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* Nec omnia dicentur sed maxime insignia.”

“ld certe ab omnibus prudentibus conceditur, quod cognitio Telluris sit non tantum
homine dignissima. sed etiam tam in republica literaria, quam ad vitae usum per-
necessaria.”—WAREN1Us.

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LONDON :
LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONG MANS.

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NOTICE TO THIS EDITION.

In this edition the articles Australia, Russia, and Turkey, with others of less importance, have been mostly rewritten; and it has been, in other respects, materially improved.

London, June, 1854.

NOTICE TO THE EDITION OF 1851.

ExtRAORDINARY changes have taken place in this and most other countries since the first publication of this work in 1841, partly of a political nature, and partly from the unusually rapid progress of population, wealth, and civilisation. We have endeavoured to notice the most material of these changes, and to rectify the mistakes, and supply the omissions in the former edition. The alterations have, in consequence, been exceedingly numerous; and the greater number of the principal articles have been either wholly or partially rewritten. We have endeavoured, wherever it was practicable, to introduce the new and amended articles in their proper places in the course of the work; those which could not be so introduced being embodied in an Appendix at the end of the second volume. Neither labour nor expense has been grudged in attempting to improve the book, and to render it more worthy of the public confidence. And we flatter ourselves that the errors which may still be found in it are but few in number and not of much importance.

London, December, 1850.

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