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will be properly sensible of how much of its greatness faculty of woman is inferior in quality and calibre it owes to the 'Browns. For centuries, in their quiet, to that of man : dogged, homespun way, they have been subduing the earth in most English counties, and leaving their mark If, as we believe, under no system of training, the in American forests and Australian uplands. Wherever intellect of woman would be found as strong as that the fleets and armies of England have won renown, of man, she is compensated by her intuitions being there stalwart sons of the Browns have done yeomen's stronger-if her reason be less majestic, her insight is work. With the yew-bow and cloth-yard shaft at clearer--where man reasons, she sees. Nature, in short, Cressy and Agincourt-with the brown bill and pike gave her all that was needful to enable her to fill a under the brave Lord Willoughby-with culverin and noble part in the world's history, if man would but demi-culverin against Spaniards and Dutchmen-with let her play it out, and not treat her like a full-grown hand-grenade and sabre, and musket and bayonet, under baby, to be flattered and spoiled on the one hand, and Rodney and St Vincent, Wolfe and Moore, Nelson and coerced and restricted on the other, vibrating betwixt Wellington, they have carried their lives in their royal rule and slavish serfdom. hands; getting hard knocks and hard work in plenty, which was on the whole what they looked for, and the In 1848 Mrs Crowe issued two volumes representbest thing for them : and little praise or pudding, which ing The Night-side of Nature, or Ghosts and indeed they, and most of us, are better without. Talbots Ghost-seers. Some of the stories are derived and Stanleys, St Maurs and such-like folk, have led from the German, and others are relations of armies and made laws time out of mind ; but those supernatural events said to have happened in noble families would be somewhat astounded—if the this country, some of them within the author's accounts ever came to be fairly taken-to find how knowledge. A three-volume novel from her pén small their work for England has been by the side of appeared in 1852, The Adventures of a Beauty, that of the Browns.

describing the perplexities arising out of a secret

marriage contracted by a wealthy baronet's son The author of Tom Brown's School-days is with the daughter of a farmer; and another Thomas Hughes, a Chancery barrister (appointed domestic story, Linny Lockwood, two volumes, Queen's Counsel in 1869), son of John Hughes, 1854, appears to complete the round of Mrs Esq., of Oriel College, Oxford, author of the Crowe's works of fiction. The novelist, we may Itinerary of Provence, and editor of the Boscobel add, is a native of Borough Green, county of Tracts. Sir Walter Scott pronounced this gentle- Kent; her maiden name was Catherine Stevens, man'a poet, a draughtsman, and a scholar.' The and in 1822 she was married to Colonel Crowe. once famous ballad of The One-horse Shay and other political jeux d'esprit in John Bull, were by

Stages in the History of Crime. the elder Mr Hughes. His son, born in 1823, was educated at Rugby under Dr Arnold. Mr Hughes

It is in the annals of the doings and sufferings of the was for some time an active member of parlia- good and brave spirits

of the earth that we should learn

our lessons. It is by these that our hearts are mellowed, ment, warmly advocating the interests, without flattering the prejudices, of the working-classes. do likewise. But there are occasionally circumstances

our minds exalted, and our souls nerved to go and In all social questions he takes a deep interest, connected with the history of great crimes that render and evinces a manly, patriotic spirit.

them the most impressive of homilies; fitting them to be set aloft as beacons to warn away the frail mortal,

tossed on the tempest of his passions, from the destrucMRS CROWE.

tion that awaits him if he pursues his course ; and such

instruction we hold may be best derived from those This lady differs from most of her sister-novelists cases in which the subsequent feelings of a criminal are in a love of the supernatural and mysterious. She disclosed to us ; those cases, in short, in which the possesses dramatic skill in describing characters chastisement proceeds from within instead of from withand incidents, and few who have taken up one of out; that chastisement that no cunning concealment, her stories will lay down the volume until it has no legal subtlety, no eloquent counsel, no indulgent judge been read through. Mrs Crowe's first publica- can avert. : tion was a tragedy, Aristodemus, 1838. Her next One of the features of our time—as of all times, each work was addressed to the many. The Adven- of which is new in its generation-is the character of tures of Susan Hopley, 1841, is a novel of English its crimes. Every phasis of human affairs, every advance life, and was very successful. It was followed by material comforts and conveniences, gives rise to new

in civilisation, every shade of improvement in our Men and Women, or Manorial Rights, 1843-a modes and forms-nay, to actual new births—of crime, tale less popularly attractive than Susan Hopley, the germs of which were only waiting for a congenial but undoubtedly 'superior to it in most essential soil to spring in ; whilst others are but modifications of points. Mrs Crowe next translated The Seeress the old inventions accommodated to new circumstances. of Prevorst, revelations concerning the inner life There are thus stages in the history of crime indicof man, by Justinus Kerner ; and two years after- ative of ages. First, we have the heroic. At a very wards (1847), she published The Story of Lilly early period of a nation's annals, crime is bloody, bold

, Dawson. The heroine, when a child, falls into and resolute. Ambitious princes 'make quick conthe hands of a family of English smugglers, veyance' with those who stand in the way of their desperadoes of the Dirk Hatteraick stamp; and advancement; and fierce barons slake their enmity the account given of the gradual development and revenge in the blood of their foes, with little of her intellect and affections amidst scenes of attempt at concealment, and no appearance of remorse

. brutal violence and terror, with the story of her poisonings, and lifelong incarcerations when the

Next comes the age of strange murders, mysterious subsequent escape and adventures when the world passions, yet rise, unsubdued by education and the was all before her, form a narrative of psycho- practical influence of religion, and rebellious to the logical as well as of romantic interest. Among new restraints of law, seek their gratification by hidden the opinions and reflections thrown out by the and tortuous methods. This is the romantic era of authoress is an admission that the intellectual crime. But as civilisation advances, it descends to a

lower sphere, sheltering itself chiefly in the squalid when she published Two Old Men's Tales. Bedistricts of poverty and wretchedness; the last halo of tween that year and 1836 she had issued several the romantic and heroic fades from it ; and except publications— Tales of the Woods and Fields, where it is the result of brutal ignorance, its chief | The Triumphs of Time, Emelia Wyndham, and characteristic becomes astuteness. But we are often struck by the strange tinge of later by Father Darcy, an historical romance;

Mount Sorel. These she followed up some years romance which still colours the page of continental criminal records, causing them

to read like the annals Mordant Hall, Lettice Arnold, The Wilmingtons, of a previous century. We think we perceive also a Time the Avenger, Castle Avon, The Rose of state of morals somewhat in arrear of the stage we have Ashurst, Evelyn Marston, and Norman's Bridge, reached, and, certainly, some curious and very defective a family history of three generations. Besides forms of law; and these two causes combined, seem to these works of fiction, Mrs Marsh published one give rise to criminal enterprises which, in this country, work of an historical character relating to the could scarcely have been undertaken, or, if they were, Protestant Reformation in France, but it was never must have been met with immediate detection and completed. The death of her brother about 1858 punishment.

devolving on her the estate of Linleywood, Mrs There is also frequently a singular complication or Marsh took the additional name and arms of imbroglio in the details, such as would be impossible Caldwell. in this island of daylight-for, enveloped in fog as we are physically, there is a greater glare thrown upon Granville, was married in 1833 to A. G. Fuller

LADY FULLERTON, daughter of the first Earl our actions here than among any other nation of the world perhaps-an imbroglio that appears to fling the ton, Esq. of Ballintoy Castle, county of Antrim, narrative back into the romantic era, and to indicate Ireland. In 1844 she published Ellen Middleton, that it belongs to a stage of civilisation we have already a domestic story, which was followed by Grantley passed.

Manor, 1847; Lady Bird, 1852 ; the Life of Št

Francis of Rome, and La Comtesse de Bonneval, MISS PARDOE.

1857; Rose Leblanc, 1861; Laurentia, 1861; ConJULIA PARDOE (1806-1862), born at Beverley, in stance Sherwood, 1865 ; 'A Stormy' Life, 1867;

Mrs Gerald's Niece, 1869; &c. Yorkshire, the daughter of Major Thomas Pardoe, was an extensive writer in fiction, in books of travels, and in historical memoirs. Her most

MISS KAVANAGH. successful efforts have been those devoted to

A series of tales, having moral and benevoEastern manners and society. She is said to lent aims, has been produced by Miss JULIA have produced a volume of Poems at the age of KAVANAGH. In 1847 she published a Christmas thirteen. The first of her works which attracted book, The Three Paths; and in 1848, Madeleine, a any attention was Traits and Traditions of Tale of Auvergne; founded on Fact

. The 'fact' Portugal, published in 1833. Having proceeded that gave rise to this interesting story is the devoto the East, Miss Pardoe wrote The City of the tion of a peasant-girl, who by her labour founded Sultan, 1836; which was succeeded in 1839 by a hospital in her native village. Woman in

The Romance of the Harem and The Beauties France during the Eighteenth Century, two of the Bosphorus. In 1857, reverting to these volumes, 1850, was Miss Kavanagh's next workÉastern studies and observations, Miss Pardoe an ambitious and somewhat perilous theme ; but produced a pleasant collection of oriental tales, the memoirs and anecdotes of the belles esprits entitled Thousand and One Days. A visit to Hun- who ruled the Parisian courts and coteries are gary led to The City of the Magyar, or Hungary told with discretion and feeling as well as taste. and its Institutions, 1840, and to a novel, entitled French society and scenery supplied materials for The Hungarian Castle. Another journey called another fiction, Nathalie, 1851; after which Miss forth Recollections of the Rhône and the Chartreuse; Kavanagh gave short biographies of women while studies in French history suggested Louis the eminent for works of charity and goodness, entitFourteenth and the Court of France in the Seven- ling the collection, Women of Christianity, 1852. teenth Century, 1847. The novels of Miss Pardoe She has since published Daisy Burns, 1853 ; are numerous. Among them are Reginald Lyle, Grace Lee, 1855; Rachel Gray, 1856; Adèle, 1858; Flies in Amber, The Jealous Wife, Poor Relations, A Summer and Winter in the Two Sicilies, and Pilgrimages in Paris—the last published in two vols. 1858; Seven Years, and other Tales, 1859; 1858, and consisting of short romantic tales French Women of Letters, 1861; English Women which had appeared in various periodicals. Her of Letters, 1862"; Queen Mab, 1863; Beatrice, historical works include The Court of Francis I., 1865 ; Sybils Second Love, 1867; Dora, 1868 ; Memoirs of Marie de Medici, Episodes of French Sylvia, 1870; &c. In fiction and memoirs, Miss History, &c.

Kavanagh is always interesting, delicate in fancy and feeling, and often rich in description.

She is not so able in construction as some of MRS ANNE MARSH-LADY GEORGIANA

her contemporaries, but she has dealt with very FULLERTON.

various types of character, and always with a The domestic novels of these ladies have been certain grace and careful decision. This lady is received with great favour. They are earnest, im- a native of Ireland, born at Thurles, in Tipperary, passioned, and eloquent expositions of English life in the year 1824; but she was educated in France. and feeling—those of Lady Fullerton, perhaps too uniformly sad and gloomy. MRS MARSH (1799

MRS GASKELL. 1874) was a Staffordshire lady, daughter of Mr James Caldwell of Linleywood, Recorder of New About the same time that Charlotte Brontë was castle-under-Lyme. She does not seem to have drawing scenes and characters from Yorkshire, entered on her career as an authoress until 1834, another lady-novelist was depicting the condition

of the manufacturing classes in Lancashire. MRS charm of one particular stile, that it should be, on such ELIZABETH CLEGHORN GASKELL (née Steven- occasions, a crowded halting-place. Close by it is a son), wife of the Rev. W. Gaskell, Unitarian deep, clear pond, reflecting in its dark-green depths the minister, Manchester, in 1848 published anony- shadowy trees that bend over it to exclude the sun. The mously Mary Barton, a Tale of Manchester Life. only place where its banks are shelving is on the side The work is a faithful and painfully interesting old-world, gabled, black and white houses I named

next to a rambling farm-yard, belonging to one of those picture of the society of the manufacturing capital. above, overlooking the field through which the public The heroine is the daughter of a factory operative; footpath leads. The porch of this farm-house is covered and the family group, with their relatives and by a rose-tree ; and the little garden surrounding it is friends, are drawn with a distinctness and force crowded with a medley of old-fashioned herbs and that leave no doubt of its truth. The authoress flowers, planted long ago, when the garden was the only says she had often thought how deep might be druggist's shop within reach, and allowed to grow in the romance in the lives of some of those who scrambling and wild luxuriance-roses, lavender, sage, elbowed her daily in the streets of Manchester. balm (for tea), rosemary, pinks and wallflowers, onions

and jessamine, in most republican and indiscriminate 'I had always,' she adds, 'felt a deep sympathy with order. This farm-house and garden are within a hundred the care-worn men, who looked as if doomed to struggle yards of the stile of which I spoke, leading from the through their lives in strange alternations between work large pasture-field into a smaller one, divided by a hedge and want : tossed to and fro by circumstances appar- of hawthorn and blackthorn ; and near this stile, on the ently in even a greater degree than other men. A little further side, there runs a tale that primroses may often manifestation of this sympathy, and a little attention to be found, and occasionally the blue sweet violet on the the expression of feelings on the part of some of the grassy hedge-bank. work-people with whom I was acquainted, had laid I do not know whether it was on a holiday granted open to me the hearts of one or two of the more by the masters, or a holiday seized in right of nature thoughtful among them ; I saw that they were sore and and her beautiful spring-time by the workmen ; but one irritable against the rich, the even tenor of whose afternoon-now ten or a dozen years ago-these fields seemingly happy lives appeared to increase the anguish were much thronged. It was an early May eveningcaused by the lottery-like nature of their own. Whether the April of the poets; for heavy showers had fallen all the bitter complaints made by them, of the neglect the morning, and the round, soft white clouds which which they experienced from the prosperous-especially were blown by a west wind over the dark-blue sky, from the masters whose fortunes they had helped to were sometimes varied by one blacker and more threatbuild up—were well founded or no, it is not for me to ening. The softness of the day tempted forth the young judge. "It is enough to say, that this belief of the in- green leaves, which almost visibly fluttered into life ; and justice and unkindness which they endure from their the willows, which that morning had had only a brown fellow-creatures, taints what might be resignation to reflection in the water below, were now of that tender God's will, and turns it to revenge in too many of the gray-green which blends so delicately with the spring poor uneducated factory-workers of Manchester. harmony of colours.

Groups of merry, and somewhat loud-talking girls, The effects of bad times, political agitation, and whose ages might range from twelve to twenty, came by strikes,' are depicted and brought home more with a buoyant step. "They were most of them factoryvividly to the reader by their connection with the girls, and wore the usual out-of doors dress of that characters in the novel. The Lancashire dialect particular class of maidens-namely, a shawl, which at is also occasionally introduced, adding to the mid-day, or in fine weather, was allowed to be merely impression of reality made by the whole work; became a sort of Spanish mantilla or Scotch plaid, and

a shawl, but towards evening, or if the day were chilly, and though the chief interest is of a painful char- was brought over the head and hung loosely down, or acter, the novelist reflects the lights as well as the was pinned under the chin in no unpicturesque fashion. shades of artisan life. Her powers of description Their faces were not remarkable for beauty ; indeed, may be seen from the beautiful opening scene : they were below the average, with one or two excep

tions; they had dark hair, neatly and classically arranged; Picture of Green Heys Fields, Manchester.

dark eyes, but sallow complexions and irregular features.

The only thing to strike à passer-by was an acuteness There are some fields near Manchester, well known and intelligence of countenance which has often been to the inhabitants as 'Green Heys Fields,' through noticed in a manufacturing population. which runs a public footpath to a little village about There were also numbers of boys, or rather young two miles distant. In spite of these fields being flat men, rambling among these fields, ready to bandy jokes and low-nay, in spite of the want of wood (the great with any one, and particularly ready to enter into conand usual recommendation of level tracts of land), there versation with the girls, who, however, held themselves is a charm about them which strikes even the inhabitant aloof, not in a shy, but rather in an independent way, of a mountainous district, who sees and feels the effect of assuming an indifferent manner to the noisy wit or contrast in these commonplace but thoroughly rural obstreperous compliments of the lads. Here and there fields, with the busy, bustling manufacturing town he left came a sober, quiet couple, either whispering lovers, or but half an hour ago. Here and there an old black and husband and wife, as the case might be ; and if the white farm-house, with its rambling outbuildings, speaks latter, they were seldom unencumbered by an infant, of other times and other occupations than those which carried for the most part by the father, while occanow absorb the population of the neighbourhood. Here sionally even three or four little toddlers had been in their seasons may be seen the country business of carried or dragged thus far, in order that the whole haymaking, ploughing, &c., which are such pleasant family might enjoy the delicious May afternoon mysteries for towns-people to watch; and here the together. artisan, deafened with noise of tongues and engines, may come to listen awhile to the delicious sounds of In 1850 Mrs Gaskell published The Moorland rural life—the lowing of cattle, the milkmaids' call, Cottage-a short domestic tale ; in 1853, Ruth, a the clatter and cackle of poultry in the old farm-yards novel in three volumes, and Cranford, a collection You cannot wonder, then, that these fields are popular of sketches that had appeared in a periodical places of resort at every holiday-time; and you would work; in 1855, North and South, another story not wonder, if you could see, or I properly describe, the of the manufacturing districts, which had also

been originally published in the periodical form ; district in the days of Edward III. It is traditionally and in 1859, Round the Sofa. In 1860 appeared said that a colony of Flemings came over and settled in Right at Last; and in 1863, Silvia's Lovers. the West Riding to teach the inhabitants what to do These novels were all popular. The authoress with their wool. The mixture of agricultural with was a prose Crabbe-earnest, faithful, and often manufacturing labour that ensued and prevailed in the spirited in her delineations of humble life. By enough at this distance of time, when the classical

West Riding up to a very recent period, sounds pleasant confining herself chiefly to the manufacturing impression is left, and the details forgotten, or only population, she threw light on conditions of life; brought to light by those who explore the few remote habits, and feelings comparatively new and parts of England where the custom still lingers. The original in our fictitious literature. Her Life of idea of the mistress and her maidens spinning at the Charlotte Brontë

, 1857, has all the interest of a great wheels while the master was abroad ploughing his. romance, and is worthy of the authoress of Mary fields, or seeing after his flocks on the purple moors, Barton. Mrs Gaskell died at Alton, November 12, is very poetical to look back upon ; but when such life 1865, aged fifty-four.

actually touches on our own days, and we can hear particulars from the lips of those now living, there come

out details of coarseness of the uncouthness of the Yorkshiremen of the West Riding:

rustic mingled with the sharpness of the tradesman-of From Life of Charlotte Brontë.

irregularity and fierce lawlessness—that rather mar the

vision of pastoral innocence and simplicity. Still, as it Even an inhabitant of the neighbouring county of is the exceptional and exaggerated characteristics of Lancaster is struck by the peculiar force of character any period that leave the most vivid memory behind which the Yorkshiremen display. This makes them them, it would be wrong, and in my opinion faithless, interesting as a race; while, at the same time, as to conclude that such and such forms of society and individuals, the remarkable degree of self-sufficiency modes of living were not best for the period when they they possess gives them an air of independence rather prevailed, although the abuses they may have led into, apt to repel a stranger. I use this expression 'self- and the gradual progress of the world, have made it sufficiency' in the largest sense. Conscious of the strong well that such ways and manners should pass away for sagacity and the dogged power of will which seem ever, and as preposterous to attempt to return to them, almost the birthright of the natives of the West Riding, as it would be for a man to return to the clothes of his each man relies upon himself, and seeks no help at the childhood. hand of his neighbour. From rarely requiring the assistance of others, he comes to doubt the power of

A uniform edition of Mrs Gaskell's novels and bestowing it : from the general success of his efforts, he tales has been published in seven volumes. grows to depend upon them, and to over-esteem his own energy and power. He belongs to that keen, yet short

WILLIAM WILKIE COLLINS. sighted class who consider suspicion of all whose honesty is not proved as a sign of wisdom. The practical quali This gentleman's first work was a Life of his ties of a man are held in great respect ; but the want of father, William Collins, the celebrated English faith in strangers and untried modes of action, extends painter. It was published in 1848, and was itself even to the manner in which the virtues are universally recognised as a valuable addition regarded ; and if they produce no immediate and tan- to our art biography. MR COLLINS then tried gible result, they are rather put aside as unfit for this another field. He turned to fiction, and in 1850 busy, striving world; especially if they are more of a published a classic romance of the fifth censtrong, and their foundations lie deep; but they are not tury, entitled Antonina, or the Fall of Rome. such affections seldom are-wide-spreading, nor do Though much inferior to Bulwer's historical they shew themselves on the surface. Indeed, there is romances, the work evinced Mr Collins's art in little display of any of the amenities of life among this constructing an interesting story, and this drawild, rough population. Their accost is curt; their matic faculty-rather than skill in depicting characcent and tone of speech blunt and harsh. Something acter-has distinguished his subsequent producof this may, probably, be attributed to the freedom of tions. These are-Rambles beyond Railways, or mountain air, and of isolated hill-side life, something Notes in Cornwall, 1851; Basil, a novel, 1852; be derived from their rough Norse ancestry. They Mr Wray's Cash-box, 1852 ; Hide and seek, have a quick perception of character, and a keen sense 1854; After Dark, 1856; The Dead Secret, 1857. of humour ; the dwellers among them must be prepared The last of these tales appeared in Household for certain uncomplimentary, though most likely true observations, pithily expressed. Their feelings are not Words, and kept its readers in breathless suseasily roused, but their duration is lasting. Hence, pense--the delight of all lovers of romancethere is much close friendship and faithful service until the secret was unfolded. Mr Collins is. From the same cause also come enduring grudges, in author also of a drama, The Frozen Deep, persome cases amounting to hatred, which occasionally has formed in 1857 by Mr Dickens, by the dramatist been bequeathed from generation to generation. I himself, and other friends, amateur actors, in aid remember Miss Brontë once telling me that it was a of the family of Douglas Jerrold, the Queen having saying round about Haworth : Keep a stone in thy previously witnessed a private representation of pocket seven year ; turn it and keep it seven year the piece. The late works of Mr Collins are-The longer

, that it may be ever ready to thy hand when Queen of Hearts, 1859; The Woman in White, thine enemy draws near.'

1860; No Name, 1862; My Miscellanies, 1863 ; The West Riding men are sleuth-hounds in pursuit of Armadale

, 1866; The Moonstone, 1868; Man money. ... These men are keen and shrewd; faithful and Wife, 1870; Poor Miss Finch; The Law and persevering in following out a good purpose, fell in and the Lady; &c. This popular novelist is a not easily made into either friends or enemies ;' but once native of London, born in January 1824. He lovers or haters, it is difficult to change their feeling was intended for a commercial life, then studied They are a powerful race both in mind and body, both law in Lincoln's Inn ; but in his twenty-fourth for good and for evil.

year he entered on his natural field—the literary The woollen manufacture was introduced into this profession.

539

writers were boldly assailed by the anonymous CAPTAIN MAYNE REID.

critic, and his articles became the talk of the

town. Two volumes of these literary essays have In the description of daring feats and romantic since been published. The tales of Mr Phillips adventures--scenes in the desert, the forest, and all bear the impress of his energetic mind and wild hunting-ground-CAPTAIN MAYNE REID, of shrewd caustic observation. With better health, the United States army, has earned great popu- he would probably have been more genial, and larity, especially with the young. He seems to have accomplished some complete artistic work. have made Cooper the novelist his model, but As a first-class journalist and happy descriptive several of his works are more particularly devoted writer, few young men rose into greater favour and to natural history. This gentleman is a native of popularity than MR ANGUS BETHUNE REACH the north of Ireland, son of a Presbyterian minis- |(1821-1856). He was a native of Inverness ; but ter, and was born in the year 1818. In his twen- before he had reached his twentieth year he was tieth year he went abroad to 'push his fortune' in London, busily employed on the Morning He set out for Mexico, made trading excursions Chronicle, as reporter and critic, and let us add, with the Indians up the Red River, and after- honourably supporting his parents, on whom miswards sailed up the Missouri, and settled on the fortune had fallen. Besides contributing to the prairies for a period of four or five years. He magazines, Mr Reach wrote two novels-Clement then took to the literary profession in Phila- Lorimer, one volume, 1848; and Leonard Lindsay, delphia ; but in 1845, when war was declared two volumes, 1850. He wrote also a number of between the United States and Mexico, Mr Reid light satires, dramatic pieces, and sketches of obtained a commission in the American army, and social life-The Natural History of Bores and distinguished himself by his gallantry. He led the Humbugs, The Comic Bradshaw, London on the forlorn-hope at the assault of the castle of Chapul. Thames, The Man of the Moon, &c. Being tepec, and was severely wounded. The Mexican despatched to France as a Commissioner for the war over, Captain Reid organised a body of men Morning Chronicle, he enriched his note-book to aid the Hungarians in their struggle for inde- with sketches social, picturesque, and legendary, pendence, but the failure of the insurrection pre- published with the title of Claret and Olives, from vented his reaping any fresh laurels as a soldier. The Garonne to the Rhone, 1852. The disappointHe now repaired to England and resumed his ment he experienced in traversing what is considpen. His personal experiences had furnished ered the most poetic region of France, he thus materials of a rare and exciting kind, and he describes : published a series of romances and other works, which were well received. In 1849 appeared The

The South of France. Rifle Rangers ; in 1850, The Scalp Hunters; in We entered Languedoc, the most early civilised of the 1852, The Desert Home and Boy Hunters; in provinces which now make up France—the land where 1853, The Young Voyageurs ; in 1854, The Forest chivalry was first wedded to literature—the land whose Exiles; in 1855, The Bush Boys, The Hunter's tongue laid the foundations of the greater part of Feast, and The White Chief; in 1856, The Quad- modern poetry—the land where the people first rebelled roon, or a Lover's Adventures in Louisiana; in against the tyranny of Rome—the land of the Menestrals 1857, The Young Yägers; in 1858, The Plant and the Albigenses. People are apt to think of this Hunters and The War Trail; in 1859, Occola; favoured tract of Europe as a sort of terrestrial paradise &c. As a vivid describer of foreign scenes, Cap Shade of the orange and the olive tree, queens of love

-one great glowing odorous garden-where, in the tain Reid is entitled to praise; but his incidents, and beauty crowned the heads of wandering troubadours. though exciting, are often highly improbable.

The literary and historic associations have not unnat

urally operated upon our common notions of the country; SAMUEL PHILLIPS—ANGUS B. REACH-ALBERT

and for the south of France,' we are very apt to conjure up a brave, fictitious landscape. Yet, this country is no

Eden. It has been admirably described in a single The author of Caleb Stukeley and other tales, phrase, the 'Austere South of France. It is austereMR SAMUEL PHILLIPS (1815-1854), was for some grim-sombre. It never smiles : it is scathed and years literary critic of the Times, and afterwards parched. There is no freshness or rurality in it. It literary director of the Crystal Palace. The only does not seem the country, but a vast yard-shadeless, works to which he put his name were certain glaring, drear, and dry. Let us glance from our elevated guide-books to the Palace. Mr Phillips was by perch over the district we are traversing. A vast, rollbirth a Jew, son of a London tradesman. In his the sun ; here and there masses of red rock heaving fifteenth year he appeared as an actor in Covent themselves above the soil like protruding ribs of the Garden Theatre ; but his friends placed him earth, and a vast coating of drouthy dust, lying like in the London University, and whilst there, he snow upon the ground. To the left

, a long ridge of attracted the attention of the Duke of Sussex by iron-like mountains-on all sides rolling hills, stern and an essay on Milton. Through the Duke's assist- kneaded, looking as though frozen. On the slopes ance he was sent to Göttingen University. His and in the plain, endless rows of scrubby, ugly trees, novel of Caleb Stukeley appeared originally in powdered with the universal dust, and looking exactly Blackwood's Magazine, and was reprinted in like mopsticks. Sprawling and straggling over the 1843. Its success led to other contributions to soil beneath them, jungles of burnt-up leafless bushes, Blackwood-We are all Low People There, and tangled and apparently neglected. The trees are olives other tales. He occasionally sent letters to the and mulberries—the bushes, vines. Glance again across Times, and ultimately formed a regular engage distant figures, gray with dust, are labouring to break

the country. It seems a solitude. Perhaps one or two ment with the conductors of that paper. His the clods with wooden hammers ; but that is all. No reviews of books were vigorous and slashing ; cottages-no farm-houses-no hedges—all one rolling Dickens, Carlyle, Mrs Stowe, and other popular sweep of iron-like, burnt-up, glaring land. In the dis

SMITH.

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