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of a manufactory, as a means of employing his peasants them from work, but large enough to afford them and and as a source of profit to himself. In some cases the their household abundance, and even superfluity of the manufactory is at work only during the winter, and the best food. They farm not to raise produce for sale, so people are employed in the summer in agriculture ; much as to grow everything they eat, drink, and wear though, beyond what is necessary for home consumption, in their families. They build their own houses, make this is but an unprofitable trade in most parts of this their own chairs, tables, ploughs, carts, harness, ironempire, from the badness of roads, the paucity and work, basket-work, and wood-work; in short, except distance of markets, and the consequent difficulty in window-glass, cast-iron ware, and pottery, everything selling produce.

about their houses and furniture is of their own fabricaThe alternate employment of the same man in the tion. There is not probably in Europe so great a popu. field and in the factory, which would be attempted in lation in so happy a condition as these Norwegian yeomost countries with little success, is here rendered manry. A body of small proprietors, each with his thirty practicable and easy by the versatile genius of the or forty acres, scarcely exists elsewhere in Europe ; or, Russian peasant, one of whose leading national charac-if it can be found, it is under the shadow of some more teristics is a general capability of turning his hand to imposing body of wealthy proprietors or commercial any kind of work which he may be required to under- men. . . . Here they are the highest men in the nation. take. He will plough to-day, weave to-morrow, help to The settlers in the newer states of America, and in build a house the third day, and the fourth, if his master our colonies, possess properties of probably about needs an extra coachman, he will mount the box and the same extent; but they have roads to make, lands to drive four horses abreast as though it were his daily clear, houses to build, and the work that has been doing occupation. It is probable that none of these operations, here for a thousand years to do, before they can be in except, perhaps, the last, will be as well performed as in the same condition. These Norwegian proprietors are a country where the division of labour is more thoroughly in a happier condition than those in the older states of understood. They will all, however, be sufficiently well America, because they are not so much influenced done to serve thé turn-a favourite phrase in Russia. by the spirit of gain. They farm their little estates, These people are a very ingenious race, but persever and consume the produce, without seeking to barter or ance is wanting ; and though they will carry many sell, except what is necessary for paying their taxes and arts to a high degree of excellence, they will generally the few articles of luxury they consume. There is no stop short of the point of perfection, and it will be money-getting spirit among them, and none of extrava. long before their manufactures can rival the finish and gance. They enjoy the comforts of excellent houses, as durability of English goods.

good and large as those of the wealthiest individuals;

good furniture, bedding, linen, clothing, fuel, victuals, Excursions in the Interior of Russia, by ROBERT and drink, all in abundance, and of their own providing; BREMNER, two volumes, 1839, is a narrative of a good horses, and a houseful of people who have more short visit to Russia during the autumn of 1836. food than work. Food, furniture, and clothing being The same author published Excursions in Den- all home-made, the difference in these matters between mark, Norway, and Sweden, two volumes, 1840. the family and the servants is very small ; but there is a Before parting from Russia, it may be observed eat, sleep, and sit apart from the family, and have gener

perfect distinction kept up. The servants invariably that no English book upon that country exceeds ally a distinct building adjoining to the family house. in interest A Residence on the shores of the Baltic, described in a Series of Letters, 1841, being more The neighbouring country of Sweden appears particularly an account of the Esthonians, whose to be in a much worse condition, and the people simple character and habits afford a charming are described as highly immoral and depraved. picture. This delightful book was understood to By the returns from 1830 to 1834, one person in be from the pen of a lady, Miss Rigby, afterwards every forty-nine of the inhabitants of the towns, Lady Eastlake, author of Livonian Tales, 1846.

and one in every hundred and seventy-six of the of Norway and Sweden we have accounts by rural population, had been punished each year for MR SAMUEL LAING, of Papdale, Orkney, a criminal offences. The state of female morals, younger brother of the author of the History of particularly in the capital of Stockholm, is worse Scotland during the seventeenth century. This than in any other European state. Yet in Sweden gentleman did not begin to publish till a mature education is widely diffused, and literature is not period of life, his first work being a Residence in neglected. The nobility are described by Mr Norway in 1834-36, and the second, a Tour in Laing as sunk in debt and poverty; yet the people Sweden in 1838, both of which abound in valuable are vain of idle distinctions, and the order of statistical facts and well-digested information. Mr burgher nobility is as numerous as in some of the Laing resided for two years in different parts of German states. Norway, and concluded that the Norwegians were the happiest people in Europe. Their landed

Society of Sweden. property is so extensively diffused in small estates, that out of a population of a million there are licensed class or corporation, of which every member is

Every man (he says) belongs to a privileged or about 41,656 proprietors. There is no law, of by law entitled to be secured and protected within his primogeniture, yet the estates are not subdivided own locality from such competition or interference of into minute possessions, but average from forty to others in the same calling as would injure his means of sixty acres of arable land, with adjoining natural living. It is, consequently, not as with us, upon his wood and pasturage.

industry, ability, character, and moral worth that the employment and daily bread of the tradesman, and the

social influence and consideration of the individual, in Agricultural Peasantry of Norway.

every rank, even the highest, almost entirely depends; The Bonder, or agricultural peasantry (says Mr it is here, in the middle and lower classes, upon corLaing), each the proprietor of his own farm, occupy the porate rights and privileges, or upon license obtained country from the shore side to the hill foot, and up every from government ; and in the higher, upon birth and valley or glen as far as corn can grow. This class is the court or government favour. Public estimation, gained kernel of the nation. They are in general fine athletic by character and conduct in the several relations of life, men, as their properties are not so large as to exempt is not a necessary element in the social condition even

of the working tradesman. Like soldiers in a regiment, abundance of seeds; but as the vigour of the plant a great proportion of the people under this social system declines, the peel becomes thinner, and the seeds derive their estimation among others, and consequently gradually diminish in number, until they disappear their own self-esteem, not from their moral worth, but altogether. Thus, the oranges that we esteem the most from their professional standing and importance. This are the produce of barren trees, and those which we evil is inherent in all privileged classes, but is concealed consider the least palatable come from plants in full or compensated in the higher, the nobility, military, and vigour. clergy, by the sense of honour, of religion, and by educa Our friend was increasing the number of his trees by tion. In the middle and lower walks of life those layers. These usually take root at the end of two years influences are weaker, while the temptations to immor- They are then cut off from the parent stem, and are ality are stronger ; and the placing a man's livelihood, vigorous young trees four feet high. The process of prosperity, and social consideration in his station upon raising from seed is seldom, if ever, adopted in the other grounds than on his own industry and moral Azores, on account of the very slow growth of the trees worth, is a demoralising evil in the very structure of so raised. Such plants, however, are far less liable to Swedish society.

the inroads of a worm which attacks the roots of the

trees raised from layers, and frequently, proves very Mr Laing has since published Notes of a Trav- destructive to them. The seed or pip' of the acid eller in Europe, 1854; Observations on the Social orange, which we call Seville, with the sweeter kind and Political State of the European People in grafted upon it, is said to produce fruit of the finest 1848-49; and Observations on the Social and flavour. In one small garden eight trees were pointed Political State of Denmark and the Duchies in out which had borne for two successive years a crop of 1851.

oranges which was sold for thirty pounds. Travels in Circassia and Krim Tartary, by, that in St Michael's, where, after they are planted out,

The treatment of orange-trees in Fayal differs from MR SPENCER, author of a work on Germany and they are allowed to grow as they please. In this orange the Germans, two volumes, 1837, was hailed with garden the branches, by means of strings and pegs fixed peculiar satisfaction, as affording information re- in the ground, were 'strained away from the centre into specting a brave mountainous tribe who long the shape of a cup, or of the ribs of an open umbrella warred with Russia to preserve their national inde- turned upside down. This allows the sun to penetrate, pendence. They appear to be a simple people, exposes the branches to a free circulation of air, and is with feudal laws and customs, never intermarry- said to be of use in ripening the fruit. Certain

it is ing with any race except their own. Further in- that oranges are exported from Fayal several weeks formation was afforded of the habits of the Cir- earlier than they are from St Michael's; and as this cassians by the Journal of a Residence in Circassia cannot be attributed to greater warmth of climate, it during the years 1837, 1838, and 1839, by MR !: trees to the sun. The same precautions are taken here

may possibly be owing to the plan of spreading the S. BELL. This gentleman resided in Circassia in the character of agent or envoy from England, walls are built round all the gardens, and the trees

as in St Michael's to shield them from the winds; high which, however, was partly assumed. He acted themselves are planted among rows of fayas, firs, and also as physician, and seems generally to have camphor-trees. "If it were not for these precautions, been received with kindness and confidence. The the oranges would be blown down in such numbers as population, according to Mr Bell, is divided into to interfere with or swallow up the profits of the fraternities, like the tithings or hundreds in Eng- gardens ; none of the windfalls or ground fruit, as land during the time of the Saxons. Criminal the merchants here call them, being exported to offences are punished by fines levied on the England. fraternity, that for homicide being two hundred

Suddenly we came upon merry groups of men and oxen.

The guerrilla warfare which the Circas- boys, all busily engaged in packing oranges, in a square sians carried on against Russia, marked their goodly pile of the fresh fruit, sitting on heaps of the

and open plot of ground. They were gathered round a indomitable spirit and love of country, but it, dry calyx-leaves of the Indian corn, in which each of course, retarded their civilisation. A Winter in the Azores, and a Summer at the Near these circles of laughing Azoreans, who sat at

orange is wrapped before it is placed in the boxes. Baths of the Furnas, by JOSEPH BULLAR, M.D., their work and kept up a continual cross-fire of rapid and John BULLAR of Lincoln's Inn, two volumes, repartee as they quickly filled the orange-cases, were 1841, furnish some light agreeable notices of the a party of children, whose business it was to prepare islands of the Azores, under the dominion of Por- the husks for the men, who used them in packing. tugal, from which they are distant about 800 These youngsters, who were playing at their work like miles. This archipelago contains about 250,000 the children of a larger growth that sat by their side, inhabitants. St Michael's is the largest town, were with much difficulty kept in order by an elderly and there is a considerable trade in oranges be man, who shook his head and a long stick whenever twixt it and England. About 120,000 large and

they flagged or idled. . small chests of oranges were shipped for England the packers, the operation began. A child handed to a

A quantity of the leaves being heaped together near in 1839, and 315 boxes of lemons. These partic- workman who squatted by the heap of fruit a prepared ulars will serve to introduce a passage respecting husk; this was rapidly snatched from the child, wrapped

round the orange by an intermediate workman, passed The Cultivation of the Orange, and Gathering the

by the feeder to the next, who, sitting with the chest Fruit.

between his legs, placed it in the orange-box with

amazing rapidity, took a second, and a third, and a March 26.-Accompanied Senhor B-to several of fourth as fast as his hands could move and the feeders his orange-gardens in the town. Many of the trees in could supply him, until at length the chest was filled to one garden were hundred years old, still bearing plen- overflowing, and was ready to be nailed up. Two men tifully a highly prized thin-skinned orange, full of juice then handed it to the carpenter, who bent over the and free from pips. The thinness of the rind of a St orange-chest several thin boards, secured them with Michael's orange, and its freedom from pips, depend on the willow-band, pressed it with his naked foot as he the age of the tree. The young trees, when in full sawed off the ragged ends of the boards, and finally vigour, bear fruit with a thick pulpy rind and an despatched it to the ass which stood ready for lading.

Two chests were slung across his back by means of ence he stands first. There are no doubt points as to cords crossed in a figure of eight; both were well which the squatters have been unjustly used-matters as secured by straps under his belly ; the driver took his to which the legislature have endeavoured to clip their goad, pricked his beast, and uttering the never-ending wings at the expense of real justice. But they have been cry Sackaaio,' trudged off to the town.

too strong for the legislature, have driven coaches and The orange-trees in this garden cover the sides of a horses through colonial acts of parliament, have answered glen or ravine, like that of the Dargle, but somewhat injustice by illegal proceeding, and have as a rule held less steep; they are of some age, and have lost the stiff their own and perhaps something more. I soon found clumpy form of the younger trees. Some idea of the that in this respect the condition of New Zealand was rich beauty of the scene may be formed by imagining the very similar to that of the Australian colonies. The trees of the Dargle to be magnificent shrubs loaded with gentleman who accompanied us was the government orange fruit, and mixed with lofty arbutuses

land-commissioner of the province, and, as regarded

private life, was hand and glove with our host ; but the Groves whose rich fruit, burnished with golden rind, difference of their position gave me an opportunity of Hung amiable, and of delicious taste.

hearing the land question discussed as it regarded that In one part scores of children were scattered among the province. I perceived that the New Zealand squatter branches , gathering fruit into small baskets,

hallooing, regarded himself as a thrice-shorn lamb, but was looked laughing, practically joking, and finally emptying their upon by anti-squatters as a very wolf. gatherings into the larger baskets underneath the trees, which, when filled, were slowly borne away to the pack

Of the Maoris he takes a less romantic or ing-place, and bowled out upon the great heap. Many sympathetic view than some writers : large orange-trees on the steep sides of the glen lay on the ground uprooted, either from their load of fruit, They are certainly more highly gifted than other the high winds, or the weight of the boys, four, five, savage nations I have seen. They are as superior in and even six of whom will climb the branches at the intelligence and courage to the Australian aboriginal as same time ; and as the soil is very light, and the roots they are in outward appearance. They are more pliable are superficial--and the fall of a tree perhaps not and nearer akin in their manners to civilised mankind unamusing--down the trees come. They are allowed to than are the American Indians. They are more manly, lie where they fall; and those which had evidently more courteous, and also more sagacious than the African fallen many years ago were still alive, and bearing good negro. One can understand the hope and the ambition crops. The oranges are not ripe until March or April, of the first great old missionaries who had dealings with nor are they eaten generally by the people here until them. But contact with Europeans does not improve that time-the boys, however, that picked them are them. At the touch of the higher race they are marked exceptions. The young children of Villafranca poisoned and melt away. There is scope for poetry in are now almost universally of a yellow tint, as if their past history. There is room for philanthropy as saturated with orange juice.

to their present condition. But in regard to their future

—there is hardly a place for hope. Travels in New Zealand, by EARNEST DierFENBACH, M.D., late naturalist to the New Zealand Life in Mexico, during a Residence of Two Company, 1843, is a valuable history of an inter-Years in that Country, by MADAME CALDERON esting country, destined apparently to transmit DE LA BARCA, an English lady, is full of sketches the English language, arts, and civilisation. Mr of domestic life, related with spirit and acuteness. Dieffenbach gives a minute account of the lan- In no other work are we presented with such guage of New Zealand, of which he compiled a agreeable glimpses of Mexican life and manners. grammar and dictionary, He conceives the Letters on Paraguay, and Letters on South native population of New Zealand to be fit to America, by J. P. and W. P. ROBERTSON, are receive the benefits of civilisation, and to amal- the works of two brothers who resided twenty-five gamate with the British colonists.

years in South America, MR ANTHONY_TROLLOPE's Travels in Aus The Narrative of the Voyages of H.M.S. 'Adtralia and New Zealand, 1873, supply recent and venture' and 'Beagle, 1839, by CAPTAINS KING minute information. The vast improvements of and FITZROY, and C. DARWIN, Esq., naturalist of late years--the formation of railroads and general the Beagle, detail the various incidents which progress in New Zealand-have been extraordin- occurred during their examination of the southern

Of the squatters and free settlers, Mr shores of South America, and during the Beagle's Trollope says :

circumnavigation of the globe. The account of

the Patagonians in this work, and that of the The first night we stayed at a squatter's house, and I natives of Tierra del Fuego, are both novel and soon learned that the battle between the squatter and interesting, while the details supplied by Mr the free-selecter, of which I had heard so much in the Darwin possess a permanent value (ante, p. 762). Australian colonies, was being waged with the same Notes on the United States during a Phrenointernecine fury in New Zealand. Indeed the New logical Visit in 1839-40, have been published by Zealand bitterness almost exceeded that of New South MR GEORGE COMBE, in three volumes. Though Wales-though I did not hear the complaint, so common attaching what is apt to appear an undue importin New South Wales, that the free-selecters were all ance to his views of phrenology, Mr Combe was a cattle-stealers. The complaint made here was that the sensible traveller. He paid particular attention to government, in dealing with the land, had continually schools and all benevolent institutions, which he favoured the free-selecter at the expense of the squatter has described with care and minuteness. Among --who having been the pioneer in taking up the land, the matter-of-fact details and sober disquisitions tion. The squatter's claim is in the main correct. He in this work, we meet with the following romantic has deserved good things, and has generally got them. story. The author had visited the lunatic asylum In all these colonies-in New Zealand as well as New at Bloomingdale, where he learned this realisation South Wales and Victoria—the squatter is the aristocrat of Cymon and Iphigenia-finer even than the of the country. In wealth, position, and general influ- version of Dryden!

779

ary.

youth of England. The stirring stories told of An American Cymon and Iphigenia. Columbus, Sebastian Cabot, Raleigh, and Captain In the course of conversation, a case was mentioned Aeeing from persecution ; the description of

John Smith; the history of the Pilgrim Fathers to me as having occurred in the experience of a highly Penn's transactions with the Indians ; the narrespectable physician, and which was so fully authenticated, that I entertain no doubt of its truth. The ratives of the gallant achievements of Wolfe and physician alluded to had a patient, a young man, who Washington, and the lamentable humiliations of was almost idiotic from the suppression of all his facul- Burgoyne and Cornwallis ; the exciting autobiog. ties. He never spoke, and never moved voluntarily, but raphy of the Philadelphian printer, who, from sat habitually with his hands shading his eyes. The toiling at the press, rose to be the companion of physician sent him to walk as a remedial measure. In | kings--all have their due effect on the imaginathe neighbourhood, a beautiful young girl of sixteen tion. The facilities afforded by steam-boat comlived with her parents, and used to see the young munication also render a visit to America a man in his walks, and speak kindly to him. For some matter of easy and pleasant accomplishment, and time he took no notice of her ; but after meeting her the United States are every season traversed by for several months, he began to look for her, and to hosts of British tourists-men of science, art, and feel disappointed if she did not appear. He became so much interested that he directed his steps voluntarily literature, and pleasure-seekers, while the interto her father's cottage, and gave her bouquets of flowers. national commerce and trading is proportionally By degrees he conversed with her through the window.

extended. His mental faculties were roused ; the dawn of conva Two remarkable works on Spain have been lescence appeared. The girl was virtuous, intelligent, and published by MR GEORGE Borrow, late agent lovely, and encouraged his visits when she was told that of the British and Foreign Bible Society. The she was benefiting his mental health. She asked him if first of these, in two volumes, 1841, is entitled he could read and write? He answered, No. She Zincali, or an Account of the Gipsies in Spain. wrote some lines to him to induce him to learn. This Mr Borrow calculates that there are about forty had the desired effect. He applied himself to study, and thousand gipsies in Spain, of which about onesoon wrote good and sensible letters to her. He re- third are to be found in Andalusia. The caste, covered his reason. She was married to a young man he says, has diminished of late years. The from the neighbouring city. Great fears were enter-author's adventures with this singular people tained that this event would undo the good which she had accomplished. The young patient sustained a are curiously compounded of the ludicrous and severe shock, but his mind did not sink under it. He romantic, and are related in the most vivid and acquiesced in the propriety of her choice, continued to dramatic manner. Mr Borrow's second work is improve, and at last was restored to his family cured. named The Bible in Spain; or the Journeys, AdShe had a child, and was soon after brought to the same ventures, and Imprisonments of an Englishman hospital perfectly insane. The young man heard of this in an attempt to circulate the Scriptures in the event, and was exceedingly anxious to see her ; but an Peninsula, 1844. There are many things in the interview was denied to him, both on her account and book which, as the author acknowledges, have his own. She died. He continued well, and became little connection with religion or religious enteran active member of society. What a beautiful romance prise. It is indeed a series of personal advenmight be founded on this narrative !

tures, varied and interesting, with sketches of

character and romantic incidents drawn with America, Historical, Statistical, and Descrip: more power and vivacity than is possessed by tive, by J. S. BUCKINGHAM, is a vast collection of most novelists. facts and details, few of them novel or striking, but apparently written with truth and candour.

Impressions of the City of Madrid. The work fatigues from the multiplicity of its small statements, and the want of general views or ani

From Borrow's Bible in Spain. . mated description. In 1842 the author published I have visited most of the principal capitals of the two additional volumes, describing his tour in the world, but upon the whole none has ever so interested slave-states. These are more interesting, because me as this city of Madrid, in which I now found myself

. the ground is less hackneyed, and Mr Buckingham I will not dwell upon its streets, its edifices, its public felt strongly, as a benevolent and humane man, squares, its fountains, though some of these are remarkon the subject of slavery, Mr Buckingham was and Edinburgh more stately edifices, London far nobler

able enough : but Petersburg has finer streets, Paris an extensive traveller and writer. He published narratives of journeys in Palestine, Assyria, though not cooler waters. But the population! Within

squares, whilst Shiraz can boast of more costly fountains, Media, and Persia, and of various continental a mud wall, scarcely one league and a half in circuit, tours.' He tried a number of literary schemes, are contained two hundred thousand human beings, establishing the Oriental Herald and Atheneum certainly forming the most extraordinary vital mass to weekly journal, and was a successful lecturer. He be found in the entire world; and be it always rememhad published two volumes of an autobiography, bered that this mass is strictly Spanish. The population when he died somewhat suddenly in 1855, aged of Constantinople is extraordinary enough, but to form sixty-nine.

it twenty nations have contributed-Greeks, Armenians, Among other works on America we may men- Persians, Poles, Jews, the latter, by-the-bye, of Spanish tion the Western World, by ALEXANDER MACKAY, origin, and speaking amongst themselves the old Spanish three volumes, 1849, a very complete and able language ; but the huge population of Madrid, with the book up to the date of its publication; Things tailors, glove-makers, and perruquiers, is strictly Spanish, as They are in America, by DR WILLIAM though a considerable portion are not natives of the CHAMBERS ; and Life and Liberty in America, place. Here are no colonies of Germans, as at st by DR CHARLES MACKAY., 'A visit to America, Petersburg; no English factories, as at Lisbon ; 10 as Dr Chambers has said, “is usually one of multitudes of insolent Yankees lounging through the the early aspirations of the more impressionable streets, as at the Havannah, with an air which seems to

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say, 'The land is our own whenever we choose to take it;' with additions and corrections, a work suited to but a population which, however strange and wild, and the library, and bearing the title of Gatherings composed of various elements, is Spanish, and will from Spain. A new edition, partly rewritten, was remain so as long as the city itself shall exist. Hail, ye issued in 1855, as one of the series of Murray's aguadores of Asturia! who, in your dress of coarse Hand-books. This interesting and valuable work duffel and leathern skull-caps, are seen seated in hun has elicited praise from all travellers in Spain and dreds by the fountain-sides, upon your empty water: all literary critics, as the best book that has ever stories of lofty houses. Hail, ye caleseros of Valencia : appeared for illustration of the national character who, lolling lazily against your vehicles, rasp tobacco for and manners of the Spaniards, as well as for its your paper cigars whilst waiting for a fare. Hail to descriptions of the scenery, and topography of the you, beggars of La Mancha! men and women, who, country. Mr Ford was the eldest son of Sir wrapped in coarse blankets, demand charity indifferently Richard Ford, at one time M.P.for East Grinstead, at the gate of the palace or the prison. Hail to you, and chief police magistrate of London. He studied valets from the mountains, mayordomos and secretaries for the bar, but never practised, devoting himself from Biscay and Guipuscoa, toreros from Andalusia, to art and literature, and residing for many years riposteros from Galicia, shopkeepers from Catalonia ! in Spain. He was an occasional contributor to Hail to ye, Castilians, Éstremenians, and Aragonese, of the Quarterly Review. whatever calling! And, lastly, genuine sons of the capital, rabble of Madrid, ye twenty thousand manolos, whose terrible knives, on the second morning of May,

Spain and Spaniards. worked such grim havoc amongst the legions of Murat ! Since Spain appears on the map to be a square and

And the higher orders-the ladies and gentlemen, the most compact kingdom, politicians and geographers cavaliers and señoras ; shall I pass them by in silence ? have treated it and its inhabitants as one and the same ; The truth is, I have little to say about them ; I mingled practically, however, this is almost a geographical but little in their society, and what I saw of them by expression, as the earth, air, and mortals of the different no means tended to exalt them in my imagination. 1 portions of this conventional whole are altogether heteroam not one of those who, wherever they go, make it a geneous. Peninsular man has followed the nature by constant practice to disparage the higher orders, and to which he is surrounded ; mountains and rivers have exalt the populace at their expense. There are many walled and moated the dislocated land ; mists and capitals in which the high aristocracy, the lords and gleams have diversified the heaven; and differing like ladies, the sons and daughters of nobility, constitute the soil and sky, the people, in each of the once independent most remarkable and the most interesting part of the provinces, now bound loosely together by one golden hoop, population. This is the case at Vienna, and more the crown, has its own particular character. To hate his especially at London. Who can rival the English neighbour is a second nature to the Spaniard ; no spick aristocrat in lofty stature, in dignified bearing, in and span constitution, be it printed on parchment or strength of hand, and valour of heart? Who rides a calico, can at once efface traditions and antipathies of a nobler horse ? Who has a firmer seat? And who more thousand years; the accidents of localities and prolovely than his wife, or sister, or daughter ? But with vincial nationalities, out of which they have sprung, respect to the Spanish aristocracy, I believe the less remain too deeply dyed to be forthwith discharged by that is said of them on the points to which I have theorists. The climate and productions vary no less just alluded the better. I confess, however, that I know than do language, costume, and manners ; and so division little about them. Le Sage has described them as they and localism have, from time immemorial, formed a were nearly two centuries ago. His description is any- marked national feature. Spaniards may talk and boast thing but captivating, and I do not think that they have of their Patria, as is done by the similarly circumstanced improved since the period of the immortal Frenchman. Italians, but like them and the Germans, they have the I would sooner talk of the lower class, not only of fallacy, but no real Fatherland ; it is an aggregation Madrid, but of all Spain. The Spaniard of the lower rather than an amalgamation-every single individual in class has much more interest for me, whether manolo, his heart really only loving his native province, and only labourer, or muleteer. He is not a common being; he considering as his fellow-countryman, su paisano-a is an extraordinary man. He has not, it is true, the most binding and endearing word—one born in the same amiability and generosity of the Russian mujik, who locality as himself: hence it is not easy to predicate will give his only rouble rather than the stranger shall much in regard to the Spains'and Spaniards in general want ; nor his placid courage, which renders him insen- which will hold quite good as to each particular portion ible to fear, and at the command of his czar sends him ruled by the sovereign of Las Espanas, the plural title singing to certain death. There is more hardness and given to the chief of the federal union of this really little less self-devotion in the disposition of the Spaniard : he united kingdom. Espanolismo may, however, be said possesses, however,

pirit of proud independence, to consist in a love for a common faith and king, and in which it is impossible but to admire.

a coincidence of resistance to all foreign dictation. The

deep sentiments of religion, loyalty, and independence, Mr Borrow has since published Lavengro--the noble characteristics indeed, have been sapped in our Scholar, the Gipsy, the Priest, 1851; Romany Rye, times by the influence of Trans-Pyrenean revolutions. a sequel to Lavengro; and Wild Wales, its people, Two general observations may be premised : First, The Language and Scenery, 1870. These works are people of Spain, the so-called lower orders, are superior inferior in interest to his former publications, but to those who arrogate to themselves the title of being are still remarkable books. Mr Borrow is a The masses, the least spoilt and the most national, stand

their betters, and in most respects are more interesting. native of Norfolk, born at East Dereham in 1803. like pillars amid ruins, and on them the edifice of Spain's

greatness is, if ever, to be reconstructed. This may have RICHARD FORD.

arisen in this land of anomalies, from the peculiar policy of One of the most vivid pictures of a great country religious and civil monopolies, who dreaded knowledge

government in church and state, where the possessors of and people ever drawn, is presented in the Hand- as power, pressed heavily on the noble and rich, dwarfbook for Travellers in Spain and Readers at Home, ing down their bodies by intermarriages, and all but by RICHARD FORD (1796-1858). The first edition extinguishing their minds by inquisitions ; while the of this work appeared in 1845, in two volumes. In people, overlooked in the obscurity of poverty, were 1846 the author selected portions of it to form, allowed to grow out to their full growth like wild weeds

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