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science. In like manner the just man must be scientific as compared with the unjust.

[The argument turns on the thoroughly Greek conception of the superiority of the limited to the unlimited, the defined to the undefined, répas to år elpov. Aristotle made limitation, or the avoidance of extremes, a part of his definition of virtue.]

Socrates then proceeds to overthrow the assertion that

'Injustice is stronger than justice' by showing that if an unjust city is strong, it can only be so on the principle of 'honour among thieves,' some remnant of justice in its internal relations. If the citizens are unjust to each other, if they illtreat and oppress one another, there can be no unity and therefore no strength. In like manner, if injustice exists in an individual, it must destroy all inward concord, and so make him half-hearted and irresolute in action; he becomes an enemy to himself and to the Gods and all just men. The same argument will overthrow the remaining assertion of Thrasymachus, viz. that

'Injustice is happier than justice.' But this is also shown to be false from a consideration of the nature of virtue. The soul, like the eye or ear or anything else, has a special work or function to perform, and can only perform that work aright if possessed of the fitting quality or virtue. The function of the soul is life and thought, the virtue of the soul is justice; a just soul will live well, an unjust soul will live ill. But living well is happiness, living ill misery. Therefore justice is shown to be more profitable than injustice, being wiser, stronger and happier, as well as better.

Then follows in the second book the argument of

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Glaucon, which we will give in Professor Jowett's abstract slightly altered, as an example of Plato's expository style.

'To do injustice is said to be a good; to suffer injustice an evil. As the evil is discovered by experience to be greater than the good, the sufferers make a compact that they will have neither, and this compactor mean is called justice, but is really the incapacity to do injustice. No one would observe such a compact if he were not obliged. Let us suppose that the just and unjust had two rings, like that of Gyges in the wellknown story, which made them invisible; then no difference would appear in them, for every one does evil if he can, and he who abstained would be regarded by the world as a fool. Men may praise him in public out of fear for themselves, but they will laugh in their hearts. And now let us frame an ideal of the just and unjust. Imagine the unjust man to be master of his craft, seldom making mistakes and easily correcting them; having gifts of money, speech, strength-the greatest villain bearing the highest character : and at his side let us place the just in his nobleness and simplicity, being, not seeming, without name or reward, clothed in his justice only, the best of men, but thought to be the worst, and let him die as he has lived. The just man will then be scourged, racked, bound, and at last crucified; and all this because he ought to have preferred seeming to being. How different is the case of the unjust, who clings to appearance as the true reality! His high character makes him a ruler; he can marry where he likes, trade where he likes, help his friends and hurt his enemies; having got rich by dishonesty, he can worship

the Gods better, and will therefore be more loved by them than the just.'

Adeimantus adds further arguments to the same effect and concludes as follows:

“The origin of the evil is that all men from the beginning have always asserted the honours, profits, expediencies of justice. Had they been taught in early youth the power of justice and injustice inherent in the soul, and unseen by any human or divine eye, they would not have needed others to be their guardians, but every one would have been the guardian of himself. And this is what I want you to show, Socrates : other men use arguments which rather tend to strengthen the position of Thrasymachus that might is right; but from you I expect better things. And please to exclude reputation ; let the just be thought unjust and the unjust just, and do you still prove to us the superiority of justice.

I add four other specimens of Plato's expository style taken, the ist from the Symposium p. 210, on the love of Ideal Beauty; the 2nd from the Laws v p. 731, on Selfishness; the 3rd also from the Laws x p. 887, on Atheism ; the 4th from the Phaedo p. 85, on the need of a Revelation. The translations are borrowed with slight alterations from Professor Jowett.

The Love of Ideal Beauty. 'He who has been instructed thus far in the things of love and who has learned to see the beautiful in due order and succession, when he comes towards the end will suddenly perceive a nature of wondrous beauty ;-a nature which in the first place is everlasting, not growing and decaying, or waxing and waning; in the next place, not fair in one point of view and foul in another, or fair to some and foul to others, or in the likeness of a face or hands or any other part of the bodily frame, or in any form of speech or knowledge, or existing in any other being; but beauty absolute and simple, which, without diminution and without increase or any change, is imparted to the ever growing and perishing beauties of all other things. He who under the influence of true love, rising upwards from these, begins to see that beauty, is not far from the end. And the true order of ascent is to use the beauties of earth as steps along which he mounts upwards for the sake of that other beauty; going from one to two, and from two to all beautiful forms, and from beautiful forms to beautiful exercises, and from the performance of beautiful exercises to the learning of beautiful ideas, until at last he arrives at the end of all learning, the Idea of Beauty itself and knows what the essence of Beauty really is. “This, my dear Socrates," said Diotima, “is the life which is truly worth living, when a man has attained to the contemplation of beauty absolute; a beauty which if you once beheld, you would see not to be after the measure of gold, and garments, and that youthful beauty, whose presence now entrances you so, that you and many a one would be content to live, seeing only and conversing with those whom they love, without meat and drink if that were possible; you want only to be with them and look at them. But what, if a man had eyes to behold the true beauty, the divine beauty, I mean, pure and clear and unalloyed, not clogged with the pollutions of mortality, and all the colours and vanities of human life? Do you not see that in that communion only, beholding beauty

with the eye of the mind, he will be enabled to bring forth, not images of beauty, but realities (for he has hold not of an image, but of a reality), and bringing forth and nourishing true virtue to become the friend of God, and be immortal, if mortal man may?"

Selfishness. "The greatest evil to men generally is one which is innate in their souls, and which a man is always excusing in himself and never correcting; I mean what is expressed in the saying, that every man by nature is and ought to be his own friend. Whereas the excessive love of self is in reality the source to each man of all offences; for the lover is blinded about the beloved, so that he judges wrongly of the just, the good, and the honourable, and thinks that he ought always to prefer his own interest to the truth. But he who would be a great man ought to regard what is just, and not himself or his interests, whether in his own actions or those of others. Through a similar error men are induced to fancy that their own ignorance is wisdom; and thus



be truly said to know nothing, think that we know all things; and because we will not let others act for us in what we do not know, we are compelled to act amiss ourselves. Wherefore let every man avoid excess of self-love, and condescend to follow a better man than himself, not allowing any false shame to stand in the way.'

Atheism. "Who can be calm when he is called upon to prove the existence of the Gods? How can one help feeling indignation at those who will not believe the words they have heard as babes and sucklings from their mothers and nurses, words repeated by them like charms both in


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