Page images

pas !


[ocr errors]

nious confectionery architecture, on which my name was afterwards, at the head of his regiment, carried the da. inscribed in spun sugar! My name written in sugar! Ye ring project into execution. In 1812, he, at considerable Quarterlies and Blackwoods, and tu Brute, false and faith-hazard, introduced a new system of drill into his regi less Westminster!-ye who have never traced my proscribed name but in gall,-think of Lady Morgan" in ment, (the first battalion of the third native infantry,) sugar; and that, too, at a table surrounded by some of the training it as a light infantry corps. Sir Samuel Auchmuty ! great supporters of the Holy Alliance ! Je n'en revenais having consented to review Major Welsh's men, upon

whom the title of the Pallamcottah Light Infantry Fas “ ATI I could do under my triumphant emotion, I did. afterwards bestowed, was so convinced of the utility of the I begged to be introduced to the celebrated and flattering system, that he immediately established four battalions of artist, and promised, should I ever again trouble the public that kind of troops. The honour, therefore, of having with my idleness, to devote a tributary page to his genius, and to my sense of his merits, literary and culinary. given to the Madras army this additional and invaluable Carème was sent for after coffee, and was presented to me

arm justly belongs to our author. Many other instances in the vestibule of the chateau by his master. He was a might be stated of good and soldier-like service done by well-bred gentleman, perfectly free from pedantry, and, him, between the years 1790 and 1829, for, during the when we had matually complimented each other, he bowed whole of that long period, he was almost constantly in himself out, and got into his carriage, which was waiting the field, but the few which we have selected seem to us to take him to Paris."

the most important. Of all the tributes paid to Lady Morgan's talents Colonel Welsh's Reminiscences are told in the style of during her late visit to France, this strikes us as decidedly a man who has not paid much attention to the turning the most delicate and appropriate. The mawkish sweet- of periods ; but in our eyes, they derive a stamp of anness of the sugar, rendered unwholesome (as all comfits thenticity from their want of polish, which 'amply comare) by the colouring matter, and the filigree nature of pensates for any occasional roughness. They consist of the structure, are most happily emblematic of her genius. detached sketches of the country and inhabitants of India, The names of Carème and Morgan will now descend the both native and European, executed, in general, after a stream of time together,

most graphic fashion. But the work has this drawback, " Like Juno's geese, link'd, and inseparable."

that from the author's extreme anxiety to relate nothing

that he did not witness, there is a want of continuity There is a portrait of Lady Morgan prefixed to this and connexion in the view that it gives of Indian affairs. work. Were we to make any remarks upon the features, To those who have not studied very minutely the moderu there would be an immediate outcry about“ unjustifiable history of our Eastern dominions, the Colonel's narrative personality.” And yet we cannot for our lives see why must frequently appear disjointed and tedious. Those, an author should be more exempt from criticism of a it is true, who are more at home in the subject, will 1 published face, than of a published opinion.

know exactly where to dovetail his information into the great body we already possess, and to such, the very

abruptness of which we are complaining, will be welMilitary Reminiscences; Extracted from a Journal of come, as an additional warrant of the authenticity of the

nearly Forty Years' Active Service in the East Indies. facts narrated ; but a work published for the purpose By Colonel James Welsh, of the Madras Establish- stated by the author in the passage we have quoted above, ment. In two volumes. 8vo. Pp. 354, 317. London. ought to have been so arranged, as to stand a chance of Smith, Elder, and Co. 1830.

being palatable to all.

To us the most interesting feature of the work is the The object of the author, in publisbing this work, be

extent and accuracy of the information it conveys respect has well expressed in its concluding paragraph, which, ing the passes and hill-forts of central India, and the naalthough it be rather au Irish way of beginning a review, tive army. The attempt would be vain to convey any we here quote;

adequate idea of the former subject to our readers, unless ." If I have anywhere inadvertently introduced my own we could transfer to our columns the mumerous sketches history, I must plead in excuse the private nature of the and plans with which our author has illustrated his state materials from which this book has actually been compiled,

The latter is a more tractable subject. Colonel without any kind of assistance from men or books, in the course of a few months; and the anxiety by which I have Welsh says early in his first volume : ... been impelled, since landing, to give immediate publicity to

"I may as well, in a few words, introduce to the reader's a plain and unpremeditated narrative, although entirely free acquaintance from politics, at the moment when our eastern possessions are inade the subject of general enquiry and animadversion.

THE COMPANY'S NATIVE ARMY The more especibjly when so many disappointed and inte- which, being composed of five distinct castes, or classes, of rested individuals are misleading the minds of the public, men, differing most essentially in manners, in religion, and on a question of such vital importance, not merely to that in customs; who never unite, even at a meal, or in marCompany, which has so long, so judiciously, and so exclu- riage; the discipline and harmony, which have ever distinsively, managed those valuable possessions, but to the mil- guished those native forces, are truly wonderful—the more lions of inhabitants, now happy under their just, concilia- especially, when the bigotry of one class, and the superstiting, and liberal control, who would so materially suffer tious prejudices of three others, are taken into consideration. by any change of masters; and, I think I may confidently But, in order to render these remarks intelligible to these venture to add, to the nation at large. I am no partisan, who have never visited India, it may be as well to describe and I believe few of my fellow-servants in India have had the different castes above alluded to. less reason to be individually pleased with the treatment “ First, the Mussulman, of whom at least one-third of they have experienced, in a long period of, I trust, faithful the army is composed. The class is again subdivided into and zealous, if not distinguished service ; but I cannot, on four particular sects; viz. the Sheik, the Syed, the Mogul, that account, withhold my testimony to the general sound and the Putham, or Pattan as they are usually called. policy and justice with which that Body has so completly They are generally brave, enterprising, and intelligent, and, subjugated, and continues to rule, a territory as diversified upon the whole, being free from religious prejudices, make in its interests, as it is almost unlimited in its extent.” excellent soldiers.

He has kept his word; for although he narrates but “ Second, the Rajahpoot, or descendants of the ancient little that did not fall under his own immediate observa-Rajahs, the highest caste of Hindoos; a race not very ngtion, he does it in such a manner, that we are never

merous, but extremely scrupulous; and, when their prejuobtrusively reminded of his personality. Yet, Colonel far surpassing all the other natives, in a romantic, but some

dices are humoured, the bravest and most devoted soldiers, Welsh has served with distinction in the Indian army. times mistaken, notion of honour. It was he who suggested, in 1809, the carrying of the “ Third, the Telinga, or Gentoo, a race of Hindoos ge-, Arambooly lines by a coup de main ; and it was he who nerally remarkable for mildness of disposition and cleanli


ness of person; obedient and faithful, but not very intelli- | rior, that a naire, meeting one of them on a road, was gent or enterprising soldiers.

authorized to cut him down, if he encroached on the estaFourth, the Tamoul, or Malabar ; similar to the blished distance. A long intercourse with Europeans has, former.

however, very materially softened these regulations, and “ Fifth, the Parlah, or Dhire, as they are called in the no man dare attack the life of another, however inferior; army. The latter class, poor Chowry Mootoo, brave, ac- but the feeling is still alive, and at times discovers itself in tive, and attached, as they were, to their officers and the the most annoying manner. For instance, I was sitting service, with a few European failings, such as dram-drink at my window, one morning, at Calicut, when a man of ing, and eating unclean meats, &c., have of late years been one of the three inferior castes, I cannot distinguish them excluded from the line, in order the more fully to conciliate by sight, entered the public road, close to my house, which the higher classes ; who, however they may differ from each might be about twenty feet broad, with hedges on both otber in many points, are all united in considering any mix- sides, and was several times forced to return again, on

ture with these as a contamination. They are now enlisted perceiving a superior approaching from the other end. I I only in the pioneers, and as artillery and tent lascars. The ought, however, to premise, that all these inferiors, when

former corps, one of the most useful in the army, is com- turning a corner, are now obliged to howl in a most uni posed almost entirely of this degraded class, than whom, pleasant manner, to warn the superiors of their sudden

there exists not in all India, a braver, more efficient, or approach, and prevent contamination; and this unfortunate, zealous body of troops. I beg it to be understood, however, individual did certainly howl to such purpose, that he atthat though the preceding remarks are intended, in parti- tracted my attention to a scene as novel as it was ludicrous, cular, for the Madras native army, yet they are almost After some minutes wasted in fruitless attempts to run to equally applicable to those of the two other Presidencies." the other end, he seemed all at once determined to make

We may add, that the native forces of the Madras esta- good his passage, and had actually reached the centre of the blishment amount at present to eight regiments of cavalry, line, it being about one-hundred yards, without any turning and fifty-two of infantry, completely and permanently when a nairchee, or female naire, met, and called out to

or cross-road-the most convenient for these kind of gentry officered. These troops are the most orderly, tractable, him to abscond. and willing soldiers in the world, and their discipline is lowed by a teer. Thus placed between two fires, he ap

He turned to fly, but found himself folnot behind that even of the king's regiments. A friend peared to waver in doubtful meditation, when, all at once, of ours who knew them long and intimately, still loves to raising his voice to an extra pitch, he told the teer to make dwell upon the unflinching manner in which a line of way for the smiling beauty, or he should run over and them cross bayonets with the enemy. But an anecdote poilute him in his retreat." I must own, I was first at a told by our author will serve best to illustrate the spirit farther consideration, my mind confirmed his decision ;

loss to guess how the struggle would terminate, but, on by which they are animated :

and the teer, after some short expostulation, was fain to ** Hoosein Cawn, the subahdar of my company, a young make way for both. Had these two come to an opposite man of a respectable family at Madras, who was raised at decision, a more extraordinary breach of their established once to the rank he held, by bringing two hundred recruits etiquette must bave been the result, by the wife of the for new regiment, had been but lately transferred to our highest caste making way for two of her inferiors at once; corps, and was therefore eyed with considerable jealousy by for she would have instantly scampered off, to avoid contathe native officers in general, as a young upstart, who had mination from either; and it would probably have ended seen no service. Fally aware of this feeling, he was the in something very unpleasant, from the extreme haughty more zealous in the performance of every duty, and fre- spirit

of this tine race of heathens, who might not at the quently entreated me to keep an eye upon him in action, moment have weighed or considered the consequences of and report his conduct accordingly. I had previously been taking the law in their own hands, instead of applying to detached with him for some months, and therefore became | British justice for absurd, but less severe and summary recompletely acquainted with his character, which being most dress. "The strange procession the marched off in regular exemplary, induced me to more friendly intercourse than is array; viz. the teer in front, followed by the puneer at forty general between European and native officers, and we had feet distance, and the nairchee bringing up the rear, fiftyoccasionally beguiled a wet and tedious evening with a game three feet behind him. Had this party been met by a of chess. This morning, on the march, he had again re- sirgle naire, on their retrograde route, I am really at a loss minded me of my promise; but being suddenly called to to guess how it would have terminated ; that no such unlead the corps, by my commanding officer putting himself toward misfortuve befell them was evident, by the almost at the head of the Europeans, we were separated to some immediate l'e-appearance of the indefatigable puneer, who, distance. I had, however, scarcely reached the top of the bellowing out lustily as he turned the corner near my ladder, when I heard a voice behind me, calling out, "Oh, house, dashed on at a furious rate, and at last disappeared sir ! remember your promise!' and looking round, I per- at the opposite end of the lane." ceived my little friend at my heels, he having contrived to scramble through the crowd, in his eagerness to perform We need scarcely repeat, what we have occasion to say some signal service. The words were scarcely spoken before a cannon-shot from the fort fractured his thigh, and every time we notice a work’upon India, that orfe great broke the ladder. I got off, but he fell, and was carried charm about the narrative of every traveller in that into the hospital, where he died a few days afterwards." country, is derived from the magnificent scale upon which The Colonel's attention was not, however, confined to

nature there carries on her operations. We cannot consuch of the natives as had been manufactured by all-ceive more magnificent pictures, than are constantly una: powerful discipline, into something nearly resembling folding themselves as we accompany our author through European soldiers. Wherever he was sent, it was a

the wild and fantastic defiles of the Ghauts. But in matter of anxiety with him to study and conciliate the tropical regions, the wilderness is not, as with us, the reinhabitants. To this praiseworthy disposition we are gion of sterility. In these genial climates, beauty clings indebted for many interesting details of the habits and with a close and never failing embrace to the very bosom characters of the native princes, and of the social and do- of danger. Life, too, is more intense than in the north; mestic arrangements of their subjects. The following more fierce, it is true, when excited, but also more deliextract we have selected as an example, partly because of cately susceptible of pleasure. Colonel Welsh is a great the ladicrous picture it gives of the excessive rigour with sportsmari, and his adventures have not unfrequently rewhich the natives of Malabar act up to their notions of minded us (by the force of contrast) of Mr Lloyd's caste, and partly because it conveys a pretty fair riotion Northern Field Sports. The active and beautiful tiger of some of the peculiarities of the author's style. His does not differ more from the lampish bear, than do the hand is evidently more accustomed to finger the bridle accompaniments under which they are found. In the and broadsword than the pen.

north, the earth lies torpid and ice-bound ; even in the " A teer, in days of yore, dared not approach within heat and excitation of the chase, our feet falls noiselessly thirteen feet of a naire; and, of course, could not enter his upon the universal covering of snow. But we follow the house ; nor could any of the inferior sects come within forty tiger through a vegetation, whose luxuriance is such that feet of a teer, or fifty-three feet of a naire. Indeed, so

we can almost fancy we see it growing, and exposed to absolute was the power of the superior caste over the infe- the danger of tornadoes, compared with which, his mus

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

different ways to meet him on the top, Lieutenant Dawson that she is the child interest of her illustrions patron, a narrow aperture. I fired at the same instant; and, when the eve of publication. The author's aim is teek, as on our library. After a

deliberation, we have stuck

colar power, eager howl, and lightning spring, arca mere » Ten thousand imp-like torturing phantasies, joke. . Our last quotation from the work before us shall

Turning the healthful region of the mind be an adventure with a tiger e entus

Into a pest-house, loathsome and unclean.". "We had not been many days at this place before word. “Since she is gone, I will not tarry here" was brought me, while sitting at tiffin, that a tiger had In other worlds, she said, she might repay mer'!| just been seen very near our

, Five of us being

I'll after her and see.' together at the moment, of whom all but myself are now

Barto stabs himself, and dies. no more, we agreed to attack him with our fowling-pieces,

We intended to subjoin to these extracts an analysis without any sepoys; and out we sallied." We traced the monster--a large panther--to a small rocky hill under the of the plot of this dramatic poem, but its ravelled thread eastern side of Nundydroog ; and, having lent my double has fairly bafled' our ingenuity." We only add, that the barrel to Lieutenant Dawson, I took a single gun, and work is dedicated to the Duke of Sussex in a prettilymade one of my servants carry a hoy spear, We got one turned paragraph, which tells him that “the heroine bas glimpse of the beast ascending the hill; and, pushing up one strong claim on

;" myself, , a rock on the very summit, which was barely sufficient for has a claim equally effective, for she is the Widow or, a us to stand on, with a large chasm on one side, where it Fryemasos." The capitals are the author's not ourse had been severed, most likely * by lightning, from a similar

2017! fragment; whilst on the opposite side was a perpendicular precipice. My boy, leaning forwnrd to look down the chasm, told me, he was sure that the animal was there. A Glance at the Exhibitions of the Works of Living ArtThe words were scarcely out of his mouth, ere a roar, that

ists, under the Patronage of the Glasgow Dilettanti nearly petrified us, was accompanied by a spring. The poor Society. By Geoffrey Crayon, jun. Glasgot. David fellow had hardly time to turn his body half round towards Robertson. 1830. - 101/006-11! us, when he received a blow that laid him flat, and hurled him several feet down the chasm, but, by good luck, across

We adverted to this clever little work, last

to cooperate they had both disappeared, Lieutenant Dawson fired both with the Society whose history is narrated in his pages, barrels, by good luck without effect, for the panther, per in their praiseworthy attempt to awaken a discerning fórated by my ball, had fallen undermost, and disappeared love of the fine arts in Glasgow. He writes iß a good down the entire chasm. All thris was but the work of a spirit, and not without knowledge of his subject

, although moment; and we found poor Syed Oostnaan, who declared he occasionally vapours a little about his acquaintance I had killed the beast at the instant he received the blow, as yellow as saffron, with a fearful gash, seven inches asiuider, with the Vaticar. Where the general feeling of a work

on his right shoulder, the marks of the panther's delicate is proper, however, we do not like to caxil at trifles; and afterwards. The creature was seen no more, dead or alive; esteem for his talents and acquirements

, and wishing digits, of which I had considerable difficulty to cure him we wish to part with our Dilettante, expressing a sincere land we returned home, exhausted by the exertions we had him all success in his undertaking. made to little purpose."9

777 Colonel Welsh is equally at home in the battle and the "hunting-field ; and this has been the cause of no small National Portrait Gallery of Illustriong nnd Entire hesitation on our part, determining where it were Personages of the Nineteenth Century; with Meraoirs. best to place him, so as to derange the symmetry of By William Jerdan, Esq.' Nos. XII. t XVI.

London. Fisher, Son, and Co.

1830.) in braid him, at the junction of two shelves, between Captain Landscape Illustrations of the Waverley Novels. " Parts Kincaid and Mr Lloyd." If this situation do not please IV. and V. London. Charles Tilt. 1830./" in him, we are quite at a non plus, and must, in utter de

The first of these works continues to evince, in general, spair, set him down beside Miss Hannah More.

the same correct taste which was visible in its earlier numbers. Tried by any very high standard, it might

fall short; but this would be unfair. All that it preThe Bride of Sicily: a Dramatic Poem. By Harriet tends to do is, to present us with three respectable porDowning, 8vo. Pp. 105. London. Hurst, traits of distinguished characters, together with a short Chance, and Co., 1830. 2, ",

narrative of each, for three shillings, If many of tbe This is a tale of love, and yet we feel much inclined plates are commonplace, this is not to be wondered as ; to characterise it'in the words of honest Nick Bottom : but it is matter of wouder, that some o of them -as, for -" This is Ercles' vein, a tyrant's vein ; a lover is more example, the likeness of Dr T. Young-sivuld be well condoling.". We select a few of the tit-bits for the edi- worth the price of two or three numbers. Still, we fication of our readers? *** sind dies

could wish that the “ eminent personages" were onda

sionally a little more select, and that Mr Jerdan's Me. "Oh! I could scourge with cords my erring fancy, For having tix'd its young hopes so intensely

moirs had occasionally a little more meaning. It On one who could not breathe responsive passion."

The Landscape Illustrations of the Warerley Novels **** What !--shall I feast my eye, like fiend of Hell,

ought to find a place upon every drawing-room table,

where taste and luxury are united. On quivering limbs, on parting life's convulsions ?

Is this a banquet for the inimortal soul, | To gorge itself on human blood like Vampire ?" « I have not sworn to love the Lord Alberto;

The Devil's Progress; A Poem. By the Editor of the

* Court Journal." The Illustrations designed by R. Nor need he care if that my loye lack measure ; He has enough, methinks, in this our Sicily,

Seymour, and engraved by Evans and Welch, LowMight inake a flaming beacon, big as Etna,

don. Lupton Relfe., 1830. That thither mariners should steer their barks,

The Devil is becoming rathet a stale joke in the hamis And wreck them, like to thee, on such brave island, Might swell them into greatness in an hour.”

of our caricaturists and versifiers. They had better take

up some other subject. The jokes incidenta tó tha pre “'Twas evening, Barto, and the moon did wear sent piece are also, most of them, rather out at albopus. Across her brow a hood of violet clouds."

The writer's forte, we suspect; dies in some other line Lash forth these sickly and unwholesome thoughts ; “ Bę calm, Rogero;

He evinces occasionally considerable force of dietan,

although his couplets frequently terminate in an abrupt Treat thot as reptiles, whose foul slime would breed and unsatisfactory manner. But his sentiment is de

3011 R 11

ht. While

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]

are VL Morrison's,


[ocr errors]


[ocr errors][merged small]

that it has been our fortune to encounter. He is equally ed morally blameable fra detect can never be account.

cidedly false.' 'Let him cast' nside the twaddle of the component ideas of a proposition. In the investigation, circle he belongs to, and think and speak for himself. however, the mind is active; in the perception, passive. The best cut is that which represents Satan standing on The one is the result of 'volition, and as such may be Canuing's grave-there is true sentiment in the 'gloom either meritorious or the reverse; the other is an invoabout the person of the fiend. emblon Toi?!

luntary effect of our metital constitution, and can nei9 bus idon li'

ther be the one nor the other. It depends upon our3: biustong

selves whether we will enquire and examine ; but we The Elements of Practical Arithmetic simplified) Intended have no control whatever over our mental perception of has an Introduction to the Courtint-housed. In the form the agreement or disagreement of the constituent ideas of

of Question and Answers Byi Gu Mortison, Account the proposition into which our enquiry or examination -el: ant, Glasgow. Ediuburghai Stirling and Kenney. ultimately resolves itself. In the latter case, the mind is . n 1830. 14.116 cilat boidne 1965 wholly passive." It cannot believe or disbelieve, because

it wills to do so, any more than it can attempt to remove which may be considered as an introduction to his sys- perception, without an act of volition. With reference The ingenious author of element

author of this elementary treatise, the obstacles which sometimes prevent distinctness of tem or practical book-keeping, bas laid commercial teachers under strong obligations." He has compressed within what analogous to that of the eye, which we may shut

to this matter, in fact, the mind is in a situation somevery narrow limits, all the rules necessary for mercantile practice. He has also, by reducing many rules given is altogether passive in receiving impressions, or rather

or open at pleasure, but which, when voluntarily opened, by former writers; 'under one general principle, greatly pictures, of external objects. The power of volition is

facilitated the progress of the tyro in commercial arithlimited to the preparatory or preliminary process : seeing i metic. . His examples and exercises are in general deduced is altogether beyond its reach. And so it is with the from real business. In short, for systematic arrrangement, mind. The power of volition extends do farther than distinct enunciation, and practical utility, we know of po introduction to arithmetio that deserves to stand be- opening as it were its eye ; but whether the result of this

voluntary act" be distinct visioni or utter darkness, in 1111***RARI yote ya

other words, belief or disbelief, depends upon causes over

which the will exercises no manner of control. Nor can The Practical Baker and Confectioner's Assistant ; being this principle suffer any modification, whatever be the

a Comprehensive" View in every thing relative to the nature of the component ideas of the propbsition submit

Baking of Loaf and Funcy Bread, on bo:l the Ancient ted to the mind, or whether their agreement on disayteeArrand Modern Systems, rith a great variety of Practical ment be necessary or contingent : Necessary truths are

Receipts in Pasiry, Confectionary, Candies, Preserves, those, the opposite of which' implies ' a 'contradiction ; 11. Cordials, Wines, j'e. By John Turcan, Baker. Glas- while contingent or probable truths may be derived with gow. 'W. R. M'Phun. 1830.

out involving any such consequence. But, supposing a

mind so constituted as not even to perceive necessary VERILF, Mr Turcan is the greatest prodigy of a baker truths, it is clear that

any more an ipability to see lat home in the details of the kneading-trough, the re when the eye is open, and if this hold in regard to ne. searches of the chemist, or the enquiries of the antiquary. cessary truths, a fortiori it must also hold in regard to . He dashes off receipts for the manufacture of all sorts of contingent or probable truths, where, independently of bread and copfeetions ; -follows the moonlight glimpses the state of mental perception, there is always more or which history affords of his profession, even to the cradle less ground for doubt. How comes it, then, that men have of infant society, and talks scholarly and wisely about so generally attached ideas of moral approbation or blame, lus, smy_**The first authentic notice we have, is of Pha considered meritorious, and infidelity criminal? The an

acid been raoh's Baker, who was rather an unfortunate one." Like swer, we think, is plain : Superficial thinkers, confoundother witty men, he seems unable to keep bis own secrets, ing the investigation with the perception, that which is

sixteenth chapter is entitled, ** Baker's Profits, voluntary with that which is not, have, in consequence *den as 'he presents us with, it is hard to choose ; but we mind is active in belief, or that belief is an act of voli

and recommend to the perúsal of the judicious epicure, the tion, in consequence of which it may be regulated by the friteresting dissertation upon " Gingerbread.” Seriously, mind. This distinction, which we regard of vitul imthis work will be found, by such as are not startled by a portance in the philosophy of mind, has been almost enDame, to contain much useful and amusing information. tirely overlooked ; and hence all the absurdity, intole

rance, and dogmatism, which ever characterise zeal with-, V. 11

out knowledge. But let us not be mistaken. Many of MISCELLANEOUS LITERATURE.

the truths most important to man are only discoverable by investigation: they require labour and research to

get at them; and, as it depends upon every one whether NUGÆ LITERARIÆ.

he will bestow the necessary pains on the enquiry or pot, By James Browne, LL.D.

it follows that the use or neglect of the proper means for

attaining a perception of the truth, constitutes a subject Hæ Nugæ in seria ducent.

of moral approbation or disapprobation, and that, in so BELIEF. _ Is belief voluntary? No. This may seem far as belief or unbelief depends upon such use or neglect

, paradoxical to some, and heterodox to others, but, in real the one is meritorious and the other criminal

. Upon ity, it is neither the one nor the other, When a pro- the same principle, ignorance, or that neutral state of the position is enunciated, the mind perceives the agreement mind which is equally removed from belief or unbelief, or disagreement of the ideas of which it is composed. A may be brought within the scope of moral judgment; perception of their agreement constitutes what is termed for he who remains unacquainted with traths- which it beliefst. But many obstacles frequently prevent this per concerns him to know, when the means of knowledge are cerpeitin being immediato ; and these the mind attempts within his reach, is certainly liable to moral censure, ulto tempore, in order that the perception, at first obscure though perhaps in a degree inferior to him who doubts md bon fosed, may become clear and distinct. This is without reason, or disbelieves without enquiry. : malled ik stigation, the object of which is to perfect the TAE SYLLOGISX.It has long been a fashion among

ution of the relation subsisting between the certain disciples of the school of Dr Reid, called " by

for his

[ocr errors]

courtesy philosophers, to decry the syllogistic method of order in which the mind arranges these propositions with reasoning, as proceeding upon a radical fallacy, and as a view to arrive at the conclusion, and necessarily prefitted rather to amuse with canning quibbles, than to supposes the very methods of probation which it has been serve as an instrument for the discovery of truth. In ignorantly held to exclude. A better illustration of this every case, say these persons, it assumes in the major cannot be given than by referring to Bishop Warbur. proposition that which is affirmed in the conclusion, ton's Divine Legation of Moses Demonstrated, which is a and thus taking for granted the very point to be proved, magnificent syllogism of the first mode and figure, ultimately resolves itself into an identical proposition. evolved with a strictness of logical precision that has But if these objectors had known any thing at all of the never been surpassed, and displaying, in the proofs of the general principles of reasoning, and particularly of the major and minor propositions, an extent of erudition system which, in imitation of Dr Reid, they have been which has never probably been equalled. Finally, all so forward to condemn, philosopby and common sense reasoning, strictly considered, resolves itself ultimately would have been spared the disgrace which such igno- into an identical proposition; and it is never so satisfacrant and silly objections have brought upon them. The tory as where this identity, is most apparent; as, for exsyllogism is not, as they suppose, a trick or artifice to ample, in geometry, where every demonstration virtually supply the place of reason, or to enable an expert dialec issues in proving a=a. tician to mystify or bamboozle an opponent, but an exact technical expression of the form which all reasoning must necessarily assume. It was Nature, not Aristotle,

BUONDELMONTI; A FLORENTINE LEGEND, that invented the syllogistic process ; for all that the Tue traditions of Florence speak of a flourishing town latter did, was to expound or interpret the invention ; a on the banks of the Arno, which was destroyed by Attask which he performed with such perfect skill and tila, and all its magnificent temples and pagan idols success, that his successors, during the two thousand trampled under foot. A lingering attachment to the years which have elapsed since its completion, have been scene of their ancestors' splendour, lured the descendants able to add nothing material to his exposition. Hence, of the Florentines to linger in the neighbourhood of the it follows, that if this method be objectionable, it is Na- ruins, although the jealous Fiesolans, mindful of the ob ture, and not Aristotle, that is in fault ; for, constituted as scurity into which their town had been cast by its rival's we at present are, it is impossible to reason at all with glory, took care to prevent them from rebuilding ito out reasoning syllogistically. Take any proposition in Florence remained a heap of ruins for upwards of two geometry, for example, and, upon analysing its demonstra- centuries. About the end of this period Charlemagne tion, you will find that, in every case, it resolves itself came to Rome, in order to have the iron crown of the into a syllogism or series of syllogisms. But it is said western empire placed upon his brow by Pope Adrian. that in every syllogism the thing to be proved or dedu- In the midst of the ceremony, the delegates of the Floced is taken for granted in the major proposition. If it rentines, clad in robes of mourning, threw themselves be meant by this that in all reasoning, the conclusion is before the spiritual and temporal heads of Christendom, involved in the premises, the statement is unquestionably beseeching them to approve themselves worthy of those true; and it would be obliging if those who put it for high stations to which God had called them, by extendward in the shape of an objection, would show us in what ing their protection to those who had none to help theme. way it would be possible to reason at all if the case were They told how the citizens of Florence had been driver otherwise ; for, according to every idea of logic which we from their ruined and plundered homes by the fierce have been able to form, the very essence of reasoning con- Hun-how the community had for successive generations sists in that which is here stated as an objection to the hovered around the prostrate city, as an untimely dissesyllogistic method. But if the meaning be, that every vered spirit was said to loiter beside its body, in the rain syllogism is a circle, in which the thing to be proved is hope of effecting a re-union-how the proud Fiesolans first assumed, and afterwards formally deduced from this had frustrated all their attempts to rebuild the ruined assuinption, the assertion is manifestly false. The major walls. Charles and Adrian were moved by the sad proposition of every syllogism is either universally affirm- story of their wrongs, and swore before the high altar, ative or negative, or particularly affirmative or negative; | in the face of assembled Christendom, and invoking the and it is manifest that to this proposition any or every God who looked down with complacency on his two species of probation may be applied. The minor prope- chosen ones, to redress them. sition is, in every case, particularly affirmative or nega It was the merry month of May, when Charles and tive; and it also may, or rather must, be proved, except- Adrian encamped with a mighty army between the ruins ing where it is self-evident, or so clear in itself that no of Florence, and the city of Fiesole, which had long sat proof can make it clearer. And from both, taken in con- like a bird of prey on its eyry, watching over the mutijunction, the conclusion follows as a necessary conse-lated carcass beneath it, flapping its wings and whetting quence. Let us produce an example of the simplest kind, its beak, to scare away those whom filial piety instigain illustration of what has now been said: All tyrants ted to restore to the ruined one its original comeliness. are insecure : the Emperor of Germany is a tyrant: there. But now a mightier power encircled Florence with its fore the Emperor of Germany is insecure. This is a protecting arms, and the foe could only look in sullen syllogism of the first mode and figure containing an uni- silence at the glad labour of those who were again rearing versal affirmative in the major, and a particular affirma- up the walls of its dismantled dwellings, or wheel around tive in the minor proposition. But it is manifest that the guardian lines, to discover some unguarded post where the insecurity of all tyrants, and the fact of the Emperor he might pounce upon his prey. The full dark-green of Germany being a tyrant, are two things which must foliage of summer began to fade into the automnal brown, be proved aliunde, before they can be affirmed in the syl- and still the Franks remained immovable in their campi logism : history must sanction the one, and observation but Florence now showed like a city, and in a few weeks or experience establish the other : which being done, the it was expected that the bishop of Rome would return to conclusion, that the Emperor of Germany is insecure, his diocese, and the warrior monarch to the banks of his follows as a necessary consequence, not from the major beloved Rhine. or the minor proposition separately, but from both taken Among other stupendons works of ornament and diae, together. To describe this as a circle, therefore, is vir- was a bridge, spanning the Arno, intended to facilitate tually to hold that all reasoning is impossible ; for it is the intercourse between the inhabitants of its opposing in the nature of things that the premises, that is, the major banks when the storms of winter had swelled the stream. and minor propositions, must involve the conclusion, Adrian was one evening wandering, without any definite while the syllogism is nothing more than the form or aim, through the new and already bustling streets, ac

« PreviousContinue »