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washed away footpaths, undermined walls, tore down trees, Aoated LITERARY CHIT-CHAT AND VARIETIES.

hay, destroyed grain, inundated the Nungate, and then threatened

to wreak on the distillery the grudge that it has entertained towards A volume is preparing for the press, entitled the Churchyard Lyrist, that establishment ever since an unexpected visit of the gauger which is to contain five hundred original epitaphs. We recommend caused it to vomit forth a fiery death upon all the little fishes. Our it to the attention of disconsolate widows and desolate orphans. county rooms are undergoing a repair just now; the new spire,

The Author of “ Marriage" is engaged writing a new Novel. which is to be 120 feet in height, is one-third up, and promises to The title, we understand, is “ Destiny."-Atherstone, the author of become an ornament to the town.-Literature and the Arts flourish “ The Fall of Nineveh," announces a prose work-The Sea Kings of in Haddington; we have got an “ East Lothian Literary and StatisEngland, a romance of the time of Alfred.

tical Journal," and we have made Macdonald a burgess.—He *** The Rev. Henry Tattam and William Osbum, jun. have clubbed the beginning of the Eclipse, which is more than most of our neightheir forces to produce a Lexicon of the Coptic, Sahidic, and Bash bours can say.- Private theatricals are flourishing. An old acquaintmuric dialects; containing all the words of the ancient languages of ance of yours has made her debut with great eclat in the character Egypt that have been preserved ; with their signification in Greek, of Jeanie Deans. Latin, and English. The work is to be published in a cheap form, CHIT-CHAT FROM AYR.-Green was a prodigious favourite in the and by subscription.

west country, and we are glad the Literary Journal has done juse Mr William Laurie, late teacher of Arithmetic and Book-keeping tice to him.-Our lofty steeple-the highest in Scotland (?)-has just in Edinburgh and Glasgow, is about to publish, by subscription, a received its pinnacle-a handsome Triton, nine feet high, and in the new and improved system of book-keeping. Mr Laurie's certificates face a good likeness of the noble author of Childe Harold! The of ability as a teacher are very high, and his state of health, which building gives another proof of the genius and refined taste of your has lately disqualified him from pursuing his profession, entitles him townsman, Mr Hamilton.-Our aspiring authorities, not contented to the support of the public.

with raising a steeple of their own, are about to elevate oar old and The EDINBURGH REVIEW AND THE PUFFING SYSTEM.-We time-worn friend, " The Wallace Tower," fifty feet higher. Our have expressed ourselves, on more than one occasion, in terms of patriotic and church-going Bailie Williamson has set a subscription reprobation respecting the system, now so generally adopted by pub- a-foot for erecting a statue of the hero, from whom it derives its lishers, of circulating broadsides filled with ready

made extracts, for name, in an appropriate niche of the building. Thom is to be the the use of lazy critics. We certainly did not expect to find the pub- sculptor. By the way, the dinner given to him and our ingenious lishers of the Edinburgh Review condescending to such paltry shists friend Stevens, the portrait painter, is to be eaten in the very appro--nor have they—they have plunged infinitely deeper. We received, priate locality bf the neighbourhood of Burns's monument. this week, from them, not a selection of quotations, but a goodly Theatrical Gossip.–First in importance to us are the arrangements broadside, containing six pretty lengthy reviews of their fast num of our own little snuggery, the Theatre Royal. The front elevation is ber, garnished with extracts. Each of these is drawn up in a different to be advanced a foot, and a Doric is to be substituted for the present form, and each selects a favourite article as the object of its special Ionic portico. The lessee attempted to secure some additional space patronage,-occasionally even a little censure is cautiously adminis. behind, but the price asked was so high as to render this out of the tered, as shadows are introduced by painters, to heighten the effect question. The interior will be completely gutted. The boxes are to of their bright colours,-but the predominating tone is flattery. We be as formerly, the pit a little more roomy. Improvements will be never for a moment suspected that the Editor was aware of this made in the entrances and lobbies. The greater part of the shabby trick; and we have since learned that he was not.

scenes are to be new. Mr Matthew is engaged to do the front elevaCHIT-CHAT FROM LONDON.-Stanfield, who has so long wasted his tion-Mr M'Gibbon to do the portion of the interior where the powers as head scene-painter to Drury Lane, has left that establish audience are accommodated--and Mr Jefferiss to do the east side ment in a huff, at some neglect, real or fancied, of his sister-in-law, of the building, the stage, and the decorations. It is calculated Mademoiselle Angelina.-The late inquest on Miss Cashin has not that the house will be opened about the middle of November, immerely exposed the quack who killed her; it has shown in a striking mediately after the preachings. ' Pritchard has been re-engaged. light the credulity of the higher ranks, whose education ought to -Two new pieces have been produced at the Adelphi, far. put them on their guard, wherever their own health is concerned. cical extravagance, entitled “The Deuce is in Her;” and a pier A man of no education whatever professed to cure, by one and the of the pathetic cast, called " The Foster Brothers." There is same specific, gout, consumption, inveterate ulcers, and, for aught not much in either of them.—"The First of April," by Miss BasI can see, every disease for which physicians have a name. Yet, un. den, has been acted several times at the Haymarket, and proves, deterred by the palpable grossness of such pretensions, Peers and as•might have been anticipated from the title, a fool-ish piece of Peeressés, members of Parliament, grave Divines, and in short all work. The two last-mentioned trifles are adaptations from the the wealth, rank, and fashion of the country, subrpitted themselves French stage—when shall we again see an English piece by an Eng. to his pawing. The justice of the verdict, however, finding a charge lish author 1--Laporte is recruiting on the Continent.--Pasta is to of manslaughter competent against Mr St John Long, is questionable. perform at the King's Theatre during the latter part of the season; If his infatuated patients, seeing the man's ignorance and presump- Signora Jose has been treated with for the first part, but no definite tion, put themselves under his charge, their blood rests upon their arrangement has yet been made with her.-Miss Fanny Kemble reown heads. The best specific, administered by the most cautious ceived, during her late engagement at Liverpool, one half of the and skilful physician, may at times prove fatal, and the present ver. gross receipts. They amounted, for the whole period, to somewhat dict might apply equally to such cases. The man has been thoroughly less than L.2009,bliss Kemble received for her share L.856—the exposed, and no more can be done. The Editor of the Lancet has, lessees, having to pay the expenses of the house out of their moiety, by his exertions on this occasion, cstablished a claim upon the Lon-pocketed only L.300.—The Dublin Theatre has passed to a new doners to the vacant office of Coroner, for which he is at present a lessee. Mr Calcraft is to be acting manager, and is at present in candidate.

London making arrangeinents. --Bass of the Caledonian went up in Chit-CHAT PROM ABERDEEN.—This town is at present as dull as Green's balloon-Roland, prince of punsters as of swordsmen, says, heart could wish.-We had no races last year, nor prospect of them to seek for stars, but he seems unly to have found clouds, for the this. Not but our gentlemen of the turf retain their old tastes- history of his flight, which he delivered to a crowded house, was so their poverty, but not their will, consents.-Our theatre is shut; pa nebulous as to be all but unintelligible.-Alexander has closed the noramas, composition figures, wild beasts, even Punch's opera, have season at Glasgow, with a speech which reminds us irresistibly of a abandoned us. The sound of fiddlers and ballad singers is low in royal harangue on the dissolution of Parliament.-Jones had a to our streets. Nay, the very Eclipse of the Moon, which, by right of lerable house at Perth on the night of his benefit. It is remarked position, we ought to have seen as well as our neighbours, was ob that the taste for the drama has declined in that city ever since it scured by clouds. Varicus remedies have been suggested for the de had a regular theatre. We have observed the same anomalous fact pressed state of affairs here, but the only one likely to be adopted is in other country towns. St Andrews has not yet got a regular theatre, a petition to Parliament. The second number of the “* Aberdeen and therefore Ryder seems to have made a tolerable campaiga there. Independent," and of the “ Christian Investigator,” have appeared. It has been intimated in the “ Aberdeen Observer," that the Editor of the “ Independent," disguisted at the trammels in which the coterie connected with it wished to place him, threw up his situation

TO OUR CORRESPONDENTS. immediately after the appearance of the first number. He has been succeeded by a Mr Brown.—The “ Aberdeen Journal" has got a “ R." of Migvie requests an impossibility-the verses accompanynew editor. This paper was startel immediately after the battle of ing his letter won't do.- an Edinburgh Correspondent asks whether Culloden, and has already made the fortune of three generations. we ieceive anonymous communications? Yes: if they be good.Our townsman, Dyce, is here just now, and has brought with him a How long has the gentle and fair • Elgiva” been doomed to the most masterly land seapema view of Aberdeen and the surrounding uncongenial drudgery of a lawyer's office ?-"W. D." asks, , Will country. It is painted for the present proprietor of the Journal, this do ?" No.The churchyard of “Q. S. Q." is too like other whose classic mansion occupies a conspicuous place in it.

churchyards. -Our friend from West-houses ventures on ticklish CHIT-CHAT FROM HADDINGTON.-The picturesque tiver Tyne, ground.–Our Clauchen.pluck correspondent is under consideration. which waters our picturesque town and country, has lately played—“ D. F.” says, if his productions do not get a place in our Joure the very deuce with our pleasure-groun is and promenades. It (nal, he has seen much worse in it. That is impossible.

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LITERARY CRITICISM,

were purse-proud; that is, capable of any expenditure

which was likely to raise them in the estimation of other The History of the Netherlands. By Thomas Colley nations, or of their fellow-citizens ; yet, in their daily

Grattan. (Cabinet Cyclopædia, Vol. X.) London. avocations, careful, and even penurious in their habits. Longman and Co. 1830.

Accustomed from infancy to struggle with the elements,

they were insensible to danger ; but there was no tone of The kingdom of the Netherlands comprises at present romance in their character, no love of war for its excitenearly all the provinces which, under the same title, were ment, or the glory to be obtained by it. Intellectual ceded by Charles V., on his abdication, to his son Philip exertion had taken the direction of theological controversy II. of Spain. The internal wars excited by the latter and the investigation of general jurisprudence. These monarch's attempts to introduce the Spanish Inquisition topics were not, until very lately, emancipated from the into these lands, occasioned a separation between the fetters of the Latin language ; and the neglect into which southern and northern provinces ; and this circumstance, the mother tongue fell by this means, at once excluded as well as the different forms and spirit of government, the great mass of the population from the cultivation of and different characters of the neighbouring and kindred literature, and deprived them of the softening power, innations to which it gave occasion, render a short review sensibly exercised over a people's mind by the general diffuof their history indispensable to a right understanding of sion of a retined dialect. The political arrangements, their present relations. **

which left to the body of the people the exercise of duties The Netherlands were, at the period of Philip's acces which elsewhere devolved upon the government, nesion, from their commercial and manufacturing industry, cessarily called into existence a strong body of practhe richest portion of his inheritance. Art, science, and tical talent. The dampness of their climate rendered literature, were there in as flourishing a condition as in an attention to cleanliness in their dwellings so indisany country in Europe. "The spirit of resistance to the pensable, that it became, to a striking degree, a feature bigotry of their monarch showed itself earliest, and with in the Dutch character. The necessity of conciliating most turbulence, in the provinces south of the Rhine; all classes, had introduced toleration of every kind of but soon spread over the whole country. The southern religious belief. All these circumstances, operating upon provinces, destitute of any definite purpose, and incapable a rather phlegmatic national temperament, contributed of union, fell back, one by one, under the sway of Spain, to render the Dutch a very peculiar people. from whose hands they subsequently passed into those of The conquest of the Belgians by their former masters Austria. The northern provinces, chiefly through the bad re-established the old superstition in all its power, influence exercised over them by the manly spirit of and checked the free play of the human mind. The William of Orange, presented a more organised resistance Austrian Netherlands, no longer the seat of governto the Spaniard, and after a long and bloody struggle, ment, sunk into the character of a colony. The high achieved their independence. The constitution which commercial rank which they had attained, could not be they adopted can only be regarded as a compromise, on altogether taken from them, but their enterprise was the one hand, between the mutual jealousies of the Seven checked and disheartened, and their industry decayed. Provinces composing the Republic, on the other, between National spirit disappeared with national independence ; the gratitude which all of them felt to be due to the and what accomplishments were cultivated by persons in House of Orange, and their fears of its power. Each easy circumstances, were copied in a servile manner from state retained the exclusive management of its own in the fashionable circles of France. The dialects of the ternal affairs, and adhered bigotedly to its old laws and different provinces were regarded as vulgar patois, and forms of administering justice. The transactions of the French became the exclusive language of all who aspired united republic_hostile or friendly-with foreign na to be considered as ranking above the mere vulgar. With 'tions, were managed by a convention of delegates from the all these disadvantages, the fertility of the soil in most different states, each having only one vote. The office of parts of the Austrian Netherlands, and tie industry of the Stadtholder was virtually heritable in the family of peasantry and manufacturers, diffused a considerable de. Orange, but its functions and privileges were vaguely gree of opulence and comfort through the country. The defined. This interim constitution—for it deserves no bet- inhabitants were of a lively and susceptible temperament, ter name-enjoyed a much longer existence than could more akin to their French, than their Dutch neighbours. have been predicated from its natural weakness, supported Such were the almost incompatible tempers of two papartly by the virtue of its rulers, and partly by the enmity tions, who were, in 1815, ordained, by the high fiat of of its neighbours towards each other.

the Congress of Vienna, to be incorporated into one. But By the permanent separation of Belgium from Hol- there were yet other sources of mutual dislike. They land, some original peculiarities were heightened into were inhabitants of adjoining territories, and it is an more marked difference, and some new ones were evolved. axiom in moral and political science, that neighbours are The republican institutions of the latter country repressed always inimically disposed. Moreover, the Prince of the spirit of aristocratic refinement, while the almost Orange was identified by the history of two centuries exclusively maritime occupations of the inhabitants served and a half with the Dutch nation, while, in Belgium, he even to exaggerate the rudeness of manners superinduced was a foreigner. The Dutch, on their first rising against by that circumstance. As a nation of merchants, they | Napoleon, had spontaneously called upon him to be their

sovereign-the Belgians had never once thought about French code is still acknowledged. As in France, the him. The priests, and the old aristocracy, wished to justice of peace courts pronounce in civil and police quesreturn under the wing of Austria,--the class of wealthy tions of minor importance. In the country, the jurisdiecominoners, which had risen into consequence during the tion of a justice of peace extends over a whole canton ; incorporation of Belgium with France, wished to remain in the larger towns, and in cities, the number of these a portion of that kingdom ; but into the heads of neither officers is in proportion to the number of inhabitants. party bad the idea entered of submitting themselves to "In every province there is a civil court, which judges in the sway of William I. of Holland. The powers, how- appeals from the tribunals of the justices, and in matters ever, who composed the Congress of Vienna, were jealous which are of too much value to come within their juris of the ambition of France, (no wonder, while they were diction ; and a criminal court. There are also “ Chambres still smarting from its effects,) and wished to see some de Commerce" in twenty-eight of the wealthier cities. more powerful state upon its northern frontier, than | There are three supreme courts, which decide in all the numerous petty principalities that lie along the cases, criminal as well as civil, without admitting of furbanks of the Rhine. After this attempt to sketch the ther appeal. The supreme court at the Hague for the character of the two hostile nations who were intrusted

seven northern provinces ; the supreme court at Brus to the charge of William of Orange, we proceed to submit sels for South Brabant, East and West Flanders, Hainto the reader a short account of the organization of his ault, and Antwerp; the supreme court of Liege for Limkingdom.

burg, Liege, Namur, and Luxemburg. To these may be The executive government is exclusively in the hands added the court of finance at the Hague, (for the northof the monarch ; the legislative power he shares with the ern provinces alone,) and the military court at Utrecht, . States-general, which consist of two Chambers. The first

to which the military and seamen are subject without Chamber is composed of from forty to sixty members, each appeal. of whom must have attained his fortieth year. Every The minister of the interior stands at the head of the inember is appointed by the king, and the appointment is departmental organization of the country. Under him for life. The president is chosen by the Chamber at the stands a governor at the head of every province, except beginning of every session. The second Chamber contains Holland, which, on account of its great extent, is divided one hundred and six delegates from the seventeen provinces into two governments-North and South Holland. The of the Netherlands, and four from the Grand-Duchy of provinces are subdivided into arrondissemens, each of Luxemburg. The number of delegates sent by each which stands under the superintendence of a commissary province is in proportion to its population. They are or intendant. The different commoners have magistrates, elected by the States of each province, from their own termed in the north, Bürgermeister, and in the south, body. The States of a province consist of deputies from Maires. The governors are assisted in the discharge of the three orders of each—the nobility, the burghers, and their office by the provincial states; the maires by their the peasantry. The members of the second Chamber of town-councils. Each of these provincial dignitaries the States-general are elected for three years, and one-third

makes his report immediately to the minister. of their number go out yearly in rotation.

The king

The minister of war conducts the affairs of the army, nominates the president of this Chamber from a list of which varies in number from forty to sixty thousand three, which it presents to him. The king has the men, without reckoning the militia. The army, with initiative of all laws; any suggestion of a new law to the exception of a small body of Swiss, and some troups him, on the part of the Chambers, must originate in the from Nassau, consists exclusively of native Netherlandsecond. In it also the budget is discussed once in every ers; and is kept up by the conscription. The kingdom ten years.

is divided into six commandos, whose seats are, Utrecht, The king manages the affairs of state by means of his Deventer, Ghent, Antwerp, Maestricht, and Namur. Upcouncils and ministers. He has a council of state, con wards of fifty fortresses, some of them the strongest in sisting of four-and-twenty members, for extraordinary Europe, form a triple line of defence along the landoccasions, and a cabinet council, to which only his minis-ward frontiers. A considerable portion of the kingdom ters and the secretary of state have access, for the general can also be inundated, with a view to oppose a barrier routine of business. The ministers are seven in number : to an invading enemy. The arms and munition of the -the minister of justice, the minister for foreign affairs, army are all of home manufacture. the minister of the interior, the minister of war, the The minister of marine manages the affairs of the royal minister of the marine, the minister of finance, and the navy, which consists of about ninety-three sail, of which minister of the water and other public works. To these thirty are in active service in the Mediterranean and the may be added the commissary-general, to whom is in- colonies. The rest are distributed in the ports of the trusted the control of the public institutions for education. Texel and the Maas. The coast is divided into three de

There are also some“Chefs de departement,” for managing partments-that of the Zuiderzee, which has its head certain details of business which do not exactly belong to stations at Amsterdam, Medenblick, and Nieuwediep; the province of any minister ; such as, trade and the that of the Maas at Helvoetsluys and Rotterdam ; and colonies, the posts, the affairs of the Catholic and Pro- that of the Scheld at Vliessingen. testant churches, &c. The ministry and council of state The minister of water-works sounds strange to an accompany the king at Brussels and the Hague, which | English ear ; but the importance of his office is apparent are the two capitals of the kingdom. There are, how- when we are told that the preservation of the dykes alone ever, some subsidiary offices of state, which have a per costs yearly twenty millions of guilders. The minister manent domicile. There is a supreme board of control for foreign affairs has in every country nearly the same at the Hague, and a board of control at Brussels ; a duties to perform. We need not, therefore, take up our council of the mint at Utrecht; a council of the nobles readers' time by enumerating them ; but pass at once to at the Hagne; and one or two others of less importance. the consideration of the office of the general commissary

The arrangement of the courts of justice, which stand for the management of public education, and ot the two under the control of the minister of that department, is “chets" who conduct the affairs of the Catholic and Proin a great measure borrowed from the French. The code testant churches. for the United Netherlands, which has been many years First, of the church. In the southern provinces the preparing, has never yet been officially promulgated. In Roman Catholic religion is called the religion of the state; the meantime, the decrees of the judges are conformed, in the northern the Calvinistic. In reality, howerer, in the northern provinces, to the old municipal and pro- there is no established church in the sense which we atvincial laws, with the subsidiary help of the Roman and tach to the word. Every mode of belief is alike free, Canon feudal systems ; in the southern provinces the and all stand under tho protection of the stute. The

money expended upon the religious establishments of all next object is, to attempt to convey to them an idea of the communities in the Netherlands (with the exception the condition, physical and intellectual, of the people of the Jews) amounts to about L. 252,056. The Re- which constitute the state. The surface of the United formed and Catholic churches, we have already remark- Netherlands comprises upwards of six millions of bon ed, stand each under the management of its own “ chef niers, of two acres and a half each. The ratio of unde departement.” The Walloons also stand under a spe- productive land to the productive, is less than a fourth. cial ecclesiastical commission. The Catholic church is The population in 1825, exceeded six millions. The divided in the Netherlands into the Roman Catholic and northern districts are almost a dead level, some of them the Jansenists. The former has four bishops, eight lying beneath the niveau of the sea. The province of vicars and arch-priests, and three thousand and twenty- Luxemburg alone, bordering upon France and the Prustwo congregations; the latter, one archbishop, one bishop, sian Rhine provinces, can be esteemed hilly. The southand fifty-four churches, with seventy-four preachers. ern provinces are highly cultivated, and produce more The adherents to these two communities may amount in corn than is required for the support of their dense ponumber to about three millions. The Reformed (or pulation. On the other hand, Friesland and Groningen Calvinistic) church is subdivided, in eleven of the pro- alone, of the northern provinces, cultivate enough of vinces, into forty-four classes, containing one thousand grain to supply their own wants. The breeding of cattle two hundred and twenty pastorships, the duty of which is pursued with success both in the northern and southern is disebarged by one thousand four hundred and forty- provinces. Holland and Friesland are, properly speaking, eight preachers. At the head of the Reformed church is dairy countries. Even in the southern provinces, wood the general synod; subordinate to which are the provin- is scarce—in the northern, none is to be had but what is cial synods, which, in their turn, exercise a sort of super- tloated down the rivers from Germany. Turf is almost intendence over the classes. The Remonstrants have of late the only fuel used throughout the kingdom. The vegebeen received again into the bosom of the church, and the tables of the Netherlands have long been famous. The number of its adherents now amounts to about a million and capital employed in agriculture, has been estimated to exa half. There are subject to the ecclesiastical commission ceed ten thousand millions of florins. of the Walloons, fifty congregations, with ninety preachers. The manufactures of the Netherlands are in a condi. The adherents of other Christian sects are comparatively tion equally prosperous. There are mines of copper, few. The Jews, whose religious expenses alone are not iron, lead, and coal, worked with success in Liege, defrayed by the state, are about eighty thousand in num- Namur, Hainault, and Luxemburg. Most of these miber; and are divided into three sects, the Dutch, Spa- nerals are manufactured in the provinces which produce nish, and Portuguese Jews.

them. The annual value of manufactured iron alone, exThe educational institutions of the Netherlands stand ceeds ten millions ot' francs. The principal seat of the cloth under the immediate control of a commissary-general, in and cassimere manufactures, is Vervier and its neighvirtue of an article in the charter, recognising the in- bourhood, as far as Liege and Maestricht. The value of struction of the people as one of the first cares of govern this manufacture cannot be less than eighty millions of ment. The sum annually expended for the attainment francs yearly. In East Flanders alone, upwards of of this object, the manner in which the public expendi- thirty thousand looms are employed in weaving flax. ture is stated in the budget does not admit of our ascer This is a most important manufacture, owing to its tentaining. It must amount, however, one year with an- dency to spread from the great towns to the villages. other, to nearly a million and a half of florins. This sum The cotton trade has revived since the overthrow of supports elementary schools, which afford education to Napoleon's continental system. Ghent, the head-quarters 633,859 children ; colleges, or Latin schools, attended by of this manufacture, receives annually forty thousand 7038 boys; and six universities, with 2774 students. bales of cotton, and contains sixty-eight steam-engines To these must be added the students of theology, educated for spinning and weaving. The distilleries and breweries at the various Catholic seminaries throughout the south- of the Netherlands produce annually a value of one hundred ern provinces; and the scholars of the military and naval and forty millions of Francs. The sum of the manufacschools. "of the elementary schools, 285, exclusively turing industry of the Netherlands exceeds six hundred appropriated to the children of the poor, are attended by millions of francs per annum. 56,617 pupils; while 90,000 other children, coming under The home trade of the Netherlands enjoys great faci. the denomination of paupers, are received into the other lities from the number of canals and excellent roads which schools.

intersect the country. The circulation of capital is faciThe minister of finance raises, by means of his subor- litated by the State Bank at Amsterdam, chartered in dinate officers, the direct taxes, furnishes the ministers of 1814 for twenty-five years, with a capital of five millions the different 'departments with the sums required for of guilders, the exchange banks and chambers of comtheir estimated expenditure, and manages the national merce in all the great cities, and different insurance comdebt. Every province has a director, under whom stand panies. The most important export articles are, butter, an inspector and several controllers, whose business it is tobacco, linen, spirits, cloth, and oil. The imports are, to collect the direct taxes. The sums collected are paid corn, salt, wine, wood, bullion, and colonial produce. into the offices of the district-receivers, who are account. The annual profits of the home trade may be valued at able to the receivers.general of the provinces, and they, two bundred and thirty millions of francs per annum ; in turn, to the minister. The indirect taxes are collected of the foreign, at five hundred and sixty millions. by a special commission ; and one or two institutes of the In attempting to estimate the moral and intellectual kingdom, the royal domains, the fisheries, the post, &c., culture and manners of the inhabitants, we must keep in collect their own revenue, and defray their own expenses, view the historical sketch, in the beginning of this article, independent of the general pecuniary management of the of the developement of the national character in the two country. The average income of the state of the Nether- grand divisions of the United Netherlands. In the north lands, for the last eleven years, bas exceeded eighty-eight there is no aristocracy but that of wealth ; in the south, millions of florins. Its annual average expenditure has the nobles have withdrawn tbemselves in a great measomewhat exceeded this sum, amounting, one year with sure from public business, to brood, in domestic retire-, another, to upwards of ninety-eight millions.

ment, over their former importance. The Dutch are like tional debt amounts to eight hundred and thirty-two the English, a nation trained in practical freedom. The millions of forins, and pays interest at four per cent. Belgians are, as far as intellectual culture goes, nearly in

The foregoing sketch, brief and unsatisfactory as it the state of France at the commencement of the RevoluDecessarily is, will serve to give our readers a general tion, composed of a haughty and prejudiced aristocracy, idea of the political organisation of the Netherlands. Our and an illiterate commonalty, with a sprinkling of

The na

wealthy and intelligent capitalists and restless literary sociation, we pledge ourselves to prove our assertion in a theorists. In this, however, they differ from France at couple of paragraphs. that period, that the power of the feudal aristocracy and Imprimis, then, it is a fact not likely to be questioned, of the priesthood has been completely broken. The uni- that the most characteristic feature of Sir Walter's poetry versities of the north richly deserve the satirical descrip- is the subdivision of each poem into a number of cantos, tion of log-lines of the human understanding ; those of the composed in a flowing and varying measure, with a prosouth are but newly organized; and the King has been fusion of prose notes tacked to their tails to explain their obliged to seek his professors in foreign countries. The meaning. This is exactly the outward form assumed by average number of children at school throughout the Miss Bourke. Then, in regard to the matter, Sir Walter, kingdom is in the ratio of one to every nine inhabitants. it is known, takes an old story for his theme, and clothes The most northern provinces are the best educated ; Lim- it in the refinement of modern manners. Exactly so does burg and Liege are the worst. In 1826, the persons Miss Hannah Maria. Her tale is of the earthly fortunes accused before the Courts of Assize were as one out of of the great O'Donoghue, of him who still rides out from every 4383 inhabitants. This ratio, of course, is exclu- the lake of Killarney, every May morning, on a white sive of the delinquents accused before the Tribunaux horse—a radiant Star of Brunswick galloping on the faCorrectionels. Out of every hundred accused, twenty- mily arms. But it is only nominally that her story betwo were for crimes against the person. Heinous crimes longs to former ages : her characters are such as still were in the proportion of one to sixteen. Only sixteen haunt the broad daylight of the world. Take, for examout of every hundred were acquitted. The accusations ple, her king of Limerick, who makes a tour to Killarney for second offences were about thirteen in every thousand. exactly as the present Sovereign of the city might be supThe proportion of female to male criminals was as one to posed to do : 314. Among every hundred delinquents were four under sixteen years of age; twelve between sixteen and twenty

“ The king of Limerick, and his suita

He comes to spend a month or two, one; the rest above twenty-one. The circulation of po

The beauties of the lakes to view." litical journals in the Netherlands is sixty thousand sheets a-day; giving an average of one for every hundred inha- Or the still more decidedly modern conduct of Hengist bitants. The average number of works published annually the Ostman, who, instead of stealing a ship, which the in the Netherlands exceeds eight hundred. It must be prejudices of those times would naturally have suggested kept in mind, however, that a large proportion of these as the more honourable mode of procedure, proposes, with are pirated editions of works published in other countries. a truly chivalrous feeling, to hire a steam-boat to convey There is a Royal Institute of Art and Science at Amster- him back to Denmark : dam; a Royal Academy of Art and Science at Brussels ; “ Little of wealth I now can boasta Royal Society of Painting at Antwerp; a Society of Some few gold pieces, at the most : Natural History and Literature at the Hague; a Society Barely sufficient do I keep, of Science at Haarlem ; and a Society of Art and Litera To pay our voyage o'er the deep." ture at Ghent.

Having thus satisfactorily established the strong reThis was not long ago a correct likeness of the king- semblance between Sir Walter and the gifted maid, we dom of the Netherlands, erected into a constitutional proceed to point out the charming peculiarities by which monarchy by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, and left the green isle “ marks her for its own.” In the first to develope its institutions by the co-operation of the place, her Arcadian dialect would of itself be enough to monarch and the people. Although not equal in the establish her Milesian paternity : scale of national prosperity and intelligence to either France or England, it stood second only to these states,

“While, joyous over hill and dale, and was rapidly gaining upon them. It possessed a fer

Rung loud the merry matin peal.” tile soil, rising manufactures, flourishing commerce, a Again, population daily advancing in knowledge, and unequal

“ Grieve not, he said we are but slaves led capabilities of defence against invaders. Its laws and

Under whose government, who leaves institutions were slowly, but surely, approaching to ma It not in our own power to choose," &c. turity. Its king was a plain, sensible man, beloved and trusted by his people. Yet a paltry feeling of national But a stronger circumstance is, the peculiar mythology jealousy, artfully exaggerated by the incendiary artifices which represents nectar as a sort of "potteen :” of discontented and ambitious men, threatens to dissolve

now the goblets fill the internal union, and put all these prospects of national With nectar, which the gods distil power and prosperity to the hazard, in a contest by which

From fruits that grow above the sky." nothing can be gained.

All this while we have not said one word of Mr Last, though not least in the list of nationalisms, is a Colley Grattan, or his History. The truth is, (we lowing passage as rather a happy specimen of this pro

slight tendency to perpetrate bulls. We quote the fol whisper it in the ears of our readers, and beg that it may pensity, requesting, at the same time, our readers' partibe kept a secret,) that we cannot conscientiously say any cular attention to the rich and varied intonation of the thing in favour of the book, and we never yet could bring

first line : ourselves to speak harshly of any author.

“ Now on M‘Gilly Cuddy's Reeks,
Where first grey twilight slowly breaks,

The sun his lengthen'd shadows threw
O'Donoghue, Prince of Killarney; a Poem, in Seven In many a form of sober hue.”
Cantos. By Hannah Maria Bourke. Dublin. Wil-

In our hyperborean clime the sun diffuses light, not shade; liam Curry, jun. and Co. 1830. Post 8vo. Pp. 284.

but “they order these things better in Ireland.” We might call Miss Bourke the Walter Scott of Ire notion of innumerable beauties which sparkle in Miss

We wish much to convey to our readers some faint land; only we do not wish to stand in the way of her Bourke's lines, but marriage, by awaking, through such a masculine appellation, any fear in the mind of her intended that she might

“ Where bright eyes so abound, boys, incline to assume the dress, as well as the name, of her

'Tis hard to choose." illustrious prototype. If our readers, however, will pro- There is deep pathos in the picture of the heroine when mise to struggle manfully against the unwarrantable as-threatened with a husband :

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