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DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS.
(Lived about 78-7 B. C.)
Ονομά γε μὴν ἀμφοῖν (i. e. to the public and particular speeches) ἓν καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ, ἐπιτάφιος οὕτως ὀνομαζόμενος· παραδείγματα αὐτῶν ἐστί που καὶ παρὰ τοῖς ἀρχαίοις, τοῦ μὲν κοινοῦ καὶ πολιτικοῦ παρά γε τῷ τοῦ Ὀλόρου καὶ παρὰ τῷ τοῦ Ἀρίστωνος· Λυσίας τε, καὶ Ὑπερίδης, καὶ ὁ Παιανιεὺς, καὶ ὁ τοῦ Ἰσοκράτους ἑταῖρος Ναυκράτης, πολλὰς ἡμῖν τοιαύτας ἰδέας παρέσχοντο. οὐκ ἀπορήσομεν δ ̓ οὐδὲ τῶν πρὸς ἕκαστον· ἐπεί τοι καὶ ποιήματα μεστὰ τούτων, οἱ ἐπικήδειοι οὕτως ὀνομαζόμενοι, θρῆνοί τε ὡσαύτως οὕτως. Ars Rhetor. c. 6. De Oratione Funebri.
DIODORUS THE SICILIAN.
(Wrote his history about 8 B. C.)
Τῇ τρίτῃ δ' ἡμέρᾳ τελευτήσαντος αὐτοῦ (Λεωσθένους) καὶ ταφέντος ἡρωικῶς διὰ τὴν ἐν τῷ πολέμῳ δόξαν, ὁ μὲν δῆμος τῶν Ἀθηναίων τὸν ἐπιτάφιον ἔπαινον εἰπεῖν προσέταξεν Ὑπερείδῃ τῷ πρωτεύοντι τῶν ῥητόρων τῇ τοῦ λόγου δεινότητι καὶ τῇ κατὰ τῶν Μακεδόνων ἀλλοτριότητι. Lib. XVIII. c. 13.
(Age late, but uncertain; before Photius, who imitates him.) Ἐκοινώνησε δὲ καὶ Λεωσθένει τοῦ Λαμιακοῦ πολέμου, καὶ ἐπὶ τοῖς πεσοῦσιν εἶπε τὸν ἐπιτάφιον θαυμασίως. Vit. x. Oratt. (Hyperides) int. Opp. Plutarch. p. 849.
(Lived about 213-273 A.D.)
Οἰκτίσασθαί τε προσφυέστατος (Υπερίδης), ἔτι δὲ μυθολογῆσαι κεχυμένος καὶ ἐν ὑγρῷ πνεύματι διεξο δεῦσαι ἔτι εὐκαμπὴς ἄκρως· ὥσπερ ἀμελεὶ τὰ μὲν περὶ τὴν Λητώ ποιητικώτερα, τὸν δ ̓ ἐπιτάφιον ἐπιδεικτικώς, ὡς οὐκ οἶδ ̓ εἴ τις ἄλλος, διέθετο. De Sublim. c. 34.
(Age uncertain, perhaps the fourth century after Christ.)
Ὅτι τις (Dr A. Schäfer (in litt.) conjectures δις) ἐγίγνετο σύνοδος τῶν Ἀμφικτυόνων εἰς Πύλας Ὑπερίδης τε ἐν ἐπιταφίῳ καὶ Θεόπομπος ἐν τῇ λ'. εἰρήκασι. s. v. Πύλαι. (The passage referred to occurs in col. 8 of the papyrus.)
THEON OF ALEXANDRIA.
(Probably lived in the fourth or fifth century after Christ.)
Ἔχομεν δὲ καὶ Ἰσοκράτους μὲν τὰ ἐγκώμια, Πλάτωνος δὲ καὶ Θουκυδίδου καὶ Ὑπερίδου καὶ Λυσίου τοὺς ἐπιταφίους. Progymnasm. c. 2. (Rhet. Gr. Vol. II. p. 68, Ed. Speng.)
PHOTIUS, PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE.
(His Bibliotheca written some time before 858 A.D., when he became Patriarch.)
Ἐκοινώνησε δὲ (Υπερείδης) καὶ τοῦ Λαμιακοῦ πολέμου τῷ Δημόσθενει, καὶ ἐπὶ τοῖς ἐν τῇ μάχῃ πεσοῦσιν ἐπιτάφιον εἶπεν, πολλῶν ἐπὶ τούτῳ θαῦμα καὶ ἔπαινον καρπωσάμενος. Bibl. Cod. 266. Ed. Bekk.
(For Δημοσθένει we should no doubt read Λεωσθένει.)
In the spring of the year 323 B. C. Leosthenes, an Athenian officer, whose previous history is little known, collected together and brought over to Cape Tænarum, at the extremity of Laconia, about 8,000 mercenaries, whom Alexander a little before his death (which took place in June) had ordered the Asiatic satraps to disband. Upon the rumour of Alexander's death, as it seems, they were joined by the Persian generals, who brought money and arms. Leosthenes was appointed their commander-in-chief, and proceeded secretly to engage the services of the Etolians, so as to raise a force capable of opposing the Macedonian interest. When all doubt was removed about Alexander's death, the Greeks, encouraged by embassies from Athens, acted more openly; and the Locrians, Phocians, Thessalians, many of the Peloponnesians, and various other tribes, gradually flocked to the standard of Leosthenes. Athens herself, animated principally by Hyperides, contributed 5,000 foot, 500 horse, and 2,000 mercenaries, besides a considerable fleet. The allies, in their march through Boeotia to encounter Antipater, who was coming down from Macedonia into Thessaly, completely defeated the Boeotians, Euboeans, and other allies of Macedonia near Platæa, and having erected a trophy withdrew to Thermopylæ. Here Antipater himself comes up, and is so completely routed in a battle near the spot that he dare neither hazard a second attack nor retreat into
Macedonia. He accordingly throws himself into the small but well fortified town of Lamia, about four miles distant inland. Leosthenes and the Pan-hellenic army surround the city with a trench, but being unable to storm it they convert the siege into a blockade. In the midst of all this a sally takes place, in which Leosthenes is struck on the head by a stone discharged from a catapult on the city walls, and dies within three days afterwards. He and his comrades were buried with heroic honours in the Cerameicus, near the Academy at Athens; and the orator appointed by the people on the occasion was Hyperides1.
Hyperides opens his address by observing, that his remarks about the conduct and bravery of Leosthenes and his companions would be delivered before those who were themselves witnesses of them, and that under such circumstances, he must ask the indulgence of his auditors for any shortcomings in describing them: they would, however, readily supply in their own minds any omissions which he might unconsciously make'. (Col. 1, 2.) The division of his subject is threefold: praise of the city, of the soldiers, and of their general. Athens is to be congratulated for having pursued a policy worthy of her best days and even surpassing it. Time would
1 Further information respecting Leosthenes and the Lamian war may be seen in Thirlwall's Hist. of Greece, Vol. vii. c. lvi. pp. 163 -178. Grote's Hist. of Greece, Vol. XII. c. xcv. pp. 418-426. Niebuhr's Lect. on Anc. Hist. Vol. III. Lect. lxxxi. lxxxii. pp. 25—35, Pauly's Real Encycl. s. v. Lamischer Krieg, and Smith's Dict. Biogr. and Myth. s. v. Leosthenes, where the original authorities are referred to. It is difficult, however, to deduce an accurate and consistent account of all the details.
Here and elsewhere I have given pretty freely what appears to be the sense of the mutilated papyrus; in other places I have endeavoured to show by a free paraphrase, how I understand the Greek text; but no part of the following argument is to be looked on as a translation.
fail (and this is no fitting occasion for a long speech) to go through the glories of her past history, but it might be said in a word, that she was the sun of Greece, diffusing light and nourishment and happiness throughout the whole Hellenic world. (Col. 3, 4). He must now come to the soldiers and their general, and he scarcely knows where to begin. Not by enlarging on their birth, for it is superfluous to recount the pedigrees of Athenians, whose common origin from their mother-soil gives them all a title to the noblest descent. Neither is it necessary to say much on their education, for it is clear, that those who have proved themselves good men and true in the service of their country, must, when young, have been well-educated. (Col. 4, 5.) It is best to speak of their valour in war, and to show what blessings they have insured to their country and to Greece. And herein Leosthenes is entitled to be mentioned first. He saw Greece wholly prostrate and her former prosperity destroyed through the venality of her Macedonizing orators: there was no city to take the lead, there was no general to assume the command. He himself then filled the void, and devoted himself to his country, and his country to the liberties of Greece. Hyperides then runs rapidly through the details of the war and the exploits at Platæa, at Thermopyla (with a passing allusion to Leonidas), and at Lamia. (Col. 5, 6). In all these engagements Leosthenes obtained his desires, but he could not withstand his destiny. Glorious, however, as his victories were, we owe him thanks not only for them, but for the successes which followed in the same campaign. Upon the foundations laid by him, others have built a secure superstructure. These encomiums on Leosthenes must not be understood as a slight on those who served under him; rather they involve the commendation of the rest; for the glory of skilfully