« PreviousContinue »
ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS.
SINCE much of the earlier portion of this work was sent | name of Mr Furnivall was inadvertently curtailed of its to press, reprints and illustrations of many of the old fair proportions, being misspelt Furnival.? poets and dramatists have appeared, and valuable contributions have been made to our biographical literature. the Advocates Library, published in 1874 what may
BARCLAY (p. 31).—The late Mr T. H. Jamieson of A few may be here noticed, as far as our space will per- be called a superb edition of Barclay's Ship of Fools, mit. Some slips of the pen (not of the press) also including fac-similes of the original woodcuts, and require to be corrected.
an account of the life and writings of Barclay, drawn up from materials in the British Museum and elsewhere. A copy of the will of Barclay is also
given, extracted from the registry of the Court of VOL. I.
Probate. It is dated July 25, 1551, and was proved on THOMAS OF ERCILDOUN (p. 7).—The Early English the 10th of June 1552. Mr Jamieson seems to establish Text Society has published (1875) The Romance and the fact, that the old poet was born 'beyond the cold Prophecies of Thomas of Erceldoune, edited, with intro- river of Tweed,' as one of his contemporaries expresses duction and notes, by James A. H. Murray, LL.D. To it, about the year 1476, but in what town or county is assist in fixing the age of the Border prophet (commonly unknown. He crossed the Border very early in life, called . Thomas the Rhymer '), we have two documents. studied, there is reason to believe, at Cambridge UniHe was a contemporary of one who was himself at least versity, travelled abroad, and afterwards entered the old enough to witness a deed in 1189, and in 1294 Church. His first preferment was a chaplainship in St Thomas de Ercildoun, filius et heres Thomæ Rymour Mary Ottery, Devonshire (the birthplace, it will be de Ercildoun, conveyed by charter, to the Trinity recollected, of Samuel Taylor Coleridge) ; and from House of Soltra, all the lands which he held by inherit- 1490 to 1511, he was warder of the college. He was ance in the village of Ercildoun. The prima facie some time a monk in Ely, and after the dissolution purport of this charter of 1294 is, as Dr Murray says, of the monasteries he obtained in 1546 two livings * that Thomas is already dead and his son in possession :-the vicarages of Much-Badew in Essex, and Wokey of the paternal property, which he in his turn gives in Somersetshire—and in 1552 (a few weeks before his away.'. Nothing new has been discovered respecting death) the rectory of All Hallows, London. He died the authorship of Sir Tristrem. Of the Romance and at Croydon, with which he seems to have been early Prophecies, Dr Murray publishes the text of five existing
connected : manuscripts, the earliest of which appears to be of date
While I in youth in Croidon towne did dwell. 1430-1440. The poem, in its present form, bears evi. dence of being later than 1401, the date of the invasion of His Ship of Fools was printed by Pynson in 1509. The Scotland by Henry IV., or at least 1388, the date of the Eclogues, five in number, were the first attempts of the battle of Otterbourne, the last of the historical events kind in English. The first three are paraphrases or “hid under obscure words' in the prophecies ascribed to adaptations from Æneas Sylvius (Pope Pius II., who Thomas the Rhymer. The poem represents Thomas as died in 1464), and the fourth and fifth ‘are imitations of lying on a morning in May under a tree on Huntly Jo Baptist Mantuan. Barclay's rural pictures are of the banks, while all the shaws about him rung with the style of Crabbe. The following description of a village songs of the merle, the jay, the mavis, and woodwale Sunday we give in the original orthography : (woodlark). · A lady gay-a fairy queen-came riding over the lea, and by her magic power transported him to
What man is faultlesse : remember the village, her own country, where he dwelt for three years and
Howe men vplondish on holy dayes rage.
Nought can them tame, they be a beastly sort, more. He asked of her to shew him some ferly (wonder), In sweate and labour hauing most chicfe comfort : and she related the series of prophecies, long regarded On the holy day as soon as morne is past, with awe, which foretold the wars between England and
When all men resteth while all the day doth last,
They drinke, they banket, they reuels, and they iest, Scotland till the death of Robert III. (1406). Thomas They leape, they daunce, despising ease and rest. was at length restored to middle earth :
If they once heare a bagpipe or a drone,
Anone to the elme or oke they be gone.
There vse they to daunce, to gambolde, and to rage-
Such is the custome and vse of the village.
When the ground resteth from rake, plough, and wheles,
Then moste they it trouble with burthen of their heles. Dr Murray's editorial labours give the reader a great amount of curious and valuable information, historical use amongst us, were common in the reign of Henry
Many of the popular proverbs and expressions still in and philological.
VIII. Mr Jamieson cites the following from Barclay : CHAUCER (p. 21).—The dates of events in Chaucer's Better is a frende in courte than a peny in purse. life included in Mr Furnivall's Trial-Forewords, first Whan the stede is stolyn to shyt the stable dore. appeared in the Atheneum. In our first volume, the It goeth through as water through a syue (sieve)
And he that alway thretenyth for to fyght
the fate of the Northern dialect in the English portion Oft at the profe is skantly worth a hen,
of its domain, on Scottish ground it was destined to For greattest crakers ar not ay boldest men.
prolong its literary career for two centuries more, and I fynde four thynges whiche by no meanes can
indeed to receive an independent culture almost justifyBe kept close, in secrete, or longe in preuetee; The firste is the counsell of a wytles man;
ing us in regarding it, from the literary side, as a distinct The seconde is a cyte whiche byldyd is a hye
LODGE (p. 102).—The Fig for Momus is misprinted
SHAKSPEARE (p. 145).—Mr J. O. Halliwell-Phillipps,
author of an excellent Life of Shakspeare, 1848, founded Better haue one birde sure within thy wall,
chiefly on papers in the Council Chamber of StratfordOr fast in a cage, than twenty score without.
on-Avon, and on the results of searches in the Record Pryde sholde haue a fall.
Offices of London and other depositaries, commenced in For wyse men sayth...
1874 Illustrations of the Life of Shakspeare. He conOne myshap fortuneth neuer alone.
fines himself to facts connected with the personal and They robbe Saint Peter therwith to clothe Saint Powle.
literary history of the poet, and does not enter on quesFor children brent still after drede the fire.
tions of style, or metre, or æsthetic criticism. These
Illustrations, of which only one part is yet published, The Complaynt of Scotland (p. 72).- A new edition of promise to be valuable. We learn from them that this rare work has been published by the Early English when Shakspeare came to London some few years before Text Society, edited from the originals, with introduc- the notice of him by Greene in 1592, there were at the tion and glossary by James A. H. Murray, LL.D. time of his arrival only two theatres in the metropolis, The full title of the work is, The Complaynt of Scotlande, both of them on the north of the Thames, in the parish with ane Exortatione to the Thre Estaits to be Vigilant of Shoreditch. James Burbage, by trade a joiner, but in the Deffens of their Public Veil (Weal), A.D. 1549. afterwards a leading member of the Earl of Leicester's The object of the unknown author was to rouse the Company of Players, in 1576 obtained from one Giles nation in support of the Queen Dowager, Mary of Allen a lease of houses and land on which he built his Guise, and the French interest, in opposition to the theatre. It was the earliest fabric of the kind ever English faction in Scotland originated by Henry VIII., built in this country and emphatically designated 'The and continued by the Protector Somerset and the Theatre.' It was practically in the fields. The other Protestant Reformers. There is no contemporary notice theatre (which was in the same locality) was named of the Complaynt or its author. The language of the The Curtain.” Mr Halliwell-Phillipps adds: “The work is what Dr Murray calls the Middle Scotch of the earliest authentic notice of Shakspeare as a member of sixteenth century—the same as the works of Bellenden, the Lord Chamberlain's Company which has hitherto Gawain Douglas, and Lyndsay, but with a larger infu- been published, is that which occurs in the list of the sion of French words. The author himself says he actors who performed in the comedy of Every Man ia used domestic Scottish language most intelligible for his Humour in 1598; but that he was a leading member the vulgar people.' Dr Murray concludes that the only of that company four years previously, and acted in two things certain as to the author are, that he was a plays before Queen Elizabeth in December 1594, apthorough partisan of the French side—that he was a pears from the following interesting memorandum which churchman attached to the Roman Catholic faith-and I had the pleasure of discovering in the accounts of the that he was a native of the Southern, not improbably Treasurer of the Chamber : « To William Kempe, of the Border counties. On the subject of the Scottish William Shakespeare, and Richarde Burbage, servauntes language we quote a brief summary by the learned to the Lord Chamberleyne, upon the Councelles warrant editor :
dated at Whitehall xv. to Marcij, 1594, for twoe severall "The language of Lowland Scotland was originally comedies or enterludes shewed by them before her identical with that of England north of the Humber. Majestie in Christmas tyme laste paste, viz., upon St The political and purely artificial division which was Stephens daye, and Innocentes daye xiij li. vj s. vij d., afterwards made between the two countries, unsanc- and by waye of her Majesties rewarde, vi li. xiij s. iiij tioned by any facts of language or race, had no existence d., in all xx li.” This evidence is decisive, and its while the territory from the Humber to the Forth con- great importance in several of the discussions respecting stituted the North Anglian kingdom or earldom of Shakspeare's early literary and theatrical career wil Northumbria. The centre of this state, and probably hereafter be seen.' of the earliest Angle settlement, was at Bamborough, When Shakspeare acted before Queen Elizabeth in a few miles from the Tweed mouth, round which the December 1594, the court was at Greenwich. The poet common language was spoken north of the Tweed and was then in his thirtieth year, and had published his Cheviots as well as south. This unity of language con- Venus and Adonis and Lucrece. tinued down to the Scottish War of Independence at The Illustrations contain a petition from the Burthe beginning of the fourteenth century, and even after bage family to the Lord Chamberlain in 1635, from that war had made a complete severance between the which we learn some particulars concerning Shakspeare two countries, down to the second half of the fifteenth and the theatres of his day : century. In England, previous to this period, three “The father of us, Cutbert and Richard Burbags, great English dialects, the Northern, Midland, and was the first builder of playhowses, and was himself Southern, had stood on an equal footing as literary in his younger yeeres a player. The Theater [in languages, none of which could claim pre-eminence over Shoreditch] hee built with many hundred poundes the others as English par excellence. But after the taken up at interest. The players that lived in Wars of the Roses, the invention of printing, and more those first times had onely the profitts arising from compact welding of England into a national unity, the the dores, but now the players receave all the commings Midland dialect--the tongue of London, Oxford, and in at the dores to themselves, and halfe the galleries Cambridge, of the court and culture of the country, from the houskeepers (owners or lessees ?}. He built assumed a commanding position as the language of his house upon leased ground, by which means the books, and the Northern and Southern English sank landlord and hee had a great suite in law, and, by his in consequence into the position of local patois, heard at death, the like troubles feil on us, his sonnes ; wee then the fireside, the plough, the loom, but no longer used bethought us of altering from thence, and at like expence as the vehicles of general literature. But while this was built the Globe, with more summes of money taken up
at interest, which lay heavy on us many yeeres ; and to employed the feminine endings sparingly in many of his ourselves wee joyned those deserveing men, Shakspeare, plays which on other grounds may be regarded as early, Hemings, Condall, Philips, and others, partners in the it is certain that in those plays which on other grounds profittes of that they call the House ; but making the may be regarded as belonging to a late period of his leases for twenty-one yeeres hath been the destruction of dramatic productivity, he employed these endings largely.' ourselves and others, for they dyeing at the expiration of Mr Ward then takes up the question as to the author. three or four yeeres of their lease, the subsequent yeeres ship of Henry VIII., the style of which in many parts became dissolved to strangers as by marrying with their resembles that of Fletcher, as had been pointed out widdowes and the like by their children.
thirty years ago to Mr Spedding by Mr Alfred Tenny. 'Thus, Right Honorable, as concerning the Globe, son. The resemblance consists chiefly in the abundance where wee ourselves are but lessees. Now for the Black- of feminine endings, and in certain characteristic tricks friars, that is our inheritance ; our father purchased it at of Fletcher's style, which are of frequent occurrence in extreame rates, and made it into a playhouse with great Henry VIII. This theory, if correct, would assign to charge and troble ; which after was leased out to one Fletcher some of the finest passages in the play-as Evans that first sett up the boyes commonly called the Wolsey's affecting soliloquy and Cranmer's prophecy. Queenes Majesties Children of the Chappell. In pro- Mr Ward regards these tests as only extreme developcesse of time, the boyes growing up to bee men, which ments of tendencies which indisputably became stronger were Underwood, Field, Ostler, and were taken to in Shakspeare's versification with the progress of time, strengthen the king's service ; and the more to and as Henry VIII. was one of the latest, if not the strengthen the service, the boyes dayly wearing out, very latest of Shakspeare's dramatic works, they would it was considered that house would be fitt for ourselves, in that play reach their highest point. and soe purchased the lease remaining from Evans with Dodsley's Select Collection of Old English Plays was our money, and placed men players, which were originally published in 1744; a second edition, corrected, Hemings, Condall, Shakspeare, &c.'
and possessing explanatory notes by ISAAC REED, was The Globe Theatre, in Southwark, was erected in 1599 issued in 1780. În 1814 MR CHARLES WENTWORTH (not in 1594 or 1595, as all the biographers, from Malone Dilke edited a continuation of Dodsley, or at least a to Dyce, have stated), the timber and other materials of collection of old plays, in six volumes. A third edition the Shoreditch Theatre being used in its construction. of Dodsley, with additional notes and corrections by It was burned down in 1613. Shakspeare was one of Reed, by OCTAVIUS GILCHRIST and JOHN PAYNE the partners in the profits of the house'--meaning, COLLIER, appeared in 1826. And a fourth edition, probably, the profits of the establishment after all ex- enlarged from twelve to fifteen volumes, has been pubpenses were paid, and he would also have his emolu lished (1876) by WILLIAM CAREW Hazlitt. Besides ments as actor and author. With respect to the Black this vastly improved edition of Dodsley, Mr Hazlitt has friars Theatre, the reference in the above petition to the edited the works of Gascoigne, Carew, Browne, Suckling, king's service, shews that the Burbages became lessees Lovelace, Herrick, &c, He has also given the public after the accession of James in 1603. Shakspeare was new editions of Brande's Popular Antiquities and
placed' there, along with others, by the Burbages, but Warton's History of Poetry. Mr Hazlitt is a grandson whether as actor only, or as sharer in the profits, as of the critic and essayist (ante, p. 375); he was born before, is not stated. His dramas were most likely the in 1834, and called to the bar in 1861. chief source of his income as of his fame.
Mr John Payne Collier, referred to above, was early Another of Mr Halliwell-Phillipps's discoveries is the in the field as an editor of Elizabethan poets and dramexistence of a third John Shakspeare in Stratford-on-atists. He was born in London in 1789. In 1820 he Avon, contemporaries. Besides the poet's father, the published The Poetical Decameron, and in 1831, his alderman, there was a John Shakspeare, a shoemaker, History of Dramatic Poetry—both works of merit which well known to the biographers. But there was also an gratified the lovers of our old literature, and tended conagriculturist of the name, who in 1570 was in the occu- siderably to increase the number of such students. pation of a small farm of fourteen acres, situated in the Another meritorious labourer in the same field, is the parish of Hampton Lucy, near Stratford. His farm REV. ALEXANDER GROSART of St George's, Blackburn, was called Ingon or Ington Meadow. This John Shak- Lancashire. Mr Grosart has edited the poems of Giles speare, the farmer, has always been considered to be the Fletcher, Crashaw, Lord Brooke, Southwell, Vaughan, poet's father, but it appears from the Hampton Lucy Marvell, &c. ; and is now engaged on the works in verse register that the tenant of Ingon Meadow was buried in and prose of Spenser and Daniel. He has also edited September 1589, whereas the alderman, the poet's editions of the Scottish poets Michael Bruce, Ferguson, father, survived till 1601.
and Alexander Wilson, and the prose works of WordsChronology of Shakspeare's Plays (p. 145) -Metrical worth ; the latter in three volumes, undertaken 'by retests have lately been applied to the text of Shakspeare, quest and appointment of the family.' with a view to ascertain the probable dates of the plays. In the transactions of the New Shakspere Society' we SELDEN (p. 327).-The birthplace of the learned find observations on this subject from Mr Spedding, Mr John Selden was Salvington, near West Tarring in Fleay, Mr Furnivall, and others. It is also taken up Sussex. by Mr Ward in his able History of English Dramatic Literature to the Death of Queen Anne, two volumes, SWIFT (p. 486).— His grandfather was vicar of Good1875. Mr Ward thus notices what are called 'stopped rich in Herefordshire. ... Three of the vicar's sons lines' and 'feminine endings of lines :'
settled in Ireland.' Swift in his autobiography says "A stopped line is one in which the sentence or clause four, but the exact number seems to have been five. of the sentence concludes with the line ; but it is not | The eldest, Godwin, was the uncle to whom the dean always possible to determine what is to be regarded as owed his education. The autobiography has a remarkthe clause of a sentence; whether, for example, and is able passage concerning the infancy of Swift : 'When to be regarded (in strict syntax of course it is not) as he was a year old, an event happened to him that seems beginning a new clause. The stopping' of the sense very unusual ; for his nurse, who was a woman of is, in short, often of more importance than the stopping Whitehaven, being under an absolute necessity of seeing of the sentence, with which it by no means always one of her relations, who was then extremely sick, and coincides.
from whom she expected a legacy, and being at the * The number of feminine endings of lines, or of lines same time extremely fond of the infant, she stole him ending with a redundant syllable: the application of on shipboard unknown to his mother and uncle, and this test cannot be regarded as establishing more than carried him with her to Whitehaven, where he congeneral conclusions. While it is certain that Shakspeare tinued for almost three years. For, when the matter
was discovered, his mother sent orders by all means notGodwin, 1876: 'Whatever view may be taken of the to hazard a second voyage, till he could be better able breach between husband and wife, it is absolutely certain to bear it. The nurse was so careful of him, that before that Harriet's 'suicide was not directly caused by her he returned he had learned to spell ; and by the time husband's treatment. However his desertion of her that he was three years old he could read any chapter contributed, or did not contribute, to the life she afterin the Bible.' With the single exception, perhaps, of wards led, the immediate cause of her death was that Lord Macaulay, we have no other instance of such her father's door was shut against her, though he had at infantile precocity. It appears from Forster's Life of first sheltered her and her children. This was done by Swift that the dean had first written two years,' then order of her sister, who would not allow Harriet access altered it to almost three,' and finally struck out to the bedside of her dying father.'
almost.' Hawkesworth altered the word to 'five,' and The Life of Godwin, referred to above, is a work of was copied by Scott. P. 486.—The statement that great interest and importance. Godwin never willingly Sir William Temple left Stella a sum of £1000 is in- destroyed a written line, and his biographer found a correct. In Temple's will the legacy is thus given : 'I vast quantity of letters and manuscripts
, some of which leave a lease of some lands I have in Monistown, in the had never been opened from the time they were laid county of Wicklow in Ireland, to Esther Johnson, aside by Godwin's own hand many years before his servant to my sister Giffard' (Lady Giffard). Mr Forster death in 1836. All were handed over to Mr Kegan has shewn that the account which Swift has given in Paul by Sir Percy Shelley, the poet's son, and the corres. his autobiography of his college career is too unfavour-pondence includes letters from Charles Lamb, Coleridge, able. The dean says he was stopped of his degree for Shelley, Wordsworth, Scott, Mackintosh, Lady Caroline dullness and insufficiency; and at last hardly admitted Lamb, Mrs Inchbald, and others, besides the letters in a manner little to his credit, which is called in that which passed between Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft college speciali gratia.' Mr Forster obtained part of a during their brief married life. Perhaps nothing in college roll indicating Swift's place at the quarterly literary history or biography was ever so painful, and examination in Eastern term 1685, and of the twenty in some aspects revolting, as this Godwin-Wollstoneone names therein enumerated none of them stand craft-Shelley story. really higher in the examination than that of Jonathan Swift. He was careless in attending the college chapel; Mrs INCHBALD (p. 255).--Of this remarkable woman in the classes he was “ill in philosophy, good in Greek many particulars are related in the Life of Godwin, by and Latin, and negligent in theology. Mr Forster Mr C. Kegan Paul. Mrs Shelley (Godwin's daughter) says : "The specialis gratiâ took its origin from the says of her : Living in mean lodgings, dressed with an necessity of providing, that what was substantially economy allied to penury, without connections, and merited should not be refused because of a failure in alone, her beauty, her talents, and the charm of her some requirement of the statutes; upon that abuses manners gave her entrance into a delightful circle of crept in ; but enough has been said to shew that Swift's society. Apt to fall in love, and desirous to marry, she case could not have been one of those in which it was continued single, because the men who loved and used to give semblance of worth to the unworthy.' admired her were too worldly to take an actress and a
poor author, however lovely and charming, for a wife. Her MASON (p. 685).—It should have been mentioned life was thus spent in an interchange of hardship and that the last four lines of the Epitaph on Mrs Mason in amusement, privation and luxury. Her character partook the Cathedral of Bristol were written by Gray. They of the same contrast : fond of pleasure, she was prudent are immeasurably superior to all the others, and, indeed, in her conduct; penurious in her personal expenditure, are among the finest of the kind in the language : she was generous to others. Vain of her beauty, we are
told that the gown she wore was not worth a shilling, it Tell them though 'tis an awful thing to die 'Twas e'en to thee--yet the dread path once trod,
was so coarse and shabby. Very susceptible to the Heaven lifts its everlasting portals high,
softer feelings, she could yet guard herself against pasAnd bids the pure in heart behold their God.
sion; and though she might have been called a flirt, her character was unimpeached. I have heard that a rival beauty of her day pettishly complained that when Mrs
Inchbald came into a room, and sat in a chair in the VOL. II.
middle of it, as was her wont, every man gathered round
it, and it was vain for any other woman to attempt to SHELLEY (p. 130).-Shelley's first wife, Harriet gain attention. Godwin could not fail to admire her; she Westbrook, 'committed suicide by drowning herself in became and continued to be a favourite. Her talents, the Serpentine River in December 1816, and Shelley her beauty, her manners were all delightful to him. He married Miss Godwin a few weeks afterwards (December used to describe her as a piquante mixture between a 30).' In justice to the poet, we copy a statement on lady and a milkmaid, and added that Sheridan declared this distressing subject from Mr C. Kegan Paul's Life of she was the only authoress whose ety pleased him.'
GENERAL INDE X.
** .. 228
451 ARNOLD, MATTHEW, as poet, ii. 472;
Art of Preserving Health, by Arm-
strong; passages from, ...
Arthur, King, and his Knights, į..
185 Arthur (La Morte Arthur), i...
737 | ASHMOLE, Elias, antiquary, i....... 367
America, History of, by Robertson, Atalanta in Calydon, by A. C. Swin-
585 Athena Oxonienses, by Anthony à
William Chambers, ii....
780 Athenæum, the, journal, established by
American Notes by Dickens; extracts, J.. S. Buckingham, ii. 780 ; Mr
519 Dixon becomes editor, ii. 641; C.
195 Athenaid, by Glover, passages from, i.. 682
726 AMORY, THOMAS, Memoirs; extract, i. 806 Attila, by Herbert, passage from, ii... 279
219 Augustine, St, Conversion of; by Dean
213 Augustus Cæsar characterised, by C.
by Blackie, ii..... 482 Ancient Mariner, the, by Coleridge, ii. 73 Auld Langsyne, different versions of, i. 520
6 Auld Reekie, by Fergusson; extract, i. 716
Auld Robin Forbes, by Susanna
368 Auld Robin Gray, by Lady Anne Bar-
Aurora Leigh, by Elizabeth B. Brown-
294 Autocrat of the Breakfast Table, by
681 Annuity, the, by George Outram, ii... 484 Avarice, by Rev. C. C. Colton, ii...... 392
613 | ANSTED, David T., scientific writer, ii. 762 Away! Let Nought to Love displeas-
Babe Christabel, ballad of, by Gerald
791 Antiquities of Great Britain, by w. Massey; extract, ii....
815 Baby's Debut, parody by J. and H.
393 BACON, LIEUT. T., traveller, ii.
92 Antonio and Mellida, by Marston ; Bacon, Lord, Letters and Life, by
172 James Spedding, i..
408 Badajos, Assault of, from Napier, i... 333
770 Robert Grant and Admiral Smyth, ií. 742 BAILEY, PHILIP JAMES, poet, i. ... 450
272 as dramatist..
303 Arcadia, by Sir P. Sidney, i..... 187 BAILLIE, LADY GRISELL, poet, i..... 710
786 BAIN, ALEX., Prof., psychologist, ii.. 751
Feversham, anonymous BAKER, SIR RICHARD-his Chronicle, i. 367
141 BAKER, SIR SAMUEL WHITE, African
529 Balaklava, Battle of, by Russell, ii.....620
logian, ii. 352 ; as essayist. ii. 372; Ariosto, translated by Sir J. Harring BALE, BISHOP, as chronicler, i. 67; as