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same time, with an oath, that he was as like Parson fear," he said, “ of his losing them, and he must Adams as twelve to a dozen. The poet now shew them to his son John.” Another poetical married a young lady of Suffolk, the object of friend, Thomas Campbell
, who met him at this an early attachment, and taking the curacy of time in London, remarks of him : ‘His mildness Stathern, adjoining Belvoir Castle, he bade adieu in literary argument struck me with surprise in so to the ducal mansion, and transferred himself to stern a poet of nature, and I could not but contrast the humble parsonage in the village. Four happy the unassumingness of his manners with the originyears were spent in this retirement, when the poet ality of his powers. In what may be called the obtained the exchange of his two small livings in ready-money small-talk of conversation, his facility Dorsetshire for two of superior value in the vale might not perhaps seem equal to the known of Belvoir. Crabbe remained silent as a poet for calibre of his talents ; but in the progress of conmany years. "Out of doors,' says his son, he had versation, I recollect remarking that there was a always some object in view—a flower, or a pebble, vigilant shrewdness that almost eluded you, by or his note-book in his hand; and in the house, keeping its watch so quietly.' This fine remark is if he was not writing, he was reading. He read characteristic of Crabbe's genius, as well as of his aloud very often, even when walking, or seated by manners. It gathered its materials slowly and the side of his wife in the huge old-fashioned one- silently with intent but unobtrusive observation. horse chaise, heavier than a modern chariot, in The Tales of the Hall were received with that which they usually were conveyed in their little pleasure and approbation due to an old and excursions, and the conduct of which he, from established favourite, but with less enthusiasm awkwardness and absence of mind, prudently re- than some of his previous works. In 1822, the now linquished to my mother on all occasions.' In venerable poet paid a visit to Sir Walter Scott in 1807 he published his Parish Register, which had Edinburgh ; and it is worthy of remark, that, as been previously submitted to Mr Fox, and parts to the city itself, he soon got wearied of the New of this poem-especially the story of Phæbe Town, but could amuse Nimself for ever in the Dawson-were the last compositions of their kind Old. His latter years were spent in the discharge that 'engaged and amused the capacious, the of his clerical duties, and in the enjoyment of candid, the benevolent mind of this great man' social intercourse. His attachment to botany and The success of this work was not only decided, geology seemed to increase with age; and at but nearly unprecedented. In 1810 he came for three-score and ten, he was busy, cheerful, and ward with The Borough, a poem of the same class, affectionate. His death took place at Trowbridge and more connected and complete; and two years on the 3d of February 1832, and his parishioners afterwards he produced his Tales in Verse, con- erected a monument to his memory in the church taining perhaps the finest of all his humble but of that place, where he had officiated for nineteen happy delineations of life and character. 'The years. A complete collection of his works, with public voice,' says his biographer, 'was again highly some new pieces and an admirable memoir, was favourable, and some of these relations were published in 1834 by his son, the Rev. G. Crabbe. spoken of with the utmost warmth of commenda The Village, Parish Register, and shorter tales tion, as, The Parting Hour, The Patron, Edward of Crabbe, are his most popular productions. The Shore, and The Confidant.' In 1814, the Duke Tales of the Hall are less interesting. They of Rutland appointed him to the living of Trow- relate principally to the higher classes of society, bridge, in Wiltshire, and he went thither to reside. and the poet was not so happy in describing their His income amounted to about £800 per annum, a peculiarities as when supporting his character of large portion of which he spent in charity. He the poet of the poor. Some of the episodes, howstill continued his attachment to literature, and in ever, are in his best style—Sir Owen Dale, Ruth, 1817 and 1818 was engaged on his last great work, Ellen, and other stories, are all marked with the The Tales of the Hall. He fancied that autumn peculiar genius of Crabbe. The redeeming and was, on the whole, the most favourable season for distinguishing feature of that genius was its him in the composition of poetry; but there was fidelity to nature, even when it was dull and something in the effect of a sudden fall of snow unprepossessing. His power of observation and that appeared to stimulate him in a very extra- description might be limited, but his pictures have ordinary manner. In 1819, the Tales were pub- all the force of dramatic representation, and may lished by Mr Murray, who, for them and the re- be compared to those actual and existing models maining copyright of all Crabbe's previous poems, which the sculptor or painter works from, instead gave the munificent sum of £3000. In an account of vague and general conceptions. They are of the negotiation for the sale of these copyrights, often too true, and human nature being exhibited written by Moore for the life of his brother-poet, in its naked reality, with all its defects,' and we have the following amusing illustration of not through the bright and alluring medium of Crabbe's simplicity of manner: 'When he received romance or imagination, our vanity is shocked the bills for £3000, we-Moore and Rogers, and our pride mortified. The personal circumearnestly advised that he should, without delay, stances and experience of the poet affected the deposit them in some safe hands ; but no-he bent of his genius. He knew how untrue and must take them with him to Trowbridge, and absurd were the pictures of rural life which figured shew them to his son John. They would hardly in poetry. His own youth was dark and painfulbelieve in his good-luck at home if they did not spent in low society, amidst want and misery, see the bills.” On his way down to Trowbridge, irascible gloom and passion. Latterly, he had a friend at Salisbury, at whose house he rested more of the comforts and elegancies of social life Mr Everett, the banker-seeing that he carried at his command than Cowper, his rival as a these bills loosely in his waistcoat pocket, re- domestic painter. He not only could have quested to be allowed to take charge of them for 'wheeled his sofa round,' 'let fall the curtains, him ; but with equal ill success. There was no I and, with the bubbling and loud hissing urn'on
the table, 'welcome peaceful evening in,' but the humorous and homely descriptions ; but it is too amenities of refined and intellectual society were much of a manner, and mars the finer passages. constantly present with him, or åt his call
. Yet Crabbe has high merit as a painter of English he did not, like Cowper, attempt to describe scenery. He is here as original and forcible as them, or to paint their manifold charms. When in delineating character. His marine landscapes he took up his pen, his mind turned to Aldbor- are peculiarly fresh and striking; and he invests ough and its wild amphibious race-to the parish even the sterile fens and barren sands with workhouse, where the wheel hummed doleful interest. His objects are seldom picturesque ; through the day-to erring damsels and luckless but he noted every weed and plant-the purple swains, the prey of overseers or justices—or to bloom of the heath, the dwarfish flowers among the haunts of desperate poachers and smugglers, the wild gorse, the slender grass of the sheepgipsies and gamblers, where vice and misery walk, and even the pebbles, sea-weed, and shells stalked undisguised in their darkest forms. amid
He stirred up the dregs of human society, and exhibited their blackness and deformity, yet
The glittering waters on the shingles rolled. worked them into poetry. Like his own Sir He was a great lover of the sea, and once, as his Richard Monday, he never forgot the parish. It son relates, after being some time absent from it, is true that village-life in England in its worst mounted his horse and rode alone sixty miles form, with the old poor and game laws and non- from his house, that he might inhale its freshness resident clergy, was composed of various mate- and gaze upon its waters. rials, some bright and some gloomy, and Crabbe drew them all. His Isaac Ashford is as honourable to the lowly English poor as the Jeanie
The Parish Workhouse and Apothecary. Deans or Dandie Dinmont of Scott are to the
From The Village. Scottish character. His story of the real mourner, the faithful maid who watched over her dying
Theirs is yon house that holds the parish poor, sailor, is a beautiful tribute to the force and purity
Whose walls of mud scarce bear the broken door ; of humble affection. - In The Parting Hour and
There, where the putrid vapours, flagging, play,
And the dull wheel hums doleful through the day; The Patron are also passages equally honourable
There children dwell who know no parents' care ; to the poor and middle classes, and full of
Parents, who know no children's love, dwell there; pathetic and graceful composition. It must be Heart-broken matrons on their joyless bed, confessed, however, that Crabbe was in general Forsaken wives, and mothers never wed; a gloomy painter of life--that he was fond of Dejected widows with unheeded tears, depicting the unlovely and unamiable--and that, And crippled age with more than childhood-fears; either for poetic effect or from painful experience, The lame, the blind, and, far the happiest they ! he makes the bad of life predominate over the The moping idiot and the madman gay. good. His pathos and tenderness are generally
Here too the sick their final doom
receive, linked to something coarse, startling, or humili
Here brought amid the scenes of grief, to grieve, ating to disappointed hopes or unavailing sorrow
Where the loud groans from some sad chamber flow,
Mixed with the clamours of the crowd below;
Here sorrowing, they each kindred sorrow scan,
And the cold charities of man to man :
Whose laws indeed for ruined age provide, The minuteness with which he dwells on such
And strong compulsion plucks the scrap from pride; subjects sometimes makes his descriptions tedious,
But still that scrap is bought with many a sigh, and apparently unfeeling. He drags forward And pride embitters what it can't deny. every defect, every vice and failing, not for the Say ye, oppressed by some fantastic woes, purpose of educing something good out of the Some jarring nerve that baffles your repose ; evil, but, as it would seem, merely for the purpose Who press the downy couch, while slaves advance of completing the picture. In his higher flights, With timid eye, to read the distant glance ; where scenes of strong passion, vice, or remorse
Who with sad prayers the weary doctor tease, are depicted, Crabbe is a moral poet, purifying
To name the nameless ever-new disease; the heart, as the object of tragedy has been de
Who with mock patience dire complaints endure, fined, by terror and pity, and by fearful delinea
Which real pain and that alone can cure ; tions of the misery and desolation caused by
How would ye bear in real pain to lie,
Despised, neglected, left alone to die? unbridled passion. His story of Sir Eustace Grey
How would ye bear to draw your latest breath is a domestic tragedy of this kind, related with
Where all that's wretched paves the way for death? almost terrific power, and with lyrical energy of Such is that room which one rude beam divides, versification. His general style of versification is And naked rafters form the sloping sides ; the couplet of Pope-he has been wittily called Where the vile bands that bind the thatch are seen, * Pope in worsted stockings'-but less flowing And lath and mud are all that lie between ; and melodious, and often ending in points and Save one dull pane, that, coarsely patched, gives way quibbles. Thus, in describing his cottage furni
To the rude tempest, yet excludes the day : ture, he says
Here, on a matted flock, with dust o'erspread,
The drooping wretch reclines his languid head ; No wheels are here for either wool or flax,
For him no hand the cordial cup applies, But packs of cards made up of sundry packs.
Or wipes the tear that stagnates in his eyes ;
No friends with soft discourse his pain beguile, His thrifty housewife, Widow Goe, falls down in
Or promise hope till sickness wears a smile. sickness
But soon a loud and hasty summons calls, Heaven in her eye, and in her hand her keys.
Shakes the thin roof, and echoes round the walls ;
Anon, a figure enters, quaintly neat,
With looks unaltered by these scenes of woe,
When, save his honest fame, he kept no more ; With speed that, entering, speaks his haste to go; But lost his wife and saw his children poor ; He bids the gazing throng around him fly,
'Twas then a spark of-say not discontentAnd carries fate and physic in his eye ;
Struck on his mind, and thus he gave it vent : A potent quack, long versed in human ills,
Kind are your laws-—'tis not to be deniedWho first insults the victim whom he kills;
That in yon house for ruined age provide, Whose murderous hand a drowsy bench protect, And they are just ; when young, we give you all, And whose most tender mercy is neglect.
And then for comforts in our weakness call. Paid by the parish for attendance here,
Why then this proud reluctance to be fed, He wears contempt upon his sapient sneer ;
To join your poor and eat the parish bread ? In haste he seeks the bed where misery lies,
But yet I linger, loath with him to feed Impatience marked in his averted eyes ;
Who gains his plenty by the sons of need : And, some habitual queries hurried o'er,
He who, by contract, all your paupers took, Without reply, he rushes on the door ;
And gauges stomachs with an anxious look": His drooping patient, long inured to pain,
On some old master I could well depend ; And long unheeded, knows remonstrance vain;
See him with joy, and thank him as a friend ; He ceases now the feeble help to crave
But ill on him who doles the day's supply,
And counts our chances who at night may die :
Of what befalls me, but the fate sustain.'
Such were his thoughts, and so resigned he grew;
Daily he placed the workhouse in his view!
But came not there, for sudden was his fate, Next to these ladies, but in nought allied,
He dropt expiring at his cottage-gate. A noble peasant, Isaac Ashford, died.
I feel his absence in the hours of prayer, Noble he was, contemning all things mean,
And view his seat, and sigh for Isaac there ; His truth unquestioned and his soul serene :
I see no more those white locks thinly spread Of no man's presence Isaac felt afraid ;
Round the bald polish of that honoured head ; At no man's question Isaac looked dismayed :
No more that awful glance on playful wight Shame knew him not, he dreaded no disgrace ;
Compelled to kneel and tremble at the sight; Truth, simple truth, was written in his face ;
To fold his fingers all in dread the while, Yet while the serious thought his soul approved, Till Mister Ashford softened to a smile ; Cheerful he seemed, and gentleness he loved ;
No more that meek and suppliant look in prayer, To bliss domestic he his heart resigned,
Nor the pure faith--to give it force--are there. And with the firmest, had the fondest mind :
But he is blest, and I lament no more,
A wise good man contented to be poor.
Phæbe Dawson. From the Parish Register.'
Two summers since, I saw at Lammas fair, Bane of the poor! it wounds their weaker mind The sweetest flower that ever blossomed there; To miss one favour which their neighbours find — When Phoebe Dawson gaily crossed the green, Yet far was he from stoic pride removed ;
In haste to see, and happy to be seen ; He felt humanely, and he warmly loved :
Her air, her manners, all who saw, admired, I marked his action when his infant died,
Courteous though coy, and gentle though retired; And his old neighbour for offence was tried ;
The joy of youth and health her eyes displayed, The still tears, stealing down that furrowed cheek, And ease of heart her every look conveyed; Spoke pity plainer than the tongue can speak.
A native skill her simple robes expressed, If pride were his, 'twas not their vulgar pride,
As with untutored elegance she dressed ; Who, in their base contempt, the great deride ;
The lads around admired so fair a sight, Nor pride in learning, though my clerk agreed, And Phoebe felt, and felt she gave, delight. If fate should call him, Ashford might succeed; Admirers soon of every age she gained, Nor pride in rustic skill, although we knew
Her beauty won them and her worth retained; None his superior, and his equals few :
Envy itself could no contempt display, But if that spirit in his soul had place,
They wished her well, whom yet they wished away. It was the jealous pride that shuns disgrace ;
Correct in thought, she judged a servant's place A pride in honest fame, by virtue gained,
Preserved a rustic beauty from disgrace ; In sturdy boys to virtuous labours trained ;
But yet on Sunday.eve, in freedom's hour, Pride in the power that guards his country's coast, With secret joy she felt that beauty's power ; And all that Englishmen enjoy and boast;
When some proud bliss upon the heart would steal, Pride in a life that slander's tongue defied,
That, poor or rich, a beauty still must feel. In fact, a noble passion, misnamed pride.
At length, the youth ordained to move her breast, He had no party's rage, no sect'ry's whim ;
Before the swains with bolder spirit pressed ; Christian and countryman was all with him ;
With looks less timid made his passion known, True to his church he came; no Sunday-shower And pleased by manners, most unlike her own; Kept him at home in that important hour;
Loud though in love, and confident though young ; Nor his firm feet could one persuading sect
Fierce in his air, and voluble of tongue ; By the strong glare of their new light direct ;
By trade a tailor, though, in scorn of trade, On hope, in mine own sober light, I gaze,
He served the squire, and brushed the coat he made ; But should be blind and lose it in your blaze.'
Yet now, would Phoebe her consent afford, In times severe, when many a sturdy swain
Her slave alone, again he'd mount the board ; Felt it his pride, his comfort to complain,
With her should years of growing love be spent, Isaac their wants would soothe, his own would hide, And growing wealth : she sighed and looked consent. And feel in that his comfort and his pride.
Now, through the lane, up hill, and cross the At length he found, when seventy years were run,
greenHis strength departed and his labour done ;
Seen by but few, and blushing to be seen
Dejected, thoughtful, anxious, and afraid
And told his hope ; her trembling joy appears, Led by the lover, walked the silent maid :
Her forced reserve, and his retreating fears. Slow through the meadows roved they many a mile, All now are present—'tis a moment's gleam Toyed by each bank and trifled at each stile ;
Of former sunshine-stay, delightful dream ! Where, as he painted every blissful view,
Let him within his pleasant garden walk, And highly coloured what he strongly drew,
Give him her arm, of blessings let them talk. The pensive damsel, prone to tender fears,
Yes! all are with him now, and all the while Dimmed the false prospect with prophetic tears : Life's early prospects and his Fanny's smile ; Thus passed the allotted hours, till, lingering late, Then come his sister and his village friend, The lover loitered at the master's gate ;
And he will now the sweetest moments spend There he pronounced adieu! and yet would stay, Life has to yield : no, never will he find Till chidden-soothed—entreated—forced away! Again on earth such pleasure in his mind : He would of coldness, though indulged, complain, He goes through shrubby walks these friends among, And oft retire and oft return again;
Love in their looks and honour on the tongue; When, if his teasing vexed her gentle mind,
Nay, there's a charm beyond what nature shews, The grief assumed compelled her to be kind !
The bloom is softer, and more sweetly glows; For he would proof of plighted kindness crave,
Pierced by no crime, and urged by no desire That she resented first, and then forgave,
For more than true and honest hearts require, And to his grief and penance yielded more
They feel the calm delight, and thus proceed Than his presumption had required before :
Through the green lane, then linger in the mead, Ah! fly temptation, youth ; refrain ! refrain ! Stray o'er the heath in all its purple bloom,
Each yielding maid and each presuming swain ! And pluck the blossom where the wild-bees hum ; Lo! now with red rent cloak and bonnet black, Then through the broomy bound with ease they pass, And torn green gown loose hanging at her back, And press the sandy sheep-walk's slender grass, One who an infant in her arms sustains,
Where dwarfish flowers among the gorse are spread, And seems in patience striving with her pains ;
And the lamb browses by the linnet's bed ; Pinched are her looks, as one who pines for bread, Then 'cross the bounding brook they make their way Whose cares are growing and whose hopes are fled ; O'er its rough bridge, and there behold the bay ; Pale her parched lips, her heavy eyes sunk low, The ocean smiling to the fervid sun, And tears unnoticed from their channels flow;
The waves that faintly fall, and slowly run, Serene her manner, till some sudden pain
The ships at distance, and the boats at hand; Frets the meek soul, and then she's calm again. And now they walk upon the sea-side sand,
But who this child of weakness, want, and care ? Counting the number, and what kind they be, 'Tis Phæbe Dawson, pride of Lammas fair ;
Ships softly sinking in the sleepy sea; Who took her lover for his sparkling eyes,
Now arm in arm, now parted, they behold Expressions warm, and love-inspiring lies :
The glittering waters on the shingles rolled : Compassion first assailed her gentle heart
The timid girls, half dreading their design, For all his suffering, all his bosom's smart :
Dip the small foot in the retarded brine, And then his prayers ! they would a savage move,
And search for crimson weeds, which spreading flow, And win the coldest of the sex to love :'
Or lię like pictures on the sand below; But ah! too soon his looks success declared,
With all those bright red pebbles that the sun Too late her loss the marriage-rite repaired ;
Through the small waves so softly shines upon ; The faithless flatterer then his vows forgot,
And those live lucid jellies which the eye A captious tyrant or a noisy sot :
Delights to trace as they swim glittering by; If present, railing till he saw her pained ;
Pearl shells and rubied star-fish they admire, If absent, spending what their labours gained ;
And will arrange above the parlour fire. Till that fair form in want and sickness pined,
Tokens of bliss! Oh, horrible! a wave And hope and comfort fled that gentle mind.
Roars as it rises-save me, Edward, save !' Then fly temptation, youth ; resist ! refrain ! She cries. Alas! the watchman on his way Nor let me preach for ever and in vain !
Calls, and lets in-truth, terror, and the day !
Dream of the Condemned Felon. From The Borough?
Yes! e'en in sleep the impressions all remain,
Now comes the dream again : it shews each scene,
At this his terrors take a sudden flight;
Story of a Betrothed Pair in Humble Life.
From The Borough.
That faithful memory brings to sorrow's aid;
Happy he sailed, and great the care she took
White was his better linen, and his check
Far on the right the distant sea is seen, Was made more trim than any on the deck;
And salt the springs that feed the marsh between : And every comfort men at sea can know,
Beneath an ancient bridge, the straitened flood Was hers to buy, to make, and to bestow;
Rolls through its sloping banks of slimy mud;
Near it a sunken boat resists the tide,
The rushes sharp that on the borders grow,
Bend their brown flowerets to the stream below, His messmates smiled at flushings in his cheek, Impure in all its course, in all its progress slow : And he, too, smiled, but seldom would he speak; Here a grave Flora scarcely deigns to bloom, For now he found the danger, felt the pain,
Nor wears a rosy blush, nor sheds perfume;
He called his friend, and prefaced with a sigh Partake the nature of their fenny bed.
Here on its wiry stem, in rigid bloom,
Grows the salt lavender that lacks perfume ; My throbbing temples on her faithful breast,
Here the dwarf sallows creep, the septfoil harsh, And gazing go ! if not, this trifle take,
And the soft slimy mallow of the marsh; And say, till death I wore it for her sake.
Low on the ear the distant billows sound, Yes, I must die--blow on, sweet breeze, blow on! And just in view appears their stony bound; Give me one look before my life be gone;
Nor hedge nor tree conceals the glowing sun ; Oh, give me that ! and let me not despair
Birds, save a watery tribe, the district shun, One last fond look-and now repeat the prayer.' Nor chirp among the reeds where bitter waters run. He had his wish, and more. I will not paint
Again, the country was inclosed, a wide The lovers' meeting : she beheld him faint
And sandy road has banks on either side ; With tender fears she took a nearer view,
Where, lo! a hollow on the left appeared, Her terrors doubling as her hopes withdrew;
And there a gipsy tribe their tent had reared ; He tried to smile, and half succeeding, said :
'Twas open spread to catch the morning sun, "Yes, I must die' -and hope for ever fled.
And they had now their early meal begun, Still long she nursed him; tender thoughts meantime When two brown boys just left their grassy seat, Were interchanged, and hopes and views sublime. The early traveller with their prayers to greet. To her he came to die, and every day
While yet Orlando held his pence in hand, She took some portion of the dread away;
He saw their sister on her duty stand ;
Some twelve years old, demure, affected, sly,
And well-feigned apprehension in her eyes ;
Trained, but yet savage, in her speaking face Fresh light, and gilt the prospect of the grave.
He marked the features of her vagrant race, One day he lighter seemed, and they forgot
When a light laugh and roguish leer expressed The care, the dread, the anguish of their lot ;
The vice implanted in her youthful breast. They spoke with cheerfulness, and seemed to think, Forth from the tent her elder brother came, Yet said not so—'Perhaps he will not sink.'
Who seemed offended, yet forbore to blame A sudden brightness in his look appeared,
The young designer, but could only trace A sudden vigour in his voice was heard ;
The looks of pity in the traveller's face. She had been reading in the Book of Prayer,
Within, the father, who from fences nigh, And led him forth, and placed him in his chair; Had brought the fuel for the fire's supply, Lively he seemed, and spoke of all he knew,
Watched now the feeble blaze, and stood dejected by; The friendly many, and the favourite few ;
On ragged rug, just borrowed from the bed, Nor one that day did he to mind recall,
And by the hand of coarse indulgence sed, But she has treasured, and she loves them all.
In dirty patchwork negligently dressed, When in her way she meets them, they appear
Reclined the wife, an infant at her breast ;
In her wild face some touch of grace remained,
Were wrathful turned, and seemed her wants to state,
With gipsy state engrossed the only chair; A dying look of love, and all was past.
Solemn and dull her look; with such she stands, She placed a decent stone his grave above,
And reads the milkmaid's fortune in her hands, Neatly engraved, an offering of her love :
Tracing the lines of life ; assumed through years, For that she wrought, for that forsook her bed,
Each feature now the steady falsehood wears ; Awake alike to duty and the dead.
With hard and savage eye she views the food, She would have grieved had they presumed to spare And grudging pinches their intruding brood. The least assistance—'twas her proper care.
Last in the group, the worn-out grandsire sits Here will she come, and on the grave will sit,
Neglected, lost, and living but by fits; Folding her arms, in long abstracted fit ;
Useless, despised, his worthless labours done, But if observer pass, will take her round,
And half protected by the vicious son, And careless seem, for she would not be found ;
Who half supports him, he with heavy glance Then go again, and thus her hour employ,
Views the young ruffians who around him dance, While visions please her, and while woes destroy.
And, by the sadness in his face, appears
To trace the progress of their future years ;
Through what strange course of misery, vice, deceit,
Must wildly wander each unpractised cheat;
What shame and grief, what punishment and pain,
Sport of fierce passions, must each child sustain, Is level fen, a prospect wild and wide,
Ere they like him approach their latter end, With dikes on either hand by ocean's self supplied : Without a hope, a comfort, or a friend !