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INTRODUCTION

CONTENTS. Passages from ancient writers (av).

A. (a) perduellis, (6) perduellio.
B. Duumviral procedure (details a-g).
C. iudicia populi

(a) in iure and in iudicio (general), (6) action's tribu-
niciae, (c) in iure and in iudicio (special), (df) the
course of a public criminal trial, (g, h) difficulties
and hindrances, (2) outlawry of absent, (k) withdrawal
of accuser, (1) choice of procedure, (m) multae inro-
gatio, (n) iudicare and iudicium, (c) general meaning
of the term perduellio, (b) crimen maiestatis, (9) its

effect on perduellio.
D. Register of important cases of perduellio.
E. Case of Rabirius

(a) the charge, (6) its object, (c) the question at issue
and procedure employed, (d) accuser and accused,
(e) party struggles and the trial, (f) the real difficulty
the occasion of the speech-evidence (i) external

(ii) internal.
F. Abstract of the speech, with Huschke's remarks.

I begin by quoting a number of passages of ancient
writers from which our information on this subject is princi-
pally derived.

(a) Cicero pro Milone $ 36 (of Clodius) diem mihi, credo,
dixerat; multam irrogarat'; actionem perduellionis intenderat.

1 These two forms of process are al-
ternative, according to Huschke p 146.
See below C (n). But if we rather take
the form of the sentence to be a climax,
then we must admit that Cicero refers
to a fine-process as an actio perduellionis.

H. C.

This would of course serve to establish
the conclusions arrived at in appendix
K. But I do not feel so sure of this
interpretation as to venture to employ
the passage for this purpose.

I

(B) Cicero de domo sua SS 45–6 nam cum tam moderata iudicia populi sint a maioribus constituta, primum ut ne poena capitis cum pecunia coniungatur, deinde ne improdicta die quis accusetur, ut ter ante magistratus accuset intermissa die quam multam irroget aut iudicet, quarta sit accusatio trinum nundinum prodicta die, quo die iudicium sit futurum, tum multa etiam ad placandum atque ad misericordiam reis concessa sint, deinde exorabilis populus, facilis suffragatio pro salute, denique etiam si qua res illum diem aut auspiciis aut excusatione sustulit, tota causa iudiciumque sublatum sit:-haec cum ita sint in re? ubi crimen est ubi accusator ubi testes, quid indignius quam qui neque adesse sit iussus neque citatus neque accusatus, de eius capite liberis fortunis omnibus conductos et sicarios et egentis et perditos suffragium ferre et eam legem putare?

Cicero de legibus III $ 36 uno in genere relinqui videbatur vocis suffragium, quod ipse Cassius exceperat, perduellionis: dedit huic quoque iudicio C Caelius tabellam doluitque quoad vixit se, ut opprimeret C Popilium, nocuisse rei publicae.

(8) Livy 1 26 SS 5-9 atrox visum id facinus patribus plebique, sed recens meritum facto obstabat. tamen raptus in ius ad regem. rex, ne ipse tam tristis ingratique ad vulgus iudicii ac secundum iudicium supplicii auctor esset, concilio populi advocato duumviros, inquit, qui Horatio perduellionem iudicent secundum legem facio. lex horrendi carminis erat: duumviri perduellionem iudicent; si a duumviris provocarit, provocatione certato ; si vincent, caput obnubito; infelici arbori reste suspendito; verberato vel intra pomerium vel extra pomerium. hac lege duumviri creati, qui se absolvere non rebantur ea lege ne innoxium quidem posse, cum condemnassent, tum alter ex eis, Publi Horati, tibi perduellionem iudico, inquit. lictor, conliga manus. rat lictor iniciebatque laqueum. tum Horatius auctore Tullo, clemente legis interprete, provoco, inquit. ita de provocatione certatum ad populum est. moti homines sunt in eo iudicio maxime P Horatio patre proclamante se filiam iure caesam iudicare; ni ita esset, patrio iure in filium animadversurum fuisse®.

accesse

To reus is op

2 Madvig (adversaria Il p 217) remarks that this should have been in ea re ubi crimen sit. He therefore emends

in reo ubi crimen est.
posed qui neque...etc. He also reads
putari for putare below.

(e) Livy II 41 § 1 (case of Sp Cassius) invenio apud quosdam, idque propius fidem est, a quaestoribus Caesone Fabio et L Valerio diem dictam perduellionis, damnatumque populi iudicio, dirutas publice aedes.

(9) Livy VI 20 $ 12 (of Manlius) sunt qui per duumviros qui de perduellione anquirerent creatos auctores sint damnatum. tribuni de saxo Tarpeio deiecerunt.

(n) Schol Bob (Orelli p 337, case of P Claudius Pulcher) hic consul apud Drapanam adversus auspicia Poenis classe conflixit. ea pugna Romanorum naves perierunt cxx. ob id factum dies ei dicta perduellionis a Pullio et Fundanio tribunis plebis. cum comitia eius rei fierent et centuriae introducerentur, tempestas turbida coorta est: vitium intercessit. postea tribuni plebis intercesserunt ne idem homines in eodem magistratu perduellionis bis eundem accusarent. itaque actione mutata isdem accusantibus multa inrogata: populus eum damnavit aeris gravis cxx millibus.

(0) Livy XXVI 3 SS 5-12 (case of Cn Fulvius) bis est accusatus pecuniaque anquisitum : tertio testibus datis, cum, praeterquam quod omnibus probris onerabatur, iurati permulti dicerent fugae pavorisque initium a praetore ortum, ab eo desertos milites, cum haud vanum timorem ducis crederent, terga dedisse; tanta ira accensa est, ut capite anquirendum contio succlamaret. de eo quoque novum certamen ortum : nam cum bis pecunia anquisisset, tertio capitis se anquirere diceret, tribuni plebis appellati collegae negarunt se in mora esse, quo minus, quod ei

I am

3 For this important case see Clark, Early Roman Law SS 11-16. reminded by Mr Reid that the words vel intra pomerium vel extra pomerium would not be necessary until the ius provocationis was definitely established. Their introduction here is therefore an anachronism. And if we are meant to

understand that the duumvirs had really no power to acquit (but see Clark § 13), this also smacks of the Republican period, when the duumvirs simply condemned the accused, and their sentence was merely introductory to the real trial.

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