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he wants facts. The other feature of Mr Galt's criti- nine horses, a monkey, a bull-dog, and a mastiff, two cats, cism, to which we wish to direct our readers' attention, three peafowl, a harem of hens, books, saddles, and fireis his inveterate determination to see farther into a mill- arms, with a chaos of furniture;" (what a Miltonic idea!) stone than his neighbours. In this propensity he bears nor was the exodus less fantastical; for in addition to all a ludicrous resemblance to his own Bailie Waft, and his own clanjamphry, he bad Mr Hunt's miscellaneous others of his intellectual progeny. Indeed, since it has assemblage of chattels and chattery, and little ones." Nor been decided in full critical divan that Byron drew all is the self-complacency of that worthy less conspicuous his characters from himself, we see no reason why Mr in what follows :-“ In showing me her picture, be beGalt should not henceforth be esteemed the prototype of stowed upon her the endearing diminutive of' vixen, with all the small, prying, meddling, penny-wise and pound a hard-hearted adjective that I judiciously omit.” foolish heroes who swarm in his pages. We refer to his Our readers may think that we have bestowed more wonderful discoveries regarding Manfred; but the follow- time, space, and labour on this book than it deserves; but ing discourse (characterised by one of his friendly critics we felt ourselves called upon to put down this instance of as equally “ eloquent and just”) is too good to be passed the most overweening conceit on the part of an author, and over with a bare reference.
of most dishonest puffery on the part of a publisher, that “ It is singular, and I am not aware that it has been be- has disgraced the history of English literature. fore noticed, that, with all his tender and impassioned apos. trophes to beauty and love, Byron has in no instance, not even in the tinest passages of Don Juan, associated either Narrative of a Journey overland from England, by the the one or the other with sensual images. The extravagance Continent of Europe, Asia, and the Red Sea, to India ; of Shakspeare's Juliet, when she speaks of Romeo being including a Residence there, and a Voyage Home, in the cut, after death, into stars, that all the world may be in love
years 1825, 26, 27, and 28. By Mrs Colonel Elwood. with night, is flame and ecstasy compared to the icy meta
London. Colburn and Bentley. 1830. In two vo physical glitter of Byron's amorous allusions. The verses beginning with,
lumes, 8vo. Pp. 398 and 400. • She walks in beauty, like the light
After all, women have a knack of communicating an Of eastern clines and starry skies,'
interest to the occurrences of every-day life, by the delicate is a perfect example of what I have conceived of his body- grace and truth of their narrative, whieh men derer can less admiration of beauty and objectless enthusiasm of love. attain. When in a foreign land, the letter of a male relaThe sentiment itself is unquestionably in the highest mood tion is rather acceptable than otherwise ; but one from the of intellectual sense of beauty; the simile is, however, any; ladies is happiness. All the little household details are thing but such an image as the beauty of woman would given in such a light, graphic, and unobtrusive manner, suggest. It is only the remembranceof some impression or that we feel ourselves again
at home or better, we feel ourimagination of the loveliness of twilight, applied to an object that awakened the same abstract general idea of beauty. selves in a home that has all the charm of the real one, and The fancy which could conceive, in its passion, the charms from which a gentle spirit has breathed away all the little of a fomale to be like the glow of the evening, or the gene- sullennesses and uneasinesses that will at times settle down ral effect of the midnight stars, must have been enamoured upon the kindest hearts. If this peculiar power of the of some beautiful abstraction, rather than aught of tlesh female mind display itself in the compilation of domestic and blood. Poets and lovers have compared the complex. history, it evinces itseif no less happily in the narration of jons of their mistresses to the hues of the morning or the distant travel. It brings the most alien manners home to evening, and their eyes to the dewdrops and the stars; but it has no place in the feelings of man to think of female the heart like domestic things. Mrs Elwood's book is a charms in the sense of admiration which the beauties of the charining specimen of this peculiar style of composition. inorning or the evening awaken. It is to make the simile We have followed her with unabated interest through all the principal. There is upon the subject of love, no doubt, ber wanderings; but chiefly do we admire her account of much beautiful composition throughout his works; but not those spots where she made her abode longest. A beautione line in all the thousands which shows a sexual feeling of ful feature in the female character, is its power of striking female attraction; all is vague and passionless, save in the delicious rhythm of the verse."
root in every soil. It is woman who first creates and
gives a charm to home; and wherever her lot is cast, this This of the Poet of Parisina, Haidée, Gulnare, &c. power accompanies her. It is for this reason, that, much &c. &c.!
though we admire Mrs Elwood's overland journey, we : The style of the work, the reader must have seen even prefer dilating at present upon that part of her work from our few quotations, is any thing but English, But which relates to her residence in India. it would be doing the author injustice to pass over in
Part of that time she resided at Bombay, and part in silence all the impassioned and eloquent bursts which the district of Cutch, whither her husband was sent to adorn his pages. The following are a few specimens of take the command of a regiment stationed in the proMr Galt's fine writing, selected at random :—“ Of all the vince, which was in a somewhat disorderly state. In professors of metaphysical discernment, poets require the the course of her narrative of her voyage to and from finest tact ; and contemplation, is with them a sign of in- Cutch, and of her residence in Bhooj, she gives us a ward abstract contemplation more than of any process of lively and graphic sketch of the provinces of Guzerat and mind by which resemblance is traced and associations Cutch---two districts, of which, we suspect, little is geneawakened. There is no account of any great poet whose rally known in this country; a circumstance which may genius was of that dreamy cartilaginous kind, which hath serve as an apology for here presenting our readers with its being in haze.” “ Are there any symptoms of the
a summary of the information concerning them afforded gelatinous character of the effusions of the Lakers in the
by her book. compositions of IIomer ?” “ But the alloy of such small
The province of Cutch, so called from Catc'ha, a mo vanities, his caprice and feline temper, were as vapour rass, consists of a long strip of land, one hundred and compared with the mass of rich and rare ore which con- sixty miles in length, and sixty-five in breadth, extending stituted the orb and nucleus of his brilliancy.” “ In the along the ocean, from the mouth of the Indus to the course of the evening he began to thaw, and before the Gulf of Cutch. The sea-coast is an intermixture of jungle party broke up, his austerity began to leaf and hide its and sandy plains. A range of mountains of moderate thorus under the intiuence of a relenting temperament." height runs through the centre of the province, from " He was as a mystery in a winding-sheet, crowned with east to west, dividing it into two equal parts ; and paral. a halo"--which is the most satisfactory description we have seen of Lord Byron. In the following, all Laurie . It is but justice to an independent and talented journal to say, Tod stands contest.“ In moving from Ravenna to Pisa, that we have seen, since writing the above, a manly and sensible rehis caravan consisted of seven servants, five carriages, of its publication, in the Athenæum.
view of Galt's work, and some important contributions to the history
lel to this there is another range to the north.
every day be seen in England in noblemen's parks, and it tensive plain lies between them, on the edge of which
was situated in a low sandy island, which, report says, was 1 stands Bhooj, the capital of the district. An immense
once ot' much greater dimensious than at present; as also, morass called the Ruan, or the Bhunni, extends along world, is now only a third of its original size.
that the tree itself, though still probably the largest in the
At this the northern frontier. During the monsoon, the whole time, from the shallowness of the water, the Kubber Beer of this marsh becomes inundated with brackish water, was barely insulated, but was separated from the mainland driven by the south-west winds up a branch of the Indus. by a shelving bank of sand, and a streamlet of a few feet At the subsiding of the rains, the waters run off partly into wide. During the monsoons, however, it is completely that river, and partly into the bay of Cutch. The marshy inundated. It is supposed to have been known to the ari
groand thus uncovered, affords rich pasturage. The hills cients, for Arrian observes, that the Gymnosophists, in - of Cutch are of the wildest and most fantastic shapes, and
summer, when the heat becomes excessive, pass their tiine the whole country bears marks of volcanic violence. The ing to the accounts of Nearchus, cover a circumference of
in cool and moist places, under larye trees, which, accord. 5 greater part of the country is a barren rock; but occasion- tive acres, and extend their branches so far, that ten thou
ally a little stunted brushwood is met with, and tradi- sand men may easily tiud shelter under them.' Milton is sup* tion speaks of large forests which once covered the hills. posed to have alluded to this, in his poetical description of
Cutch is subdivided into a great many small provinces. • The fig-tree; not that tree for fruit renown'd, The inhabitants are wild and ferocious; said to be com But such as, at this day to Indians known, posed of the “refuse of Hind and Sind," half Muhamme.
In Malabar or Deccan, spreads her arms, dan, and half Hindoo. The reigning family are of the
Branching so broad and long, that in the ground Jharejah tribe, which boasts itself of Arabian descent. The
The bended twigs take root, and daughter's grow
About the mother tree, a pillar'd shade, government is a pure aristocracy, the power being vested in the chiefs of the different territories, the collective
High over-arch'd, and echoing walks between;
There oft the Indian herdsman, shunning heat, 7 landholders of which are called Bhyauds, or Brotherhoods, Shelters in cool, and tends his pasturing herds
and the individuals, Grassias. The Grassias pay much At loop-holes cut through thickest shade.'
respect to the Teelat, or head of their family. He de- And as I actually read this beneath its high branching si pends upon them for subsistence, frequently judges be- shades, I can assure you it is a very just account. tween them, and protects them from oppression. The Rao
“ We paid it two visits in the course of the day; but it of Catch has despotic power only over his own ryots (pea- is not, as I used to fancy in England, one immense tree, sants); but the Bhyauds owe him military service. several distinct main stems, not very much connected with
with its brauches extending all around, but there are now Cutch was subdued by the English in 1819, and the each other ; perhaps about twenty in number, ench of the $ police is now entirely in their hands, although the Rao size of a large oak in England, besides innumerable smaller
is still allowed to exercise a noininal authority. The ones, which are united together by large beams of singular * language of Cuteh is said to be a dialect of the Sanscrit, appearance. In some places, there was the appearance of
inuch mixed with Sindy and Guzerattee. It was long the aisles of a Gothic cathedral, and it presented, in every regarded as a mere patois ; but more correct notions of direction, a boundless contiguity of shade. There was an its character, it is to be boped, will soon be obtained, as
immense deal of underwood, which somewhat injured the
effect of this superb tree; but the whole had the appearance the Rev. Me Gray, late of the High School in this city; of a regular forest. This is said to have sprung from the is employed in forming a grammar of the Cutchee, and tooth-pick of the famous Saint Kubbeer, who planted it in translating the Scriptures into it. The agriculture, ma this spot, and from whoin it had derived its name. About nufactures, and commerce of Cutch, are at a very low the isle roamed several Bheels, absolute savages in appearebb; and, except from its importance as a frontier, it can ance, with a sort of petticoat round their waists, and a cloth scarcely repay the Company the expense of reducing it.
over their heads, with bows and arrows of the rudest de The province, formerly the kingdom, of Guzerat, is scription in their hands, reseinbling such as are used by the more extensive and varied in its character than its neigh- and an immense number of flying foxes, or bats, were play
South Sea islanders,--sacred peacocks were fluttering about, bour. It extends from the point of Gometee in the ing among the branches, and springing from tree to tree. island of Bate, at the extremity of the peninsula of Gu- More frightful creatures it is impossible to conceive, and so zerat, on the west, to near Naundade, a town on the exactly similar to the description of the barpies in the Æneid, Nerbudda, on the east; and from the Head of Diu, that I could but think
of Æneas and Ascanius, who lost on the south, to a considerable way beyond Ahmedabad, their dinner twice from their rapacity; and really, if those on the north. Besides being washed by the waters of Demoiselles resembled these hideous animals, the want of the Gulf of Cutch and the ocean, it is deeply
indented by gallantry in the Trojan heroism driving them away might the Gulf of Cambay. or the peninsula, it is remarked “ Beneath a rude but resided the priest, who attended that there is not "a more fertile or less explored domain, on the idol Kubber Beer, whose temple consists of a very for the antiquary, or for the exercise of the pencil, both rude
sınall rooin, in a humble shed, where were also some in architecture and natural scenery.” Across the neck sacred cows stabled. The idol is of rude workmanship, of the peninsula extends a morass similar to the Runn of with a very yellow face, sitting cross-legged, in the Indiair Catch, uniting, during the rainy season, the Gulfs of style, and much resembling the images of Bhudd. Sume Cutch and Cambay. The continental part of Guzerat is of his relics were preserved; and a silver tobacco-box, and
an old wooden chair, were shown to us, as bis quoudain rather fertile than picturesque. Guzerat is partly sub- property. The whole scene was as wild and as savage as ject to the British, and partly to the Guiocar, a native possible, and we night sooner have inagimed ourselves on prince. The landholders are divide l into Bhyauds as in an island in the Pacitic Ocean, than on one in the heart of Cutch. The most powerful tribes are the Bheels, the
the British doiniuions." Coolies, the Cattywars, and the Rajpoots—all of preda We have said above, that one of the principal charms tory habits. Continental Gazerat is rich in vegetable of female composition is the graceful manner in which productions; and it contains valuable cornelian mines. they relate occurrences not in themselves particularly No less than tive rivers of considerable magnitude fall into striking. By means of this talent, Mrs Elwood has the sea within the boundaries of the province, which also been enabled to present us with some inimitable portraits, contains several cities of great wealth and extensive com not dashed off at once, but formed insensibly by a number
It has several Brahminical colleges, and one of minute touches. Thus she never professes to give it place of peculiar sanctity in the eyes of Hindoo devotees formnal account of her native waiting-maid, yet, when we -the Kubber Beer. Mrs Elwood's account of the latter collect all the incidental notices of that person, we find has an appearance of truth to nature, that induces us to
that they convey au extremely pleasing picture of a Hininsert it here:
doo female : " From thence, the Kubber Brer, or Kubeer Eur, had “ Tha ayah, or lady's maid, attends persoually and exexactly the appearance of a clump of trees, such as may clusively upon her inistress. Mine was a Madrus woman
DESCRIPTION OF AN EARTHQUAKE.
of the name of Zacchina, duly ornamented with nose and par-rings, a necklace of gold sequins round her throat, and
“On the 16th June, 1819, Puorbunder was very much bangles on her arms and ankles, whose silvery sound always gave notice of her approach. She wore the graceful Hin
injured by an earthquake, which was felt at the same instant Hvo sarree, which ever and anon would fall from her head, the capital of Cutch ; but with this exception, earthquakes,
at Calcutta, and also nearly destroyed the town of Bhoj, and her right band was constantly and inechanically employed in arranging her drapery, which always reminded though frequent in Hindostan, have never been destructive.
“ The sun had vanished below the borizon about twenty ine of that of a Grecian statue. She was very handy, and su quiet in her movements, that it was quite delightful ; for minutes, the evening was calm and sultry, -not a breath of she never came into my presence
, any more indeed than any animated nature, when who was taking his evening of the other servants, without previously taking off her walk with bis subaltern officer on the ramparts of the furt, slippers. This is the Eastern mark of respect, which is which were at that part about seventeen feet high, and invariably paid to a superior.”—“The natives in general commanded an extensive view of the ocean, suddenly heard seein to lead an easy, do-nothing sort of existence; indeed,
a sound like a cannonade at sea, though it was at a season I fancy the description my ayah gave me of a party she went to, would suffice for that of several of their enter
when no ships could be off the coast, and wbilst anxiously tainments. On my asking her what she had done at this listening, a violent stroke, as it' of electricity coming up festival, she answered, 'I sit down, ma’am-other women
through the ramparts, struck the soles of their fret. Look. come, eat rior, talk.' When not in actual attendance on
ing up, far as the eye could reach they beheld the parapets me, she spent the greater part of the day sitting in a very awfully waving, backwards and forwards. Exclaiming, graceful attitude, with her bead on her hand, and her in
• Au earthquake!' and expecting to see the works, which
were too bigh to jump from, separate beneath their feet, variable answer, if I asked her what she was doing, was, they ran to, and descended from, the nearest ramp, which • Ma'am, I sit down.'"-" On my asking the ayah one evening, what made the dogs bark so vehemently, with a
was about fifty yards off, and as they passed onwards, the look of terror she exclaimed, The deevils, ma'am! dogs see
masonry had a gritting noise, deevils , know deevils-always bark!'”– On one occasion, quickly as possible, for fear they should fall upon them,
“ Having attained a certain distance from the walls as the cook having killed a snake, from which all the other their aitention was attracted by a cloud of dust, reaching to servants Aled, my ayah expressed her surprise and indigna- the sky, produced by the fall of several stone towers, and tion very warmly at its audacity, in presuming to come •where inadam walked.””_“ Hearing a violent sáriek, and breaches in the curtains of the fort were formed, up which going into the inner room to enquire the cause, I found the
a company of soldiers could have marched abreast with
facility. ayah in violent agitation, declaring she had seen a snake yliding into our sleeping apartment. As it was not a very
“ The whole city was in confusion,-isolated houses agreeable companion, we caused a search to be made, but it
were seen to rock like trees in a high wiud,- individuals was so long before it could be found, that the servant said
were thrown down from the upper stories, – but, singular
to relate, the Rana, who was riding in his garree, or car of she must be mistaken. She was very indignant at having hier veracity
doubted, and complained bitterly of the boy state, near the fort, never felt the shock which so much in• He say, ma'am, I lie woman!'”-“All our servants paid
jured the capital. a visit to this holy shrine, but not till they bad performed
“ On the following morning, C-, who was riding several ablutions ; for my ayah, who came to ask permis
near a lake, observed a smoke arise from its waters, and a sion to go, told me, * I wash hair, ma'am. I go see Kub Hame, about three feet high, covering a sandy ridge of hills, ber Beer.' Indeed she was a true devotee, and was deter accompanied with a strong smell of sulphur. Upon submined to make use of every opportunity that presented it- sequently returning to investigate the cause of this appearself of getting rid of her sins, for she visited every holy prived of their verdure, as if from the influence of fire,
ance, he found the shrubs on the hills blackened, and deshrine inost indefatigably."
“ The shocks were repeated daily for a week, and the In the same lady-like and unpretending manner, she whole country seemed to the feelings undulated, like the brings before us all the motley inhabitants of Hindostan sen after a violent storm.. This was accompanied by nausea, who fall under her observation : the European soldier or sickness, lassitude, weakness in the knees, and a disposition civilian, the Indian devotee, the Bheel marauder, and subsequently repeated at intervals of a fortnight, then of
to lie down in a recumbent position. Slighter shocks were the Parsee. One anecdote of an individual of the last month, but did not wholly cease for a period of two years." mentioned sect is too good to be omitted :
DESCRIPTION OF A STORM AT SEA. “Some very fine ships have been constructed in the Bombay docks entirely by Parsees, and mostly by the Jums began to blow, and continued some days without intermis
“ Soon after midnight, a tremendous north-western gale heedjee family. "The ancestor of this family came origiWally from Guzerat. A story is told of biin, that in one heaved up to the clouds, and were then precipitated by gulfy
sion. The seas ran mountains higb, and we now seemed of the first ships of the line which he built, and which was considered a masterpiece of workmanship, he inserted a
whirlpools into the bed of the ocean. It was awful, during silver plate, in the pride of his heart, with an inscription, the pitchy, darkness of the night, to hear the ship
straining stating that this ship was built by a black tellow,
as it'in pain, and the Spirit of the storm howling round, as rising a stronger epithet than I can mention, but which is it anxious to gain admittance, wherever be might discover frequently applied to the dark-complexioned natives, by the scarcely audible amid the uproar of the elements, and the
a started board; whilst the sbrill cries of tbe pilot were jale-faced European Burra Sahibs.”
boisterous fury of the wind. We frequently shipped treMrs Elwood is much addicted to description. This is mendous seas, and continued for some time sailing only with
our storm stay-sail. Our buwsprit was at one time en. rather a dangerous line for any person to attempt. The
gulfed in a head-sea, which snapped the jib-boom asupder, feeling of the beautiful, whether awakened by the con carried away some of the bulwarks of the weather-bow with templation of scenery, or any thing else, is elementary; its a prodigious crash, and the main-iast was much strained. essence is unity ; its duration brief. To move the minds * Those who have been in storms at sea, will not wonder of others, its expression must be momentary as itself— at the superstitious fears that haunt the sailor, who, during like lightning swallowed by the darkness, before we can
the live-long nigbt, whilst the face of nature is concealed in say " it is.” Formal expansions of this feeling, over long thousand deinons howling and yelling around his devoted
almost supernatural darkness, hears, or fancies he hears, ten pages, destroy it. It is from this cause that, while many vessel, eager for its destruction, and of Mrs Elwood's allusions to the scenery through which
Whilst the brave mariner, in every wave she passes have a picturesque charm about thein, her set
That breaks and bursts, forebodes his watery grave,' descriptions are seldom happy. She shows to most advantage where the object is of itself sufficiently grand to
it were impossible not to feel some degree of horror and engross her whole mind, and prevent her running riot in idea that, were the pilot for one instant to fail in his duty,
dread at the probability of the impending danger. The bare search of heightening associations. The two annexed extracts give a pretty just notion of the powers she dis # The shocks had four distinct motions ; a rotatory, or circular, plays when thus possessed, and with them we close this
a vibratory, or projectile, and an undulatory movement. By the desultory notice of her work :
first, stones were completely turned round in the walls, in the most extraordinary manner.
or a single leak to occur, daring so dreadful a storm, the public law, the literature, the ornamental architecture, of vessel must founder, fills the bravest heart with awe, and modern Europe, have all been bequeathed to us by the the most unthinking mind with nervous apprehension. "Such was the height of the waves, that at one instant, tribe belonged, and which, from its theology, has been
different off-shoots of the great race to which the Gothic from the stern windows, nothing was visible but a mountainous billow, apparently about to overwhelm the vessel termed the Teutonic. But it is equally true, that our with destruction, when anon, there was nought but the sky oldest specimens of architecture—that art, to which the to be seen, according as the ship ascended, or descended, the book whose title stands at the head of this article more lofty ridges of water; and a vessel that passed near us was particularly directs our attention-are of a date which at times quite obscured from sight, by the intervening mass may be regarded as modern, when compared with the of water. It flew up with such tremendous velocity, that final submersion of the Gothic name. with a very little stretch of fancy, it might have been deemed the Flying Dutchman,' which frequents these stormy seas,
It is impossible to determine in which nation of Eu. and is, according to the on-dit of the sailois, then oftenest to rope this style of architecture first originated. The oldbe seen, when an elemental war is carrying on off the est specimens which we have of it are to be found in difstormy Cape."
frrent countries, and seem nearly contemporaneous. One thing is certain, that they are only to be found in coun
tries where some tribe of the Teutonic race (Normans, Engravings of Ancient Cathedrals, Hotels de Ville, and Lombards, Franks, or Angles) succeeded in establishing other Public Buildings of Celebrity in France, Holland,
a permanent and organized government. Another striGermany, and Italy, drawn on the spot, and engraved by king fact connected with its history is, that its most magJohn Coney; with Illustrative Descriptions by Heath nificent specimens have been reared by architects and cote Tatham, Esq. and able Assistants. Parts 1. to VI. workmen, united together by ties of mutual dependence, London. Moon, Boys, and Graves. 1830.
and claiming no country save that where they were
working at the time. These splendid monuments of archiIn the north of Italy; the west and south of Germany, tectural genius are not monuments of their age, but (as in France and the Netherlands, we find, wherever we much as the writings of a few recluse and lettered monks) turn our steps, cathedrals built on a gigantic scale, and all of the individual genius of those who devised and executed of them impressed with a sufficiently uniform character them; or, at most, of the prince who had the taste to ento entitle us to consider them as ranking under one style courage their erection. Where the few, who thus raised of architecture. Upon this, in common with all the styles themselves above their age, learned their art, is a question practised in Europe during the middle ages, the name that has given rise to many absurd hypotheses. Travelof " Gothic Architecture” has been conferred, than which lers have discovered pointed arches in one place, rich a more anfitting or unmeaning epithet could scarcely be tracery in another; and from such narrow grounds as imagined. The term is unmeaning in as far as regards these have they sought to infer the native country of the characteristic peculiarities of this style of architecture; what, for want of a better term, we must still continue and, historically speaking, it is false.
to call Gothic architecture. It ought always to be had The Goths have been justly celebrated for their de- in memory, that the elementary forms which can be used structive, but they have left us no traces of their construc- in architecture are few—the cube, the circle, or the obtive, talents. The Goths were but one of the tribes long, with their compounds; surmounted by a roof, terwhich composed the numerous race inhabiting, when first raced, or composed of inclined planes, or a dome; the discovered by the Romans, the immense tract extending walls constructed of solid masonry, or of pillars or arches, from the Danube to the Baltic, and from the Rhine to with interstices. In so narrow a field, even nations the Elbe, and claiming a common descent from their deity which never have had intercourse with each other, must Tuiston, or Teuton. We find the Goths at first on the necessarily use the same form; nay, as the ornaments shores of the Baltic, somewhat more civilized, we are told clustered around the indispensable parts of the building by Tacitus, than the surrounding septs, but not advanced are imitations of such natural objects as please the eye, beyond that stage of refinement in which the American even these resemblances must occasionally be found in Indians were afterwards found. (Gothones—paulo jam two national styles of building entirely original and inadductius quam ceteræ Germanorum gentes ; nondum tamen dependent. The character, therefore, possessed in comsupra libertatem.) We next find them, some centuries mon by two styles of architecture, which shall entitle us later, on the banks of the Danube, increased to a mighty to infer that the one bas been suggested by the other, nation, partly by their own fecundity, partly by the in- must be of a much more pervading and fundamental nacorporation of vanquished tribes, loaded with the plunder ture than any upon which theorists on this subject have of the East, now threatening the Roman Empire, now hitherto based their conjectures. themselves rendered tributary by the Huns. The nation There are two styles of architecture, which, after careof the Goths split about this time into two independent ful reflection, we are inclined to regard as decidedly oricommunities, the one of which established a kingdoin in ginal, and native to the soil in which we first find them ; the north of Italy, the other penetrated into Spain, and although upon this subject, as upon all where we want sabjected the greater part of that country to its sway. The the corroboration of contemporary history, we speak with ephemeral kingdom of the Ostrogoths was soon swal- diffidence. One is the pillared style, which we find in lowed up by the Lombard invasion. That of the Visi- Greece, Egypt, and among the ruins of Persepolis. It goths survived till overturned by the Saracens. They is of little consequence in which of these countries it first have left behind them fragmentary traces of their laws originated. There is a simplicity about it, which deand language, but not one solitary structure from which monstrates it to be a primitive style of architecture. Its we can infer their architectural taste or talent.
forms have evidently been suggested by the dwellings of We do not think that we lay too much stress upon a race advanced beyond nomadic habits, and inhabiting these facts. Into the antiquities of architecture, as into houses (or huts) not calculated to be removed from one those of law and literature, a sort of shallow, half- place to another. Lastly, it is adapted, in its earliest and learned pretenders have introduced an immense deal of most simple form, to genial climates alone, and such as confusion by their abuse of the word Gothic. They are not liable to variable weather. The other style, the have, in their ignorance, substituted an appellative de- prominent feature of which is the cupola, seems, with equal rived from the name of a single family, for one derived certainty, referable to a race accustomed to inhabit tents, from the nation of which it was only a branch; and upon and whose ideas of architectural form were materially inthis misnomer they have built up empty and absurd Auenced by the babit of viewing such dwellings. In its speculations, which will long continue to embarrass the simplicity of design, we recognise in this style, as in the rational investigation of antiquity. It is true, that the former, a primitive character, and, like the former, it'
seems best adapted, by its lightness and airiness, to a sunny arrangements of this style of architecture may be vaclimate.
ried as much as the elementary forms employed in the We omit the more complex system of arcbitecture art admit of, and yet its essential character remain unwhich obtained under the Roman empire, throughout the changed. The buildings constructed upon its prindprovinces subject to its sway, as noi vearing upon our ples alone are suited to the climate of the north of Europe, present subject; and pass on to the consideration of two and the wants of its inhabitants. We do not deny the styles, which were introduced nearly about the same time, beauty of the Grecian structures that ornament our city; the one in the south, the other in the north, of Europe. but we say that the best of them—the High SchoolWe mean the Saracenic and Gothic styles. They have proves the truth of our assertion. Windows are indis. one very important feature in common ; they are both of pensible in our climate. In order to retain the Grecian them derivative styles ; learned by nations, who had no character, the architect has been obliged to introduce architecture of their own, from a people more advanced; them into this building, in such a manner that they sball modified by peculiar tastes, and adapted to peculiar cir- scarcely be seen. But it is a strange style of architect. cumstances; but retaining, in some measure, a cosmopo ure which requires that one of the essential parts of a lite character, compounded of several primitive styles, and building shall be kept out of view. In a Gothic building, deficient in simplicity. They differ in this material (at the hazard of appearing pedantic, we again protest point, that the Saracenic monuments, of which such splen- against the name,) the windows form the most prominent did remains are still to be seen in Spain, are exclusively and beautiful features of the structure. We beg, however, suited to a warın, the Gothic, scattered through France, in stating this opinion, that we may not be understood to Lombardy, Germany, the Netherlands, and England, praise every childish combination of arched window and are adapted to a cold climate. And with this remark, fretted roof, to wbich the appellation Gothic has been we dismiss the subject of Saracenic architecture for the given. present, having now settled those preliminaries which To conclude, it is not our intention at present to enter were indispensable to a just theory of the origin and pe- into any criticism of the particular buildings pourtrayed culiar character of what has absurdly been termed Gothic in Mr Coney's work. We may, however, return to the architecture.
subject as soon as another number appears. It is, howGothic architecture, then, is not an original style. It ever, but doing him justice to say, that his work is, both did not arise, like the Grecian, among an unmixed na in point of selection and execution, the best of the kind tion, suggested by the form of its simple habitations. It yet published in England. The engravings are executed was adopted in a highly composite and refined state from in the continental style, and printed on French paper. another people. In the mosque of St Sophia, built This gives them a breadth and richness of effect, far beduring the latter ages of the Roman Empire, we can al- yond what is attainable by the smooth, mannered style ready trace the rudiments of those peculiarities which of English engravers in general. It harmonizes, too, mark Gothic architecture. It was from, this and other
with the florid and massive character of the architecture. edifices its contemporaries, that the architects of the Were we to select an especial favourite, where every middle ages derived their knowledge of architectural thing pleases us, we should fix upon the view of the Caforins and proportions. The character of the buildings thedral at Rheims, in the part just about to be pablished. which they constructed out of these elements, was deter- | The greatest triumph over difficulties is the view of the mined by the uses to which they were destined, and the Cathedral at Milan. nature of the climate in which they were erected. The earliest ornamental edifices in all nations are those in which the prince administers justice, or the nation assembles to deliberate on its policy, and, in an especial man
A Treatise on Pulmonary Consumption, its Prevention and ner, the temples of religion. In warmer climates, the
Remedy. By Jobn Murray, F.S. A. F.L.S. F.H.S
F.G.S., &c. &c. London. Whittaker. 1830. use of a roof was more frequently to exclude heat than to shelter from the intemperance of cold. Many national The medical profession, and more especially the public solemnities were celebrated in the open air. Ilence the at large, will be delighted to learn that a Mr John Morgreat object of Oriental architecture is to secure a degree ray, who is a member of seventeen distinguished societies of refreshing coolness ; while the Grecian temple was and institutions, all of which, with two et celeras subrather an object of contemplation from without, than des- joined, are emblazoned on the title-page of this “ little tined to shelter assembled multitudes. In the north of volume," has stepped forward to announce to the world Europe, the length and intensity of the winter rendered the cheering fact of his having discovered a specific for the shelter from the external air an object of importance; and cure of Pulmonary Consumption ! Inspired with a feelto combine the enjoyment of this comfort with the possi-ing of modesty, such as perhaps never before animated a bility of assembling in multitudes, and to unite beauty disciple of Esculapius, he coolly dedicates his Treatise to and magnificence with their attainment, was the problem the Duke of Wellington, and takes care to inform his to be solved by the architect. The forms in which dif- Grace, that “the priority of having first suggested and ferent fragments of stone could be reared upon each other, employed aerial chlorine in pulmonary phthisis” is to be so as to form one great and ornamental whole, be learned ascribed to the author. He reiterates his claim to this from the remains of Roman art; the manner in which equivocal distinction in the Preface, and sinks into the to apply this knowledge to the necessities of his country- following agreeable reverie. “We(that is, Mr John Mur. men, was the suggestion of his own genius. The de-ray) do confess that we feel cheered and happy in the resideratum was a building allowing free ingress to the flection, that, even when we have iningled with the clods light, while it excluded the storm, large enough to con of the valley, and our name and memory have perished, tain immense multitudes, grand enough to harmonize numbers yet unborn may owe their lives and rescue from with the majestic solemnities in which they were en suffering to the remedies we have promulgated, which, so gaged. The lofty proportions of Gothic architecture, far froin benefiting their author, have cost him much its huge masses of solid wall, broken and relieved by thought and anxiety, and many pecuniary sacrifices !" innumerable arches, pilasters, and pinnacles, have sup- All this is very pathetic and ainiable; but although we plied it. In this rich union of utility and grandeur, do not wish to break the spell of such a dream, we cannot in any individual detail, not in the form of arch, or not help binting, that the greater the flourish of trumpets the festooning of a tracery, are we to seek for the prin- which heralds a procession, the more insignificant is often ciple which gives its value and character to our northern the pageant that follows; and that, when an author thus architecture. We wish to direct the attention of our announces bis own claims to be considered the discoverer architects to this important truth. The forms and of some splendid truth, it occasionally turns out that,