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MAD, adj., v. a. & v. n. Sax. maad, gemaad; MAD'BRAIN, adj. Modern Goth. mod; MAD'BRAINED, (Goth. meida, to diMAD'CAP, n. S. vide?) Distracted or MADDEN, v. n., &c. disordered in mind; MAD HOUSE, n. s. deranged; lunatic; MAD'LY, adv. hence, enraged; fuMAD'MAN, n. 8. rious; violently afMADNESS. fected with desire, taking on, after, of, or for, before the object: to mad is to make or be furious; make or be mad: mad-brain and mad-brained, disordered or distracted; hot-headed: madcap (taking the cap for the head) a madman: to madden, to become or behave as deranged. The other derivatives seem obvious in their meaning.

And manye of hem seiden, he hath a deuel, and * maddith. Wiclif. Jon. 10. It is the land of graven images, and they are mad upon their idols. Jer. i. 38.

They shall be like madmen, sparing none, but still sporting. 2 Esdr. xvi. 71. Richesse a robe of purple on had, Ne trowe not that I lie or mad, For in this world is none it liche, Ne by a thousand dele so riche. Chaucer. Cant. Tales. O villain! cried out Zelmane, madded with finding Sidney.

an unlooked-for rival.

Alack, sir, he is mad. -'Tis the time's plague when madmen lead the blind. Shakspeare.

This will witness outwardly, As strongly as the conscience does within, To the madding of her lord. Id. Cymbeline. I give my hand opposed against my heart, Unto a madbrain rudesby, full of spleen.


He let fall his book, And, as he stooped again to take it up, This madbrained bridegroom took him such a cuff, That down fell priest and book.


The nimble-footed madcap prince of Wales, And his comrades, that daft the world aside, And bid it pass. Id. Henry IV. The power of God sets bounds to the raging of the sea, and restrains the madness of the people. King Charles. Holy writ represents St. Paul as making havock of the church, and persecuting that way unto the death, and being exceedingly mad against them. Decay of Piety. We must bind our passions in chains, lest, like mad folks, they break their locks and bolts, and do al! the mischief they can.

Taylor's Worthy Communicant.
Cupid, of thee the poets sung,
Thy mother from the sea was sprung;

But they were mad to make thee young. Denham.
His gestures fierce
He marked, and mad demeanour when alone.

The madding wheels

Of brazen chariots raged: dire was the noise Of conflicts! Id. Paradise Lost. Madmen ought not to be mad; But who can help his frenzy! Dryden's Spanish Friar. The world is running mad after farce, the extremity of bad poetry, or rather the judgment that is fallen upon dramatic writing. Dryden.

This mads me, that perhaps ignoble hands Have overlaid him, for they could not conquer. Id. VOL. XIII-PART 2.

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There are degrees of madness as of folly, the disorderly jumbling ideas together, in some more, some


Locke. The people are not so very mad of acorns, but that they could be content to eat the bread of civil persons. Rymer. Delusive ideas are the motives of the greatest part of mankind, and a heated imagination the power by which their actions are incited: the world, in the eye of a philosopher, may be said to be a large madhouse. Mackenzie. He who ties a madman's hands, or takes away his sword, loves his person while he disarms his frenzy.

South. But some strange graces and odd flights she had, Was just not ugly, and was just not mad. Pope.

The dog-star rages, nay, 'tis past a doubt,
All Bedlam or Parnassus is let out;
Fire in each eye, and papers in each hand,
They rave, recite, and madden round the land.


Such madd'ning draughts of beauty, As for a while o'erwhelmed his raptured thought. Thomson. As a man inebriated only by vapours, soon recovers in the open air, a nation discontented to madness, without any adequate cause, will return to its wits and allegiance, when a little pause has cooled it to reflection. Johnson.

A crowd gather round a dog suspected of madness, and they begin by teazing the devoted animal on every side; if he attempts to stand upon the defensive, and bite; then he is unanimously found guilty, for a mad-dog always snaps at every thing; if, on the contrary, he strives to escape by running away, then he can expect no compassion, for mad dogs always run straight forward before them.

Goldsmith. Goading the wise to madness; from the dull Shaping out oracles to rule the world Afresh, for they were waxing out of date, And mortals dared to ponder for themselves, To weigh kings in the balance, and to speak Of freedom, the forbidden fruit. Byron. MAD, n. s. Sax. maðu. An earth worm. MADAGASCAR (or MADEGASSE, a native name). Madagascar seems first to have been made vaguely known to Europeans by Marco Paulo, who received some information respecting it by its present name, from the Arabs. The ancients were probably wholly unacquainted with it. It also escaped the notice of De Gama, who coasted along Africa; and was first seen by Lorenzo Almeida in 1506, from whom it received the name of St. Lawrence, which it retained until the reign of Henry IV., when some French navigators gave it that of Isle Dauphin.

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This is one of the largest islands of the world, being 240 leagues long, from north to south, and from forty to seventy leagues broad. It is separated from the coast of Africa by the channel of Mosambique, from eighty leagues to 120 broad. A ridge of mountains (said to have an elevation of 10,000 to 12,000 feet) runs through the island from north to south, containing various valuable minerals and fossils; and also gives rise to a vast number of rivers and rivulets, which reach the sea, and abound in fish. In no region of the globe is vegetation more luxuriant than in this island, where nature abandoned to its own fertility produces the most various productions. The hills are covered to their summits with immense timber trees, and the plains or vast savannahs, are clothed with a rich herbage, affording pasture to innumerable cattle and sheep. is cultivated to a great extent, and all the other vegetables and fruits of the tropics grow spontaneously. Unfortunately, however, this smiling scene is generally more than counterbalanced by the extreme unhealthiness of the climate, which renders it the almost certain grave of Europeans.


The wild animals of the island are of few species, there being neither lions, tigers, nor elephants, nor does it possess the horse.

At present Madagascar affords few objects of commerce, and its exports are almost totally confined to rice and cattle to the Mauritius. The Arabs export some of the species of fruit called sea cocoa-nut, or cocoa-nut of the Maldivas, (nux medica of botanists). The tree which affords this fruit is a species of palm, and is found on the Isle of Palms, on the coast of Madagascar only; at least, it has not hitherto been discovered in any other part of the world. The nuts picked up on the shores of the Maldiva islands are probably conveyed there in the south-west monsoon, when the currents between Madagascar and these islands set to the north-east.

The nuts of the Ravensera have also been exported: they are of an acrid aromatic nature, and used by the natives to season their food. The other objects of commerce are eagle or aloe wood (agallochum), which may be procured in any quantity, but of which little or none is taken off. The island affords cotton, and many useful gums and resins, amongst which is the elastic gum, or India rubber (iatropha elastica).

The island of Madagascar is inhabited by various tribes or castes, whose physical and moral characteristics denote their being descended from very different races. 1. The Betsimicaracs, or negro race, who inhabit the north-east coast, are in general stout and well made, and the women handsome; but the men are drunkards, cowards, and thieves. The Antibanivouls, neighbours of the last named caste, are more laborious and less debauched, but also more stupid and ignorant. The Betalimenes employ themselves chiefly in raising cattle. 2. The Hovas, who inhabit the province of Ancove, near the middle of the island, differ entirely from the above tribes. They are tall and well made, though rather slender, and much resemble the natives of India, having long black hair, aqui

line noses, and thin lips: there is also some difference in their dialect. This caste is by far the most advanced in the arts, being acquainted with the manner of forging iron, and are correct imitators of the nicest European works in metal: their chains of gold and silver are particularly fine. They inhabit the most healthy province of the island, being from its elevation so cold in winter that fires are necessary; but, the province producing neither tree nor shrub, they use the straw of a gramineous plant as fuel. 3. The Autamahouris form another peculiar caste, whose language differs from that of the other tribes, being a dialect of the Malay, and their features also denote their being descended from the Malay race. In the centre of the island is said to exist a race of dwarfs, named Kimos, who do not exceed three feet and a half in height, whose arms are extremely long, with paws like those of the ape, and the females totally without breasts, nourishing their infants with cows' milk, of which animals they breed great herds. A Kimos woman was sold to the French at Fort Dauphin in 1768, and is the only individual of the species ever seen by Europeans. A detail of the subdivisions of all these races would lead us far beyond the limits we have prescribed to ourselves, and we must therefore confine our notice to a few of the prominent and general traits in the Madagasse character.

The inhabitants taken generally are lazy, spending three-fourths of their time in their huts, stretched on a mat, and playing on the marouvané, or tritri. Their only serious employments are the chase, fishing, and occasionally looking after their cattle. Careless of the future, the Madagasse little fears the frowns of fortune, and, as he is unacquainted either with love or friendship, he has little to disturb the tranquillity of his mind. His religion extends to the acknowledgement of a preserving deity, to whom he pays no devotion, but, on the contrary, loads him with invectives, when any misfortune happens to him. He also believes in an evil spirit, whose habitual residence is in burying places, and hence he will not approach a grave during the night. In general his youth is spent in debauchery, and it is not until the middle of his career that he takes a wife to accompany him the rest of the way. The marriage ceremony consists in killing a bullock, and feasting the two families. All ages are addicted to excess of spirituous liquors, and to their own intoxicating mixtures. A Madagasse accused of sorcery is confined in a solitary hut without victuals for two or three days, when he is obliged to undergo an ordeal by swallowing a poisonous infusion, which if he keeps down is sure to destroy, at the same time that it convicts him, but if he has the good fortune to throw it up, by the natural exertion of the stomach alone, he lives and is acquitted. The same trial is ordered to persons of both sexes, accused of incestuous intercourse, as well as in cases of doubtful robbery; for, where the fact is proved, the criminal is condemned to slavery.

The professions of priest and physician are here, as amongst most savage nations, united in the sane person, and are practised only by in

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dividuals of the Arab tribes. The dress of the women consists in a girdle, or kind of petticoat, and a long piece of cloth, one end of which is folded round the hips, while the other covers the shoulders, and head in wet weather: a corset closed both before and behind like a banyan, and which leaves the bosom bare, completes the dress. The ornaments of the women are necklaces and bracelets of glass beads, or gold and silver chains. Both sexes wear amulets of bits of certain woods, &c., enveloped in cloth on their necks and wrists, to defend them from the effects of sorcery. The leaves of the ravensera serve the purposes of plates, dishes, and spoons. The various estimations of the population of Madagascar make it from 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 souls.

The western side of Madagascar has many bays and rivers, but very few of them are ever visited by European ships, and consequently are very little known. The most frequented is St. Augustine's Bay, at the south-west extremity of the island, which is a safe road where may be had any quantity of refreshments, particularly bullocks, goats, fowls, Guinea fowls, oranges, limes, plantains, pumpkins, yams, and sweet potatoes. They are procured from the natives in exchange for gunpowder, looking-glasses, muskets, pistols, brass and iron pots, knives and scissars, nails, flints, &c. Water is filled in the boats four or five miles up a river, named Dartmouth, which falls into the bay, and which abounds (as well as the bay) in fish, but is also infested by the alligator. The chief of this part of the island resides in a mud-built town twelve miles from the bay; most of the natives who go on board ship to barter speak a little English, and have taken English titles, such as the prince of Wales, duke of York, &c.

Morundava Bay, in latitude 20° 16′, is sometimes visited for refreshments; it is exposed from north-west to south-west and has several shallow barred rivers falling into it. A village of huts is on the north side of the bay.

Bembatook Bay in 15° 43′ is large and safe, and represented as one of the most eligible places in the island for a European settlement. Bullocks and rice are very abundant, as well as other objects of commerce. The French purchased slaves and cattle here for the use of the Isle of France; which were driven across the island to Foul Point, where the slaves were embarked and the cattle slaughtered and salted. The natives are friendly to strangers; and the Arabs of the continent visit this port for purposes of trade. The town, from which the bay has its name, is three leagues within the entrance of the bay, and on a cove entirely land-locked and accessible to ships.

Manigara River is said to be six miles broad at the entrance, with six and seven fathoms three leagues up.

The bight or bay of Astada is a large indentation at the north-west end of the island, with several islands before it. Here is Morigambo harbour, described as capacious and safe.

Passandava, at the north-west extremity of the island, is a large bay running seven leagues to the south. It abounds in provisions, wood, and water.

New Masseliege is a large town on a barred river accessible only to small craft. It is protected by a mud fort with many cannon; and the king's residence is built in the European manner with two stories, with an armoury and many articles of European furniture, as tables, chairs, looking-glasses, &c. Many Arabs reside here, and trade to Arabia and Persia. Opposite the river's mouth is an island, about four miles long, on which the French had once an establishment.

Fort Dauphin, once the principal establishment of the French, is near the south-east extremity of the island, on a cove capable of receiving five or six vessels, land-locked. It is situated on high ground commanding the road, and is a long square surrounded by a wall of lime and gravel coated with cement. Two leagues south of the fort is a large river, which at a short distance from its mouth expands into a lake, fifteen miles in circuit; the mouth of the river is however, as well as most others on the east coast, barred against the entrance of ships. This part of the island is populous, and under a great many chiefs: their villages are on eminences, fortified with parapets of turf, pallisades, and ditches. Bullocks, poultry, and provisions are abundant, but good water is only found at some distance from the shore, where are excellent springs. The bay of St. Luce is within several islands and reefs: on its south point the French formed a pallisaded establishment in 1787.

Manooro River, in latitude 20°, is much frequented by the French of the Mauritius for rice and cattle. The natives manufacture fine mats and cloth from the fibres of a plant, as well as cloth from the cotton of the island. There is a village at the mouth of the river, and before it good anchorage within a reef.

Hy Vondron is a considerable village, and great rice market, three leagues south of Tamatave. This latter is on a lagoon, named Nossebe; landing is difficult, from a high surf. The French had a post here to procure cattle and rice for their islands, but which was taken by the English in 1811; it was on a high point of land and considered healthy. The Isle of Prunes is three leagues from Tamatave, small but covered with wood, and has fresh water. Between Tamatave and Foul Point are several villages on the shore.

Foul Point (Voulu-Voulu of the natives), another establishment of the French, is on a cove within a reef, which shelters the anchorage. The settlement consists of a piece of ground, surrounded by pallisades, with a house for the resident, sheds, &c. A large native village is close to it, where is the king's residence, consisting of a story, raised from the ground, ascended to by a ladder, and surrounded by the huts of his attendants and women. Slaves and cattle are procured here in exchange for musquets, powder and shot, flints, knives, &c.

St. Mary's Island (Nossi Ibrahim of the natives) is two leagues from the main; the east side is lined with breakers, but the west side forms a good port, with depth and capacity for the largest fleets. The country abounds in provisions, and spars for masts may be had here. The French formed an establishment here in

1740, but the persons in it were all massacred by the natives. In 1743 they renewed it, but it was abandoned in 1760, on account of its unhealthiness. This island was the rendezvous of the European pirates that infested the Indian seas in the beginning of the last century.

Antongil Bay (Manghabees of the natives) is eight or nine leagues wide, and fifteen deep; its shores are elevated, and towards its head are some islands, within which is an excellent harbour, called by the French Port Choiseul. Several rivers fall into the bay, but they are all barred against the entrance of any thing but boats, though deep within. This is one of the most fertile parts of the island, but also the most unhealthy the tide rises three or four feet. Here the French attempted to form an establishment conducted by the celebrated adventurer Beniwowsky.


Port Louquez, at the north-east extremity of the island, is a capacious and secure harbour for the largest fleets; it is also said to be healthy and abundant in provisions.

The chief capes of Madagascar are, Cape St. Mary, the south point; Cape St. Andrew, the north-west; Cape Ambre, the north; and Cape East, the east.

Tananarive is at present considered as the capital of the island, and is the place where the king Radama resides, and the late treaty for the abolition of the slave trade was concluded. Mr. Jones, who was present on this occasion, says 'their houses are built exceedingly neat and convenient-are high and very airy, and supported by strong timbers, resembling the masts of a ship. The apartments of the royal palace are ornamented with silver mirrors; and are in neatness equal to any rooms that I have seen in the government-house at Port Louis.'


Governor Farquhar, writing to the directors of the London Missionary Society, represents the natives as a people without any national religion, or superstitions of consequence to combat, consisting of above 4,000,000 of souls, ready, as well as capable, of receiving instruction under the will of a monarch, who is as eager to obtain it for them, as you can be to grant it.' See our article LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY. From the manner in which he acted in reference to the late treaty, the royal authority appears to be absolute, and the present sovereign deserves to be considered the father of his people; for after having fully discussed the slave trade in several conferences with Mr. Hastie, the British commissioner, he consulted his ministers on the subject, who were all greatly averse to its abolition.

When the Portuguese first visited India, they kept too close to the continent to discover Madagascar. In 1506 it was visited by Triestan d'Acunha, but as they could not find it produced either gold or silver, which were the chief objects of their research, they paid little attention to the discovery. When the French had formed the settlements of Bourbon and Mauritius, they turned their attention to Madagascar, as a place whence the wants of their new colonies on the smaller islands might be supplied. With this view they sent several expeditions to various parts of the island, but they were repeatedly

driven out. The most celebrated of their estab lishments for a time was that attempted by count Benyowsky, at the north-west extremity; but this daring adventurer soon involved himself in a war with the natives, in which he was killed, and the establishment altogether failed. The most permanent footing they gained was at Fort Dauphin, on the south-east coast, where their influence was maintained until the loss of Bourbon and Mauritius in the late war.

The entire population of Madagascar is difficult to estimate, from the great number of small states into which it is divided. Flacourt does not suppose it to exceed 1,600,000; Rochon heard it estimated at 4,000,000, though he considers this amount to be exaggerated.

MAD'AM, n. s. Fr. ma dame, my dame; Ital. madama. A term of compliment used in address to ladies of every degree: anciently pronounced as in French, with the accent upon the last syllable. Certes, madam, ye have great cause of plaint.

Spenser. Madam, once more you look and move a queen! Philips. MADAN (Martin), an English divine of a respectable family, born about 1726, and bred for the bar, which he relinquished for the church, though he obtained no preferment. The chapel of the Lock Hospital was built chiefly through his exertions, and he officiated as chaplain many years gratis. He was long a very popular preacher, but incurred much obloquy by publishing a work entitled, Thelyphthora, ora Treatise on Female Ruin; in 3 vols. 8vo. 1781; wherein he defended the lawfulness of polygamy, in cases of seduction. He also published a translation of Juvenal and Persius, in 2 vols, 8vo. He died in 1790. He was a man of great abilities, and unimpeachable morals.


MADDEN (Samuel), D. D., an Irish divine of French extraction, educated at Dublin. He had some church preferments in Ireland. In 1729 he published Themistocles, or the Lover of his Country, for which he received a library from his bookseller. In 1731 he pro ected a scheme for promoting learning in Dublin College by premiums. In 1732-3 he published Memoirs of the Twentieth Century; being original letters of State under George VI. in 6 vols 8vo., London. This work was called in and suppressed. In 1740 he set apart £100 a-year, to be divided into three premiums for encouraging arts and manufactures in Ireland. In 1743 or 1744 he published Boulter's Monument, a Poem. He died December 30th, 1765.

MAD'DER, n. s. Sax. madeɲe; Teut. maddar. A plant. See below.

The flower of the madder consists of one single leaf, which is cut into four or five segments, and expanded at the top; the flower-cup afterwards becomes a fruit, composed of two juicy berries closely joined together, containing seed for the most part hollowed stalks in whorles. like a navel; the leaves are rough, and surround the Miller. Madder is cultivated in vast quantities in Holland: what the Dutch send over for medicinal use is the root, which is only dried; but the greatest quantity is used by the dyers, who have it sent in coarse powder.


MADDER. See RUBIA. It is yellow at first, but grows red and dark with age. It should be chosen of a fine saffron color, in very hard lumps, and of a strong though not disagreeable smell. The best roots are about the thickness of a goose quill, or at most of the little finger: they are semitransparent, and of a reddish color; they have a strong smell, and the bark is smooth. Madder is also cultivated in Smyrna, and some other countries of Turkey in Asia. It is more esteemed than the best Zealand madder; and experiments have shown that it is superior to any other kind as a dyeing ingredient. The fine color of these madders, however, has been attributed to their being dried in the air, and not in stoves. The root of madder impregnates water with a dull red color, and alcohol with a deep bright red. This root, when eaten by animals with their food, tinges their urine, and their bones, of a deep red. Wool, previously boiled in a solution of alum and tartar, receives from a hot decoction of madder and tartar a very durable but not a very beautiful red color. Wool would receive from madder only a perishable dye, if the coloring particles were not fixed by a base, which occasions them to combine with the stuff more intimately, and which in some measure defends them from the destructive influence of the alr. For this purpose, the woollen stufis are first boiled for two or three hours with alum and tartar, after which they are left to drain; they are then slightly wrung and put into a linen bag, and carried into a cool place, where they are suffered to remain for some days.

liquor is to be left to settle, when it is to be decanted, and the silk carefully soaked in it, and left for twelve hours; and after this preparation it is to be immersed in a bath containing half a pound of madder softened by boiling with an infusion of galls in white wine: this bath is to be kept moderately hot for an hour, after which it is to be made to boil for two minutes. When taken from the bath, the silk is to be washed in a stream of water, and dried in the sun. Mr. Guhliche compares the color thus obtained, which is very permanent, to the Turkey red. If the galls be left out, the color is clearer. A great degree of brightness may be communicated to the first of these, by afterwards passing it through a bath of brasil wood, to which one ounce of solution of tin has been added: the color thus obtained, he says, is very beautiful and durable. The madder red of cotton is distinguished into two kinds: one is called simple madder red; the other, which is much brighter, is called Turkey or Adrianople red, because it comes from the Levant, and has seldom been equalled in brightness or durability by our artists. Galls or sumach dispose thread and cotton to receive the madder color, and the proper mordant is acetate of alumina. The nitrate and muriate of iron as a mordant produces a better effect than the sulphate and acetate of the same metal; they afford a beautiful, well saturated violet color. The Adrianople red possesses a degree of brightness, which it is difficult for us to approach by any of the processes hitherto mentioned.

The quantities of alum and tartar, as well as their proportions, vary much in different manufactories. Hellot recommends five ounces of alum and one ounce of tartar to each pound of wool; if the proportion of tartar be increased to a certain degree, instead of a red, a deep and durable cinnamon color is produced, because, as we have seen, acids have a tendency to give a yellow tinge to the coloring particles of madder. Berthollet found, that, by employing one-half tartar, the color sensibly bordered more on the cinnamon than when the proportion was only one-fourth of the alum. In dyeing with madder, the bath must not be permitted to boil, because that degree of heat would dissolve the fawncolored particles, which are less soluble than the red, and the color would be different from that which we wish to obtain. If wool be boiled for two hours with one-fourth of sulphate of iron, then washed, and afterwards put into cold water with one-fourth of madder, and then boiled for an hour, a coffee color is produced. Bergmann adds, that if the wool have not been soaked, and if it be dyed with one part of sulphate of iron, and two of madder, the brown obtained borders upon a red. Berthollet employed a solution of tin in various ways, both in the preparation and in the maddering of cloth. He used different solutions of tin, and found that the tint was always more yellow or fawn-colored, though sometimes brighter than that obtained by the common process. Mr. Guhliche describes a process for dyeing silk with madder: for one pound of silk he orders a bath of four ounces of alum, and one ounce of a solution of tin; the

Some years ago, Mr. Papillon set up a dyehouse for this red at Glasgow; and in 1790 the commissioners for manufactures in Scotland paid him a premium, for communicating his process to the late professor Black, on condition of its not being divulged for a certain term of years. The time being expired, it has been made public, and is as follows:

Step. 1.-For 100 lbs. of cotton, you must have 100 lbs. of Alicant barilla, 20 lbs. of pearl ashes, 100 lbs. of quicklime.

The barilla is to be mixed with soft water in a deep tub, which has a small hole near the bottom of it, stopped at first with a peg. This hole is to be covered in the inside with a cloth supported by two bricks, that the ashes may be prevented from running out at it, or stopping it up, while the lie filters through it. Under this tub must be another, to receive the lie, and pure water is to be passed repeatedly through the first tub, to form lies of different strength, which are kept separate until their strength is examined. The strongest required for use must float an egg, and is called the lie of six degrees of the French hydrometer. The weaker are afterwards brought to this strength by passing them through fresh barilla; but a certain quantity of the weak, which is of two degrees of the above hydrometer, is reserved for dissolving the oil, the gum, and the salt, which are used in subsequent parts of the process. This lie of two degrees is called the weak barilla liquor; the other the strong.

Dissolve the pearl ashes in ten pails, of four gallons each, of soft water, and the lime in fourteen pails. Let all the liquors stand till they

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