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How quiet is the air!
What spirit at each shrine
But doth to holier thoughts incline ?
The ever tranquil night was made for prayer!
And when the hours of night
Have slowly rolled away,
And the victorious day
Athwart the kindling air speeds arrowy light,
So, when life's eve shall fall,
Peaceful within my breast,
Oh may Thy presence rest,
Soft as the hush of night, Father of all!
NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
D'AUBIGNE'S REFORMATION OF THE SIX-attention to matter of style, we will not TEENTH CENTURY. Vols. 1 and 4. undertake to say : but with this abate-'
ment, which we express with some hesi. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. 1846. tation, the work has our warmest praise,
as a graphic and instructive view of one FROM the time when Macaulay's bril- of the most eventful periods which the liant pen drew public attention in this author's plan embraces. country to the merits of Dr D’Aubigné's We are happy to see Dr D'A. adoptHistory, it has run a course of unpre- ing a style of reference to the times of cedented popularity among all classes Constantine, much more in harmony with of readers. To the never-ending inte- historical truth than are commonly rerest of the subject, there are added, in ceived opinions. “With what wisdom, Dr D'A.'s volumes, liveliness of style, a in particular, the confessors of Augsburg minuteness of information, a dramatic protest against that confusion of religion point and vivacity in the structure of the and politics which, since the deplorable narrative, together with a well-judged epoch of Constantine, had changed the mingling of personal sketches and events, kingdom of God into an earthly and -qualities which, combined as they are carnal institution ?” This is wholesome, in this work, with skill and good taste, and will be of advantage in various quarsufficiently account for the eminent po- ters, which similar sentiments would not pularity which it so early attained, and be likely to reach, through other and continues still to enjoy.
| less acceptable channels of instruction. The merits of Dr D'A., as an historian, Kindred sentiments occur once and being so generally and cordially acknow- again ; especially in the narrative of ledged, the expectations were proportion- Zwingle's political engagements and meably high, with which his new volume (the lancholy death, does he take occasion fourth) was anticipated. Few authors to enforce very decided views of the spi. have run a greater risk of failing to sa- rituality and independence of the church tisfy the wishes and hopes of admirers. as Christ's kingdom. Severe as is the test, Dr D'A.'s continua- One of the most interesting parts of tion of his history will, we are persuaded, the volume is the account of Luther's be read with renewed pleasure, instead conference with Zwingle. How humof disappointment. We are not sure bling a specimen of a vigorous intellect that the composition is altogether equal still in bondage to one of the most to that of the preceding volumes. Whe- glaring educational prejudices, and enther, this is owing to the author's having trenched in its own obstinacy, is Lu. written in English, or to less accurate ther's whole bearing in this memorable
contest, for such the conference proved of Capernaum, The flesh profiteth noto be.
thing, rejected by those very words the “On Saturday morning (20 October), oral manducation of his body. the landgrave took his seat in the hall, “ Therefore he did not establish it at surrounded by his court, but so plainly the institution of his supper.' dressed that no one would have taken | “Luther.-—'I deny the minor (the sehim for a prince. He wished to avoid cond of these propositions): Christ has the appearance of playing the part of a not rejected all oral manducation, but Constantine in the affairs of the church. only a material manducation, like that of Before him was a table, which Luther, the flesh of oxen or of swine.' Zwingle, Melancthon, and Ecolampa- “Ecolampadius.—“There is danger in dius approached. Luther, taking a piece attributing too much to mere matter.' of chalk, bent over the velvet cloth which | “Luther. Every thing that God covered it, and steadily wrote four words commands becomes spirit and life. If it in large characters. All eyes followed is by the Lord's order that we lift up a the movement of his hand, and soon straw, in that very action we perform a they read, Hoc est corpus meum. Lu- spiritual work. We must pay attention ther wished to have this declaration to him who speaks, and not to what he continually before him, that it might says. God speaks: men, worms, listen! strengthen his faith, and be a sign to his God commands: let the world obey! adversaries.
and let us all together fall down and “ The landgrave's chancellor, John humbly kiss the word.' Fege, having reminded them, in the “ colampadius.--' But since we have prince's name, that the object of this col- the spiritual eating, what need of the loquy was the re-establishment of union, bodily one?' 'I protest,' said Luther, that I differ “Luther.--'I do not ask what need we from my adversaries with regard to the have of it; but I see it written, Eat, this doctrine of the Lord's Supper, and that is my body. We must, therefore, believe I shall always differ from them. Christ and do. We must do—we must do!-If has said, this is my body. Let them God should order me to eat dung I would show me that a body is not a body. I do it, with the assurance that it would reject reason, common sense, carnal ar- be salutary.' guments, and mathematical proofs. God “At this point Zwingle interfered in is abové mathematics. We have the the discussion. “We must explain scripWord of God; we must adore it, and ture by scripture,' said he. "We cannot perform it!'
admit two kinds of corporeal manduca“It cannot be denied,' said Ecolam- tion, as if Jesus had spoken of eating padius, 'that there are figures of speech and the Capernaites of tearing in pieces, in the Word of God; John is Elias, the for the same word is employed in both rock was Christ, I am the vine. The ex- cases. Jesus says, that to eat his flesh pression, This is my body, is a figure of the corporeally profiteth nothing (John vi. same kind.' Luther granted that there 63); whence it would result that he had were figures in the Bible, but he denied given us in the Supper a thing that would that this last expression was figurative. be useless to us. Besides, there are
“All the various parties, however, of certain words that seem to me rather which the christian church is composed, childish,—the dung, for instance. The see a figure in these words. In fact, the oracles of the demons were obscure, not Romanists declare that This is my body so are those of Jesus Christ. signifies not only my body,' but also “ Luther.- When Christ says the 'my blood, 'my soul,' and even 'my flesh profiteth nothing, he speaks not of divinity,' and, Christ wholly. These his own flesh, but of ours.' words, therefore, according to Rome, are “Zwingle. The soul is fed with the a synecdoche, a figure by which a part is spirit, and not with the flesh.' taken for the whole. And as regards the “Luther. It is with the mouth that Lutherans, the figure is still more evident. we eat the body; the soul does not eat it.' Whether it be synecdoche, metaphor, “ Zwingle.- Christ's body is thereor metonymy, there is still a figure. fore a corporeal nourishment, and not a
“In order to prove it, Ecolampadius spiritual.' employed this syllogism:
* “ Luther. You are captious.' • What Christ rejected, in the sixth “ Zwingle. Not so; but you utter chapter of St John, he could not admit contradictory things.' in the words of the Eucharist.
“Luther. If God should present me “Now Christ, who said to the people wild apples, I should eat them spiritually.
In the Eucharist the mouth receives the could not again be calmed. The prince body of Christ, and the soul believes in therefore arose, and they all repaired to his words.'
the banqueting hall. After dinner they “ Zwingle then quoted a great number resumed their tasks. of passages from the holy scripture, in «"I believe,' said Luther, that which the sign is described by the very Christ's body is in heaven, but I also thing signified; and thence concluded believe that it is in the sacrament. It that, considering our Lord's declaration concerns me little whether that be in St John, the flesh profiteth nothing, against nature, provided that it is not we must explain the words of the Eu- against faith. Christ is substantially in charist, in a similar manner.
| the sacrament, such as he was born of “Luther was, however, by no means the Virgin.' shaken. This is my body,' repeated he, “Ecolampadius, quoting a passage pointing with his finger to the words from St Paul : We know not Jesus written before him. This is my body. Christ after the flesh.' The devil himself shall not drive me from “ Luther. After the flesh means, in that. To seek to understand it, is to fall this passage, after our carnal affections.' away from the faith.'
“Ecolampadius. You will not allow « But, doctor,'said Zwingle, St John that there is a metaphor in these words, explains how Christ's body is eaten, and This is my body, and yet you admit a you will be obliged at last to leave off synecdoche.' always singing the same song.
“Luther.— Metaphor permits the “ You make use of unmannerly ex-existence of a sign only; but it is not so pressions,' replied Luther. “The Wittem with synecdoche. If a man says he bergers themselves called Zwingle's wishes to drink a bottle, we understand argument his old song.' Zwingle con- that he means the beer in the bottle: tinued without being disconcerted : 'I|Christ's body is in the bread, as a sword ask you, doctor, whether Christ, in the in the scabbard, or as the Holy Ghost in sixth chapter of St John, did not wish to the dove? reply to the question that had been put “When Zwingle saw that exegesis to him!'
was not sufficient for Luther, he added “ Luther.-'Mr Zwingle, you wish to dogmatical theology to it, and subsidistop my mouth by the arrogancy of your arily natural philosophy. language. That passage has nothing to WI oppose you,' said he, with do here.
|this article of our faith : Ascendit « Zwingle, hastily.-- Pardon me, in cælum—he ascended into heaven. doctor, that passage breaks your neck.' If Christ is in heaven, as regards his
“ Luther. - Do not boast so much ! body, how can he be in the bread? You are in Hesse, and not in Switzer- | The word of God teaches us that he land. In this country we do not break was like his brethren in all things people's necks.
(Heb. ii. 17). He, therefore, cannot "Then turning towards his friends, be in several places at once.'' Luther complained bitterly of Zwingle; “ Luther._ Were I desirous of reaas if the latter had really wished to break soning thus, I would undertake to prove his neck. He makes use of soldier-like that Jesus Christ had a wife, that he and blood-stained words,' said he. Luther had black eyes, and lived in our good forgot that he had employed a similar country of Germany. I care little about expression in speaking of Carlstadt. mathematics.
& Zwingle resumed. In Switzerland, “There is no question of mathemaalso, there is strict justice, and we break tics here,' said Zwingle, but of St Paul, no man's neck without trial. That ex- who writes to the Philippians, mopović pression signifies merely that your cause doudou dceßer.' is lost and hopeless.'
“Luther, interrupting him.- Read « Great agitation prevailed in the it to us in Latin, or in German, not in Knight's Hall. The roughness of the Greek.' Swiss and the obstinacy of the Saxon “ Zwingle (in Latin).- Pardon me : had come into collision. The land- for twelve years past I have made use of grave, fearing to behold the failure the Greek Testament only.' Then conof his project of conciliation, nodded tinuing to read the passage, he concluded assent to Zwingle's explanation. “Doc- from it that Christ's humanity is of a tor,' said he to Luther, you should finite nature like our own. . not be offended at such common expres- “Luther, pointing to the words written sions.' It was in vain: the agitated sea before him.-Most dear Sirs, since my
Lord Jesus Christ says, Hoc est corpus | head which had been so bold, and gazing meum, I believe that his body is really with calm eye upon the trickling blood, there.'
exclaims, "What evil is this. They can "" Here the scene grew animated. indeed kill the body, but they cannot
“Zwingle started from his chair, sprung kill the soul !' These were his last towards Luther, and, striking the table words. before him, said to him:
“He had scarcely uttered them ére he “ You maintain then, doctor, that fell backwards. There, under a tree Christ's body is locally in the Eucharist ;|(Zwingle's pear-tree) in a meadow, he for you say Christ's body is really there— remained lying on his back, with clasped there-there' repeated Zwingle. There hands, and eyes upturned to heaven. is an adverb of place. Christ's body is “ While the bravest were pursuing the then of such a nature as to exist in a scattered soldiers of Zurich, the strag. place. If it is in a place, it is in heaven, glers of the five cantons had pounced whence it follows that it is not in the like hungry ravens on the field of battle. bread.'
Torch in hand, these wretches prowled “Luther.—' I repeat that I have no- among the dead, casting looks of irritathing to do with mathematical proofs. tion around them, and lighting up the feaAs soon as the words of consecration tures of their expiring victims by the dull are pronounced over the bread, the body glimmering of these funereal torches. is there, however wicked be the priest They turned over the bodies of the who pronounces them.'
wounded and the dead ; they tortured “ Zwingle.—' You are thus re-estab and they stripped them. If they found
any who were still sensible, they cried “Luther. This is not done through out, ‘Call upon the saints, and confess to the priest's merits, but because of Christ's our priests. If the Zurichers, faithful ordinance. I will not, when Christ's to their creed, rejected these cruel invitabody is in question, hear speak of a par- tions, these men, who were as cowardly ticular place. I absolutely will not. as they were fanatical, pierced them --" Zwingle.--'Must every thing, then, with their lances, or dashed out their exist precisely as you will it ?
brains with the butt-ends of their arque“The Landgrave perceived that the buses. The Roman Catholic historian, discussion was growing hot; and as the Salat of Lucerne, makes a boast of this. repast was waiting, he broke off the “They were left to die like infidel dogs, contest.”
or were slain with the sword or the The battle of Cappel,--with its details,
spear, that they might go so much the and the historian's reflections,-is told:
quicker to the devil, with whose help so well, that we cannot find it in our
they had fought so desperately.' If any heart to complain of the somewhat dis
of the soldiers of the Five Cantons re
cognised a Zuricher against whom they proportionate space which it fills in the volume. The following is the scene of
had any grudge, with dry eyes, disdainZwingle’s death :
ful mouth, and features changed by
anger, they drew near the unhappy "Zwingle was at the post of danger, creature, writhing in the agonies of the helmet on his head, the sword hang- death, and said — Well! has your hereing at his side, the battle-axe in his hand.tical faith preserved you ? Ah ha! it Scarcely had the action begun, when, was pretty clearly seen to-day who had stooping to console a dying man, says the true faith. ..... To-day we have J. J. Hottinger, a stone hurled by the dragged your gospel in the mud, and vigorous arm of a Waldstette struck him you too, even you are covered with your on the head, and closed his lips. Yet own blood. God, the Virgin, and the Zwingle arose, when two other blows, saints have punished you. Scarcely which struck him successively on the had they uttered these words before leg, threw him down again. Twice they plunged their swords into their more he stands up; but a fourth time enemy's bosom. Mass or death!' was he receives a thrust from a lance-hetheir watchword. staggers, and sinking beneath so many “ Thus triumphed the Waldstettes ; wounds, falls on his knees.-Does not but the pious Zurichers who expired on the darkness that is spreading around the field of battle called to mind that him announce a still thicker darkness they had for God one who has said If that is about to cover the church ? ye endure chastening, God dealeth with Zwingle turns away from such sad you as with sons ; for what son is he thoughts once more he uplifts that whom the father chasteneth not? NO. VII, VOL. III.
Though he slay me, yet will I trust in stinate heretic!' Yielding under this him.' It is in the furnace of trial that last blow, the reformer gave up the the God of the gospel conceals the pure ghost; he was doomed to perish by the gold of his most precious blessings. sword of a mercenary. Precious in This punishment was necessary to turn the sight of the Lord is the death of his aside the Church of Zurich from the saints. The soldiers ran to other victims. • broad ways' of the world, and lead it All did not show the same barbarity. back to the narrow ways' of the Spirit The night was cold; a thick hoar-frost and the life. In a political history, a covered the fields and the bodies of the defeat like that of Cappel would be styled dying. The protestant historian, Bulla great misfortune ; but in a history of inger, informs us, that some Waldstettes the church of Jesus Christ, such a blow, gently raised the wounded in their arms, inflicted by the hand of the Father him-bound up their wounds, and carried them self, ought rather to be called a great to the fires lighted on the field of battle. blessing.
Ah!' cried they, 'why have the Swiss “ Meanwhile Zwingle lay extended thus slaughtered one another !! under the tree, near the road by which The main body of the army had remain. the mass of the people was passing.ed on the field of battle near the standThe shouts of the victors, the groans of|ards. The soldiers conversed around the the dying, those flickering torches borne fires, interrupted, from time to time, by from corpse to corpse, Zurich humbled, the cries of the dying. During this time the cause of Reform lost all cried aloud the chiefs assembled in the convent, sent to him that God punishes his servants messengers to carry the news of their when they have recourse to the arm of signal victory to the confederate can. man. If the German reformer had been tons, and to the Roman Catholic powers able to approach Zwingle at this solemn of Germany. moment, and pronounce these oft-re- “At length the day appeared. The peated words Christians, fight not Waldstettes spread over the field of with sword and arquebus, but with battle, running here and there, stopping, sufferings, and with the cross,' Zwingle contemplating-struck with surprise at would have stretched out his dying hand, the sight of their most formidable eneand said, “Amen!'
mies, stretched lifeless on the plain ; but “ Two of the soldiers who were prowl-sometimes also shedding tears as they ing over the field of battle, having come gazed on corpses which reminded them near the reformer, without recognising of old and sacred ties of friendship. At him, 'Do you wish for a priest to confess length they reached the pear tree under: yourself ? asked they. "Zwingle, with which Zwingle lay dead, and an immense out speaking (for he had not strength), crowd collected around it. His counte. made signs in the negative. If you nance still beamed with expression and cannot speak,' replied the soldiers, at with life. He has the look,' said Barleast think in thy heart of the mother tholomew Stocker, of Zug, who had of God, and call upon the saints !' loved him, he has the look of a living Zwingle again shook his head, and kept rather than of a dead man. Such he his eyes still fixed on heaven. Upon this was when he kindled the people by the the irritated soldiers began to curse him. fire of his eloyuence.' All eyes were • No doubt,' said they, you are one of fixed upon the corpse. John Schönbrun. the heretics of the city! One of them, ner, formerly canon of Zurich, who had being curious to know who it was, retired to Zug at the epoch of the Restooped down, and turned Zwingle's formation, could not restrain his tears. head in the direction of a fire that had Whatever may have been thy creed,' been lighted near the spot. The soldier said he, 'I know, Zwingle, that thou has immediately let him fall to the ground. been a loyal confederate ! May thy soul "I think,' said he, surprised and amazed, rest with God!' “I think it is Zwingle !' At this mo- But the pensioners of the foreigner, on ment Captain Fockinger of Unterwal- whom Zwingle had never ceased to make walden, a veteran and a pensioner, drew war, required that the body of the henear; he had heard the last words of retic should be dismembered, and a porthe soldier. "Zwingle !' exclaimed he; tion sent to each of the five cantons.
that vile heretic, Zwingle ! that rascal! • Peace be to the dead, and God alone that traitor!' Then raising his sword, be their judge !' exclained the avoyer so long sold to the stranger, he struck Golder, and the landamman Thoss of the dying Christian on the throat, ex-Zug. Cries of fury answered their apelaiming, in a violent passion, Die, ob- peal, and compelled them to retire.