. Leichtsinn should be understood in its usual unfavourable meaning.

7. Wahn denotes an erroneous or mistaken opinion. Compare Anglo-S. wén, 'a hope,' wénan, 'to ween, think' Germ. wähnen.

8. hergebracht, 'usual, customary.'—jugendlich is adverb.

13. France and Italy were then divided into many small principalities and kingdoms, as no single prince had as yet succeeded in obtaining exclusive and sovereign power.

15. Henry IV. was at war with the Popes of Rome concerning the right of episcopal appointments.

17. Since the year 710 the Arabs had conquered the greater part of Spain. They were, however, gradually driven back again, and in course of time a number of Christian states were formed (Leon 918,

Castille 923, Navarra, 905, Arragon 1035, and others), till the last Arabian king was conquered and his capital Granada taken in 1492.

24. im Banne liegen, 'to be excommunicated,' i.e. to be excluded from the participation in the sacraments and other religious blessings administered by the Church.

25. Philip I. was more devoted to amusements and voluptuousness than to his royal duties.

26. He did not like enterprises where the end seemed remote.

30. Antrag, 'an offer,' Auftrag, 'a mandate.'

31. The sentence introduced by denn contains the reasoning of the pope in an indirect form. Hence the subjunctive.


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es kommt mir zu, lit. 'it belongs to me,' i. e. 'it is my duty.'

5. Geschicklichleit=Befähigung, 'qualification.' We may also say, viele Fürsten waren geschickt or befähigt.

7. freie Thätigkeit ('free, i.e. unrestrained, activity') is opposed to eingeschränkt (limited') in the preceding line.

II. The lordship of Bouillon was situated in the Ardennes.

13. unbeherrscht, 'not swayed.'

15. einnehmend, 'prepossessing.'

21. 'In the service of Henry IV.................Godfrey was the first who ascended the walls of Rome, and his sickness, his vow, perhaps his remorse for bearing arms against the pope, confirmed an early resolution of visiting the holy sepulchre, not as a pilgrim, but as a deliverer.' Gibbon (ch. LVIII.).

23. unschicklich (adv.)=in unpassender Weise. (This is very different from ungeschickt awkward.)

25. veräußern, 'to give away' (lit. 'to put out').

26. The exact value of a 'mark' cannot be ascertained, and appears to have fluctuated at different times. See Raumer, Hohenstaufen 5, 431 (first ed.).

28. Things had gone so far that a war was about to break out between them.

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3. 'Robert, duke of Normandy, was the eldest son of William the Conqueror, but on his father's death he was deprived of the kingdom of England by his own indolence and the activity of his brother Ruíus.' Gibbon (ch. LVIII.).

6. Herrschergeist, lit. an imperial mind,' i.e. such as befits a sove

10. His idleness or indolence was often an obstacle to all active exertion.

12. 'Without troubling himself much about the fulfilment of his promises.'

15. The clergy were then as a rule exempt from taxes and contributions.

20. jeho is somewhat antiquated instead of jeßt.

21. 'He was surnamed the sword and lance of the Christians; but in the exploits of a soldier, he sometimes forgot the duties of a general.' Gibbon.

2, 6.

24. dem Geschlechte nach, in respect of birth and family.

25. Sitte is used absolutely for feine, gute Sitte. Comp. note on p.

29. We might also say er zählte die Burgen als sein Eigenthum. Gibbon says, "The number of his castles has been compared to the three hundred and sixty-five days of the year.'

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3. Compare the character Gibbon gives of Raymond of Toulouse ch. LVIII.

7. seines Alters halber : he was 'a veteran soldier, who had fought against the Saracens of Spain.' Gibbon.

9. erbulten sich gefallen lassen.

10. nicht ohne introduces a 'litotes '=mit Uebereilung.

14. mild originally means 'charitable,' and then 'kind' in general. 18. 'The name of Bohemond, the son of Robert Guiscard, was already famous by his double victory over the Greek emperor, but his father's will had reduced him to the principality of Tarentum and the remembrance of his Eastern trophies, till he was awakened by the rumour and passage of the French pilgrims.' Gibbon.

20. He was bold and venturesome, like a genuine Norman.

22. 'In the accomplished character of Tancred, we discover all the virtues of a perfect knight.' Gibbon.

29. All superfluous and enervating pleasures.

30. The adj. echt is derived from Ehe, and should, therefore, be spelt with an e, and not with an ä.

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2. eigenst, most proper,' best fitted to his personal qualities and character. The superlative of eigen is confined to a very idiomatic and emphatic style.

3. Natur=natürliche Anlage.

5. nunmehr is more emphatic than jest.

7. Häupter=Häuptlinge, 'chiefs.'

9. sowie je nachdem, according as.'

14. Frühjahr=Frühling, but the second word is more elegant. A poetical appellation is der Lenz.

21. den nächsten Bedarf, i.e. as much or as little as was necessary for the immediate wants of the family.

22. sonst außerdem.—zum Zuge=für den Zug.

24. We also find the compound Männerkleider.—The adj. unfundig is generally joined with the genitive. The prep. über means as much as 'with regard to.'

29. hier bei ihnen (i. e. the princes).

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5. selbstgewählt, chosen by themselves' (not placed over them by the princes).

7. Habenichts ('Have-nothing') is a nickname formed in the same way as Taugenichts, French vaurien, English 'good-for-nothing.' Walter was of French origin.

13. Kalman reigned over Hungary 1095-1114. He is famous as a lawgiver.-förperlich is adv.

15. The Hungarian king gave the Crusaders free passage and permission to purchase their provisions of his subjects.

16. The construction of the participial sentence (die Plünderung... abgerechnet) is absolute, just as we might have it in French and English. -kein bedeutender Unfall, 'no misfortune of any consequence.'

18. The Bulgarians founded an empire in Europe in 679, by conquering the country between the Danube and the Haemus mountains. Their king originally fixed his residence at Varna. Subsequently Tirnova became the capital.

19. The river Sau or Sava is the greatest tributary of the Danube, with which it unites itself near Belgrad, the capital of Servia.

20. nothgedrungen, 'necessitate coacti.'


die Unvorsichtigen überraschte, ‘incautos oppressit.'

27. Nissa (or Nish) is a town in Bulgaria; Eternit was on the frontier of the Greek empire.

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5. The Normans had made war upon the Greeks in the South of Italy, on the Greek islands and in Illyria.


Aulon and Dyrrhachium (the modern Durazzo) are two sea-ports

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