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out affecting in the least the intensity of the conducted sound. Oo making the objective end solid, all sound was lost.
The advantages claimed for the instrument of Dr. Cammann are:
1. That being applied, it adjusts itself closely to both ears, excluding all external sound.
2. It leaves both hands of the examiner free.
3. It gives sounds pure, and greatly increased in intensity, though differing in quality from those hitherto afforded by auscultation, the pitch being lower. This intensity is produced by both ears being acted upon at once, by the earpieces of the instrument fitting closely into the meatus of both ears, and by the smoothness and careful construction of the bore of the stethoscope as to curves, &c., accordiog to the law of reflected sound.
4. Sounds not heard through the instrument in common use can be de. tected by this.
5. Sounds which are doubtful by ordinary instruments are made perfectly certain. Even when disease is seated in the central part of the lungs, they can be detected, when the ordinary stethoscope will fail to render them recog. nizable. The same advantages are obtained in examining the morbid sounds of the heart.
The great increase of intensity of sound by this instrument renders it valuable to those with impaired hearing.
In the use of this stethoscope it is necessary that the chest should be uncovered, to prevent all friction between it and the clothes; otherwise the sound thus generated is conducted with such intensity as to embarrass the examiner. A short practice may be required to become familiar with it, in consequence of the increased intensity of the sounds produced by it, and the differ. ence between them and those afforded by ordinary auscultation. Many of the recogoized physical signs of thoracic diseasc will be so modified as to be new to the examiner, but a short experience will enable him to appreciate them, and give them their true value.
These stethoscopes are manufactured and sold by Messrs. George Tieman & Co., No. 63, Chatham street, who pay particular attention to their construction—a point very essential to an instrument of this kind.
The indiscriminate sale of poisonous drugs, by many apothecaries of this city, without any restriction or reservation, being a frequent source of fatal accidents, would seem to claim the attention of the profession at this time, in order that some action may be taken, preparatory to the enactment of a law by the Legislature to meet the emergency. We hope to present this subject, more at large, in our next number. Will not the Academy of Medicine, or the State Medical Society, move in this matter?
A Practical Treatise on Foreign Bodies in the Air-passages. By S. D.
Gross, M. D., Professor of Surgery in the University of Louisville ; Member of the American Philosophical Society; Author of “Elements of Pathological Anatomy,” “A Treatise on the Diseases of the Urinary Organs," &c., &c.; with illustrations. Philadelphia : Blanchard & Lea, 1854. pp. 468.
This work of Professor Gross, which was commenced as a short monograph for a medical journal, and has grown, under the industrious hands of the author, to an octavo volume of nearly five hundred pages, presents a mass of valuable information not elsewhere to be found, and upon a most interesting and hitherto neglected department of surgical pathology and practice. It comprises facts derived partly from personal observations, and partly from the experience of friends, but mostly from medical journals of this country and of Europe, including nearly fifty cases of foreign bodies in the air.passages, now for the first time published. The facts thus collected have been carefully analyzed and compared with each other, and valuable conclusions drawn from them, respecting the nature, symptomatology, pathology, and treatment of these accidents.
We must award to Dr. Gross the credit of having produced the first complete monograph on the subject of foreign bodies in the air-passages, which has ever appeared in any language, and also of having accomplished his task in a manner most creditable to him. He has presented us with an abstract of upwards of two hundred cases of these accidents, furnished by the medical press of this and other countries.
After a description of the nature of foreign bodies that may enter the air-passages, the alterations they undergo during their presence there, the situations they assume, the manner in which they enter and their expulsion from the air-passages, successive chapters are directed to the immediate effects produced by their entrance, the pathological effects and the symptoms produced by their presence, their diagnosis, and their spontaneous repulsion, and an account of the limited means of medical treatment. Dr. G. proceeds to a full consideration of the subject of their surgical treatment, under the general head of bronchotomy, including laryngotomy, tracheotomy, and laryngo-tracheotomy, descriptions of which, with anatomical and physiological considerations, &c., extend over eighty pages of the work, illustrated by drawings of the parts engaged, instruments used, &c. Tables are given, followed by a short analysis of each, of forty-nine cases of spontaneous expulsion of foreign bodies, followed by recovery, and of eight cases followed by death ; of forty-six cases of the unsuccessful employment of emetics ; of thirteen cases of laryngotomy, followed by expulsion of the foreign body and recovery of the patient; of sixty cases of tracheotomy, followed by repulsion of foreign body and recovery of patient, and of eight followed by death; ten cases of laryngo-tracheotomy, followed by expulsion of the foreign body and recovery of the patient, and three cases followed by death ; of twenty-one cases of death without an operation or the expulsion of the foreign body; and an analysis of three cases in which bronchotomy was repeated in the same patient. A case is also given, of the successful operation of bronchotomy in a horse, by Dr. Kumpé, of La Grange, Ala.
The work closes with a general summary of the conclusions deduced from the facts and cases embodied in its pages, arranged under their appropriate heads of diagnosis, pathology, therapeutics, and operations, which we should be glad to transfer to our pages did our limits permit. We cannot conclude our brief notice without an expression of our satisfaction with the manner in which Professor Gross has discharged the task which he imposed upon himself, and an acknowledgment of the obligations under which he has laid the profession by his extended researches, and the judicious use he has made of them. The illustrations of different kinds, interspersed through the work, add materially to its value, which, we doubt not, will be fully appreciated by those within whose province that class of accidents more immediately fall.
Healthy Skin ; a popular Treatise on the Skin and Hair, their preserva
tion and management. By Erasmus Wilson, F.R.S., author of a “ Treatise on Diseases of the Skin," “ A System of Human Anatomy," &c., &c. Second American, from the fourth and revised London edition; with illustrations. Philadelphia : Blanchard & Lea, 1854. pp. 291.
Mr. Wilson is well known as the author of a valuable and scientific work on diseases of the skin, and also of a system of human anatomy which is used extensively as a text-book in our colleges. The object of this volume is to point out the importance of attention to the skin, as a means of preserving health. The rule of health which he wishes to establish is, by food, by raiment, by exercise, and by ablution, to maintain and preserve an agreeable warmth of the skin. He is a warm advocate for the free use of soap as a detergent, and says that the face and neck should be washed with it at least twice in twenty-four hours. He is decidedly in favor of the mustachio, considering it a “natural respirator, defending the lungs against the inhalation of dust and cold,” &c.
After a description of the different parts of the skin and of their functions, and also of the structure, mode of growth, &c., of the hair, illustrated by engravings, he considers the influence of clothing, exercise, and bathing, on the health of the cutaneous surface. He then describes some of the more common diseases which affect its different tissues and interfere with its proper functions, and also some of the diseases affecting the hair and hair-tubes.
Though intended for popular use, it contains much valuable practical information which should be known and acted upon by all, and is well worthy of perusal. The fact that it has reached a fourth edition in London shows the estimation in which it is held on the other side of the water. The engravings are coarser than we are accustomed to see in books from the press of our sister city; and the whole getting up is much inferior to that of an edition published a few years since by the Messrs. Appleton, of this city.
[Notices of other works crowded out by press of matter.]
City.—New York Hospital.—On the 28th December, number of patients, 260 (175 of whom are surgical), being below the average number. The new south wing is now receiving iis finishing touches ; as regards the advantages of light, heating, and ventilating apparatus, it will have no superior in this or any other country. Mr. James C. Darragh has been appointed Superintendent in place of John L. Roome.
Bellevue Hospital, fc.-On the 26th December, there was 590 inmates; in Lunatic Asylum, 552; in Penitentiary Hospilal, 495; Small Pox Hospilal, 3; Randall's Island Hospilal, 213.— Toial, 1,833.
Ward's Island Eospital.—On 1st December, 1,187. Deaths during month, 86, or 3.1 per cent. In the Refuge, 1,401 cases; 7 deaths, or 1.5 per cent. Obstetrical Deparlment, 136. Deaths, 6.
New York Society for the Relief of Widows and Orphans of Medical Men. -The Annual Meeting was held at the College in Crosby street, on the 29th November. Officers for 1854-55 : Dr. Isaac Wood, President; Drs. Anderson, Camman, and Bulkley, Vice-Presidents ; Dr. Clements, Secrelary; Dr. Beadle, Treasurer; Drs. Carter, Clements, J. Foster, Du Buis, Linsly, Rockwell, and Adams, Managers, for term of three years.
Something New.—At the New York Hospital, may be daily witnessed the extraordinary spectacle of seven young and fair looking women, who follow the physicians and surgeons on their daily rounds, and are present at all the operations on males or females. The individuals aforesaid, have been allowed by the Governors, to take out Hospital Tickets, under the restriction, how. ever, that they are not to visit the inale wards reserved for a certain speciality. Their pombers has also been limited to seven, although applications have been received from a larger number; this is in order to test the yet uztried experiment. We understand that these individuals are attending lectures at a certain Water Cure College (unchartered) in the upper part of the city. Before expressing our opinion on this innovation, we await further developments.
Surgeons.- United States Navy - New York Graduales.-On examination of the Register received from the Navy Medical Bureau at Washington, we find, since 1850, one graduate from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, and one from the University Medical College; we have been unable to find any from the Thirteenth Street Medical College. Our thanks are due to
Assistant Surgeon R. H. Cooledge, for furnishing us with a copy of the Register of both Army and Navy Medical Boards.
Hartford Retreat.-The Thirteenth annual report of the Retreat for the Insane at Hartford, Conn., states that the whole number of patients during the year was 347; highest pumber at any one period, 197,- lowest, 158,-average number under medical supervision, 180; males in the same time, 154-females, 193. Of the 161 discharged, 64 had recovered, 33 were not improved, and 22 died. Receipts, $48,227 62; expenses, $33,622 39.
Brallleboro Insane Asylum.-389 patients during the year. Deaths, 40. Dr. Wm. H. Rockwell has been for many years Superiotendent and Physician; 2,229 patients have been treated since the opening tlie Institution.
The citizens of Savannah are about to erect a suitable monument to the memory of the physicians and clergymen, who fell victims to the late epidemic visitation.
Mesmerism.-Important.-A novel case has just been decided in New York, which involves a curiosity in medico-jurisprudence. A mesmeric physician sued a husband for services rendered the wife in his absence. The Supreme Court says that the law does not recogrize the dreams, visions, or revelations of a woman in a mesmeric sleep as necessaries for a wife, for which the husband, without his consept, can be made to pay. These are fancy articles, which those who have money of their own to dispose of may purchase, if they think proper; but they are not necessaries, known to the law, for which the wife can pledge the credit of her absent husband. The law does not seem to have much respect for mesmerism and spirit rapping as sciences.
Weekly Mortality. City.-For the week ending December 2d, 1854, 350:-consumption, 46; apoplexy, 3; cholera, 3; dysentery, 3; diarrhea, 14; pneumonia, 28; croup, 9; scarlet fever, 17; convulsions, 27; typhus fever (including " typhoid ”), 9. For the week ending December 9th, 153:consumption, 65 ; apoplexy, 9; cholera, 2; dysentery, 20; diarrhæa, 10; pneumopia, 27; croup, 19; scarlet fever, 24; convulsions, 33; typhus fever (including “typhoid”), 10. For the week ending December 16th, 385 :-consumption, 51 ; apoplexy, 2; cholera, 1; dysentery, 9; diarrhæa, 7; pneumonia, 31; croup, 14; scarlet fever, 18; measles, 6; convulsions, 40; typhus fever (including " typhoid”), 7. For the week ending December 23d, 379:-consumption, 58; apoplexy, 4; cholera, 2; dysentery, 4; diarrhæa, 8; pneumonia, 23; croup, 14; scarlet fever, 17; measles, 12; convulsions, 30; typhus fever (iocluding “ typhoid”), 8.
Meteorological Summary, for December.-Mean temperature for 48th, 49th, 50th, 51st weeks of 1854 was 30°; for 1853, 36o; for 1852, 38°; for eight years, 311. Mean dew-point below air temperature same tiine 1854, 4.6; 1853, 3.5 ; 1852, 2.6. Two and a balf inches of rain and melted snow fell upon a level in 1854; half an inch, 1853; five inches, 1852; mean for same time last eight years, two and three quarter inches; mean dew-point for 1842