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in the hands of the Committee a balance of L.3914. As humanity. Principal Baird was the first to suggest the a considerable part of the outlay had been in the purchase scheme, and he it is whose restless benevolence has ensuand printing of school-books, there was, however, a pros. red its success. He directed the correspondence of the pect of a part at least of the expenditure being returned Committee ; he advocated their cause wherever two or to the fund, as the books were sold from time to time to three were met together; and for three successive sum. scholars. At the same time, the Committee expressed mers did he expose himself, at his advanced age, to the their anxiety that the contributions for the ensuing year fatigues of a long and rugged journey, for the sole purmight prove adequate to defray its expenditure, as they pose of superintending and encouraging the agents of the considered it expedient to retain a fund equal to what Committee's benevolent plans. This was a task worthy they had then in hand, to meet any deficiencies that might of the clergyman, of the head of Scottish education, and at times occur in the annual receipt. The schools at this of his own warm heart. He has conquered a fame more period in active operation amounted to eighty-five in num-enviable than the brightest talents could have acquired ; ber ; and the Committee intimated to the Assembly, that and in future ages, when the Highland districts of our as there was no immediate prospect of an addition to land have risen in intelligence and moral worth to a their funds, they felt inclined to fix upon this as the maxi- standard which the most sanguine would not dare to anmum namber of their establishments. They intimated, ticipate, his name will be honoured in their mouths, as at the same time, their intention, when a school should their earliest and truest benefactor. not prove sufficiently effective at any station, or when, In regard to what has hitherto been done by the Comfrom a change in the circumstances of the inhabitants, it mittee it has our warmest approbation. Their establishshould be no longer necessary, to transfer it to another. ment has for its model the best with which we are acFrom the schoolmasters' returns, it appeared that there quainted_our own system of Parochial Schools. It af. had been an attendance of 6186 scholars at 79 schools, fords the most indispensable instruction to all--and higher for the half year preceding April, 1829; that of these tuition to those who wish it. It is wedded to the affec. 2512 were learning to read Gaelic, 5491 English, 3057 tions of the people, and stands under the patronage and writing and arithmetic, 63 book-keeping, 114 Latin, 57 control of their natural leaders. As yet, there is nogeography, and 76 practical mathematics or mensuration. thing that can be found fault with, although we see one But the most important step in the proceedings of this practice creeping in which must be strictly watched. year was the establishment of school libraries. The Com. The Committee have very properly adopted the system of mittee had for some time been busied in forming a de leaving the scholars to pay fees to the best of their abili. pository of books ; and from this, books were issued early ties. In the present state of these remote districts it is in the month of January, 1829, for the formation of lib- unavoidable that these are sometimes paid in kind_fuel raries at fifty-five stations, consisting each of fifty-six vo- -articles of food-perhaps a day or two's labour. But lumes in English and Gaelic. It was arranged that these unless a steady eye be kept on the masters, they will soon should remain at the school to which they were then for be tempted to become the rapacious tyrants of their little warded for two years; at the end of that time, they domain, as we have before now seen their brethren in the were to be exchanged for a different set of books, to be Lowlands. With respect to the libraries, too, we would forwarded from a neighbouring station ; and a similar suggest that the principle adopted with regard to reliexchange was to take place with a third station, at the gious, be followed up with regard to all other kinds of end of two years. The books consisted of interesting his books. Children do not require childish books, which tories, voyages and travels, biographies, and sketches in only serve to keep them longer children. We do not ask civil and natural history. Many of those works, and in for profound scientific treatises-give them popular works particular those of a religious description, were chosen by all means, but give them such as will task their reflectwith a view to the necessities of an adult population. Re-ive powers, and accustom them betimes to manly habits gard was had to the probability, that the books borrowed of thinking. by the scholars might prove useful and interesting to the Although we have devoted this article exclusively to grown-up members of their families.

the achievements of the Assembly's Committee, we are During the year which closed in May last, the contri- not blind to the merits of other labourers in the same bations amounted to upwards of L.2300, and this sum field,--the Society for Propagating Christian Knowproved fully adequate to defray the annual expenditure. ledge, and the Gaelic School Society—the Inverness, and There is reason to hope that in future years the income other Provincial Societies for the Diffusion of Education of the establishment may increase ; but, in the meantime, the Society of the Clan Gregor-and, with all its tomthe Committee, regarding more a quiet and permanent fooleries about bagpipes, pibrochs, Celtic dress, and games, utility than extraordinary exertions, which are uniformly the Celtic Society. Still less are we blind to the immense followed by a corresponding languor, abide by their re extent which still remains for the philanthropic labourer solution of limiting the number of their schools to eighty- to occupy. We shall ere long follow up this our first fire. The total attendance at the daily schools during last essay on the statistics of education; and we propose winter amounted to nearly 7000 scholars. Of these, 2616 next week to communicate to our readers some extracts were learning Gaelic, 5669 English, 2972 writing, 1912 from an interesting manuscript autobiography which has arithmetic, 80 book-keeping, 159 geography, 41 mathe- been put into our hands, and which shows to what an matics, and 121 Latin. . Besides the daily schools, there unsuspected extent the education of the lower classes have been established Sabbath evening schools at fifty- may be carried, without rendering them discontented seren of the stations. They are attended by 3362 per- with, or unfit for, their occupations. In following out sons of all ages, of whom 782 are adults.

this path, we shall be discharging one of the most pleasing Such are the gratifying results of this Committee's la- duties incumbent upon The Scottish LITERARY Jourbours during the short space of six years, backed by the NAL. sanction of the church, and met by the good wishes of the people. Indeed, it would be difficult to say which is the more delightful object of contemplation, the warmth Encyclopædia Britannica ; ora Dictionaryof Arts, Sciences,

and Miscellaneous Literature. Seventh Edition, greatwith which the venerable Assembly has furthered the cause of education; or the enthusiasm with which all

ly improved, with the Supplement to the former editions ranks have come forward to promote its introduction into

incorporated. Illustrated by an entirely new set of the Highlands, and all ages to participate in its blessings.

engravings on steel. Edited by Professor Napier. Vol. As for the Committee, the quiet good sense and energy

1. Part I. Edinburgh. Adam Black. 1830. of its proceedings are worthy of all praise. But one of This is the earliest work of the kind, among the many its members, in particular, deserves the best thanks of that England has produced ; and, thanks to the spirit and

enterprise of its publishers, and to the number of eminent intellect, that field through which he expatiated. They scientific and literary characters whose co-operation they confined themselves to the physiology of the human mind. have secured, it is still the best. The present is the seventh In morals, on the contrary, they limited themselves, with edition that has been called for, and every new edition the exception of Adam Smith, exclusively to the practical has surpassed its predecessors in extent and accuracy of department; and investigated the expediency of rules for information. The articles on Acoustics and Aeronautics human conduct, not daring to enter into the wide and in the Part which now lies on our table, as well as that dark enquiries respecting the nature of the moral being. on Abyssinia, and several of the biographical sketches, to In regard to criticism, the productive or the imaginative say nothing of Professor Stewart's Preliminary Disserta- power was then at the lowest possible ebb in Scotland, tion, with which the public is already acquainted, show and in attempting to appreciate its works, they spoke that the list of celebrated writers contained in the Pro- without feeling, without experience of their subject. In spectus is not a mere decoy, and that men of a high the science of political economy, however, they showed rank in literature really take an active share in the work. themselves masters. The arrangements of the Church of On the part of the publishers, it is apparent that no pains Scotland are such as to preclude all scientific study of have been spared to give the Encyclopædia a neatness of ex- theology, and of course, we have no systematic divines. ternal appearance worthy of its contents. To this broad History has been prosecuted chiefly by two classes ; either statement of general praise we feel that this publication by the followers of Hume and Robertson, men of strong is entitled, and we also feel that it can stand a more de- mind and correct taste, but devoid of any notion of practailed inspection, and even the pointing out of a few mi- tical statesmanship, and liable occasionally to sacrifice nor defects.

more important matters to their notions of beauty and Among these defects we do not reckon, though some fine composition ; or by professed antiquaries, men who may, the fact that the Encyclopædia Britannica bears to loose and uncritical habits of thought, added the yet strong marks of having its origin in the Edinburgh school worse recommendation of being violent partisans. The of literature and science. That there is such a school is science of language has never flourished in Edinburgh. notorious. Indeed, in every place of any extent and im Among such a body of literati the Encyclopædia has had portance where mind is cultivated with ardour, there its origin, and in it we can trace their peculiarities both must exist a kindred character among those who have de- good and bad. We speak decidedly of the Encyclopædia voted themselves to that pursuit. The circumstances now publishing, because, although the first Part only has which awaken their mental energies are the same, the yet appeared, we can nevertheless give, from our acquaintmodels to which they look up are the same, their respect ance with the sixth edition, and Mr Constable's supplefor each other teaches deference to their mutual censure. ment, a good guess at the general features of the work. Now, although we do not implicitly acquiesce in those in mathematical science it stands high. In the sciences scientific and critical dogmas which have hitherto been of experiment (chemistry and physics) it contains some current in Edinburgh-although we think that, like all of the best elementary treatises that have yet been pub. local systems, they are occasionally partial and defective lished. In most sciences of observation (or what is termed --we yet think that the unity of design resulting from natural history) it is likewise respectable. Its critical the commitment of the work into the hands of men who and moral treatises are ingenious, and sometimes brilliant, are agreed in all leading principles, is an advantage far if not sound,-its metaphysical dissertations, sensible as counterbalancing occasional omissions and defects which far as they go. It is more apt to be deficient in the philomay be traced to the same onuse.

sophy of jurisprudence and politics, in matters of hisOur opinion both of the strength and weakness of the tory, language, and antiquities. The theories which it Encyclopædia Britannica will best appear after we have supports in the two former, are, in general, shallow, and traced an outline of what we conceive to be the limits of lag behind the age. In the other three, we uniformly intellectual exertion in the Edinburgh school. This desiderate both extent and correctness of information. sketch we do not bring down much farther than the close This is the more unaccountable, that the articles in geoof the last century, for the school which it is meant to graphy, statistics, and political economy, are eminently illustrate seems to us to have reached its full stature distinguished by the presence of these very qualifications. about that period, and to have been declining ever since. We have insinuated above, that we do not think these The public mind has been diverted from those scientific drawbacks, though some of them are no trifles, materially investigations, which were its almost exclusive business, interfere with the high character we have attributed to to the department of imaginative literature ; and though the Encyclopædia; we say this, not merely when viewwe may occasionally meet with an individual devoted to ing it comparatively with other works of the same kind, severer pursuits, he is uniformly either a lonely remnant of but positively, regarding it as near perfection as in the the olden time, or a disciple of some foreign school, having present state of science could be expected. Now that nothing in common with the spirit of the place.

intellectual labour has been as much subdivided as corAt the very commencement of its carcer, the Edin-poral, no man can make himself thoroughly master of burgh school received, from the influence of Maclaurin, a more than one science. To this he must restrict his strong bias to mathematical pursuits. This it has retained serious labour, contenting himself with such a geneall along. We may have had few pre-eminent or inven- ral knowledge of others as an Encyclopædia can afford. tive mathematicians, but we have never been without a Such a degree of knowledge is, however, necessary, in order body of men who held a respectable rank in the science to protect him against the dangerous consequences of narNext came the medical school, founded among us by Cul- row-minded pedantry, and an unequal developement of len and Black. Out of it arose the spirit of experiment- his faculties. What is requisite, then, in the articles of al investigation, and the love of natural history. Hume an Encyclopædia, is general correctness, and a compreimpelled the public in another direction, and although he hensive view of the state of each science. This is enough; did not succeed in giving currency to his own metaphy- for no man will seek to learn his own particular science sical doctrines, be awakened attention to that kind of in

--that to which he devotes himself-in an Encyclopædia. vestigation ; while, by his detached essays, he excited spe- The more treatises, it is true, a work of this kind conculations in moral, critical, and economical science. Intains, possessing the high character of some in the Ency. these four departments he was followed by strong and clopædia, the better ; but such a character is not to be acute minds; but in all, except the last, there were cir- looked for in all. cumstances in operation to check and depress the spirit of We have borne cheerful and honourable testimony to free enquiry. His timid followers in metaphysics could the manner in which the publishers and contributors have hit upon no other way to avoid the conclusions at which done their parts. We now turn to the Editor. We most he had arrived, than by abandoning, as beyond human conscientiously believe Mr Napier to be adequate to the

task, not indeed because we have ever seen any work of We certainly have no intention of giving Mr Douglas a his that justifies the supposition, but because we have place among the most eminent assertors of religious truth; some regard to Mr Jeffrey's opinion. At the same time, yet we are far from thinking meanly either of his talents we must say that the present Part is full of little inac or of his present publications. The great fault of his curacies, which do no great credit either to his attention work on the Truths of Religion, is a want of aim. It or sharpsightedness. Two instances shall serve for a contains many excellent truths and sagacious observamillion. Under the phrase “ Faculty of Advocates," tions; there is also some acuteness of reasoning and force (p. 168, col. 2,) we find, apropos of the form of admis- of application, and the author displays throughout an exsion into that body :-“ Immediately before putting on tensive acquaintance with books, especially such as treat the gown, the candidate makes a short Latin speech to more directly of theology; but altogether the work is of the Lords." How comes the learned Editor not to have too miscellaneous a cast. The very general title of “ The discovered, in his occasional perambulations in the Parlia- | Truths of Religion,” would lead us to expect either a ment House, that this form has been disused for at least systematic scheme of Christian theology, or, what we twenty years ? Again, in the admirable article on Aero- should have liked much better, a connected exposition of nauties, we are told,—“ A globe of common air at the its more prominent and leading doctrines. Something level of the sea, and of the mean density and temperature, of this kind is promised in Mr Douglas's table of contents, is found to weigh about the 25th part of a pound avoir- but we are disappointed in the execution : there is too dupois.” Surely the weight must be somewhat affected little of selection-things of little or subordinate moment by the size of the globe ? To these inaccuracies, we could are carelessly mixed up with the most important truths; add many more. They are not individually of much mo and thus the mind is apt, in a great measure, to lose sight ment, but, taken together, they indicate an over e of of those primary truths which ought to occupy its undicarelessness in the Editor.

vided attention. The book strongly reminds us of a late

literary earl's picture-gallery, where scratchy engravings, The Truths of Religion. By James Douglas, Esq. the side of valuable paintings by the first masters.

the refuse of the print shops, shared the light, and graced

Works Edinburgh. Adam Black. 1830. 8vo. Pp. 361.

of this nature, that affect to illustrate half-a-dozen very Errors regarding Religion. By James Douglas, Esq. important subjects, each of which would, to do it justice, Edinburgh. Adam Black. 1830. 8vo. Pp. 331.

require for itself a space equal to the whole volume, are Psous men have often complained that works on theo- always trying to an author's reputation, and generally logy occupy a very subordinate place in most private prove unsatisfactory. They are indeed highly useful and libraries, and are read with less avidity than the impor- valuable, when they proceed from a writer possessing a tance of their subject demands. Granting the fact to be comprehensive grasp of mind, and when, like Paley's 30, we do not think it sufficiently proves what it is sup

“ Evidences,” and Dr Inglis's “ Vindication,” they composed to prove, the general prevalence of irreligion. In bine simplicity of arrangement and clearness of argument, a Christian country, the reading and the preaching of with conclusiveness of moral demonstration. But Mr God's word, as they are the ordinary means whereby the Douglas's work, excellent as it is in some respects, and spirit supports, enlarges, and confirms religion in the soul, highly creditable to the author's principles and his talents, 80, from their simplicity, their accessibleness, their easy leaves us to a certain extent dissatisfied. We are hurried adaptation to all circumstances and classes of society, from one important subject to another, by a rapid and they are the means most generally and most willingly somewhat violent transition, frequently without our being had recourse to; they furnish a sufficient ground of faith able to trace any peculiar connexion, except that general to the learned and to the unlearned who use them aright, analogy which subsists between all parts of the divine and to the great mass of Christian believers, they are scheme of redemption. Here we have the fall of man, quite satisfactory. Still, it must be admitted, that and by and by a dissertation on Hebrew poetry—the doubts will sometimes arise even in the candid mind — s'history of the Jews—the inductive philosophy—the docdifficulties will occur which it requires much learning trine of justification, and a description of the society in and judgment to explain—and above all, objections will heaven, interspersed with occasional notices of profano be started with no small degree of ingenuity, and urged authors, and some half-dozen poetical quotations from with no inconsiderable share of plausibility, by men whose Virgil. The author would probably think we were triobliquity of moral vision has distorted their own belief, Aling with him, were we to characterise bis “ Truths of and who bave no peace till they have succeeded in per- Religion” as an excellent theological scrap-book. But we verting the belief of others. It is proper, therefore, that have no intention of speaking lightly of Mr Douglas or these difficulties should be provided for. It is right that of his volume. On the contrary, we have read his work the citadel of our faith should be shown to be not only with much pleasure, and though we have found fault with defensible, but altogether impregnable; that it should the execution of its plan as deficient in distinctness and offer perfect security to those who are within, and be unity, and to this extent unsatisfactory, we are not blind ever ready to give battle to all who assail it from with- to its general merits. The author is indeed too ambitious eut; that thus, by its external fortifications and its in- of displaying all that he knows; he is too vague and diffuse, ternal supplies, it may baffle every attempt to despoil the and apt to wander into generalities ; but his perceptions Christian of his hope, and that the enemies of our Sion are vivid, his acuteness very considerable, and his religious may see, in their total discomfiture, the weakness of their opinions consistent with the standards of our church. arms, and the folly of their undertaking. This, we His work may therefore be read with advantage by all think, is the great use of theological controversy, and the who feel an interest (and who is not interested?) in the accumulation of the evidences of religion ; not so much truths of our holy religion. to establish the faithful, to convince the infidel, or con Mr Douglas's volume on the “ Errors regarding ReliTert the scoffer, as to confirm the wavering, to give con- gion” is a later, and we think a better executed work, than fidence to the timid, to prevent the spread of irreligion bis “ Truths.” Here the author bas displayed his extenamong the unprejudiced. And when we remember the sive reading and his natural shrewdness to advantage. distinguished names which adorn this branch of our lite- His view of the great leading features of heresy and inrature, Chillingworth, and Barrow, and Tillotson, and fidelity is comprehensive and philosophical; his strictures Butler, and Paley, and Watson, and Chalmers, and Inglis, are, in general, just, and his own opinions appear to be orgood reason bave we to be proud of the champions whom thodox. He seems, indeed, to have fallen into the fashionthe sneer of infidelity has roused to exert their mighty able absurdity of supposing that the world is at present energies in the elucidation and defence of the Christian on the eve of some great change. We are astonished to Fause,

find this unphilosophical view so prevalent in many works

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of merit which have lately issued from the press. It is self, to set his hand industriously and emulously to sueb natural for people to look upon the age in which they a task, instead of declaiming idly and querulously with his themselves live, as more remarkable than its predecessors, mouth against the total discipline and modes of tuition of our and to anticipate the wonders of that which is to succeed Scottish schools. One or two books such as these we have it; but experience ought to guard the philosopher against just mentioned-solid, practical, and unmetaphysical, hatoo easily yielding to a vulgar delusion which has amused ving the influence of their use backed by substantial learnthe credulous from the first dawn of millennarianism, down ing and enthusiasm, not declamatory froth and peevish vito the hallucinations of those who see a brighter dawn tuperation, on the part of our teachers would do more to opening upon the march of intellect. Mr Douglas is, re-invigorate our northern classical languor, than a hundred however, sufficiently severe in his strictures on those dan- letters to Members vituperative of our Scottish tuition. gerous heresies and errors which have from time to time on this subject, indeed, we are involuntarily prompted! troubled the peace of the church. This is all quite right to say a great deal; but as our remarks might appear We by no means desire to see restored that style of con unconnected with Mr Valpy's volume, we shall merely troversy, once so prevalent even among Protestants, which conclude with recommending it to our friends, the lovers deemed vituperation as good a weapon as argument; but of Greek, throughout Scotland, as the best Introduction we confess that in these days of affected candour and un to Greek Composition that hath, as yet, appeared in our disguised liberalism, we honour the man who, while he literature. exposes the fallacy, expresses his detestation of a pernicious doctrine. Intolerance is, no doubt, reprehensible enough; it is, and has been, the cause of much inischief in the world; Elements of the Latin Language. Simplified and connectbut it at least offers a presumption of honesty. On the

edly arranged. In Three Parts. Part First --Rudiother hand, extreme liberality, however well sounding and ments, &c. By Edward Woodford, A.M. Pp. 114. plausible a name, is very apt, especially in religion, to de

We think well of the cleverness, simplicity of method, generate into liberalism or freethinking; and if it do not and connected arrangement, of this little unpresuming proceed from the same source, does, we fear, often lead to volume ; and though we cannot recommend that it should the same result-indifference to all truth. Our author be introduced into our schools to the prejudice of Ruddiis not intolerant, but he has evidently an opinion of his man's excellent work, yet we think it may be perused by own, and takes proper care to show it. Mr Douglas is our schoolmasters with considerable instruction and pleaa layman-he writes like a gentleman and a scholar--and, what we hope he will esteem a higher compliment, considering the subjects to which he has devoted so much attention, like a well-informed and orthodox theologian. The Ingrate's Gift. A Dramatic Poem. In Five Acts.

Edinburgh. James Kay. 1830. 18mo. Pp. 197. Greek E.rercises ; or, an Introduction to Greek Composi

We have seen worse dramatic poems than this, but, on tion, so constructed as to lead the Student from the Ele- the whole, it is bad enough. ments of Grammar to the Higher Parts of Syntax, &c. 2d Edition. Improved by the Rev. F. E. J. Valpy, Master of Reading School. With Vocabulary, &c.

Pp. 249.
This is a book, in our opinion, so excellent, and in all

respects so praiseworthy, that we should wish to see it
introduced into all the gymnasiums and grammar-schools

A PEEP BEHIND THE SCENES. of Scotland, even though we should expose ourselves to

No. VIII. the charge of anti-nationalism in endeavouring to exclude the “ Greek Exercises," more cumbrous, less tasteful, less

“Stulta, jocosa, canenda, dolentia, seria, sacra,

En posita ante oculos, Lector amice, tuos; happily-selected, and more highly-priced, of our own Quisquis es, hic aliquid quod delectabit habebis ; learned Professor Dunbar. For the highly classical

Tristior an levior, selige quicquid amas." name of Valpy we entertain, and have long entertained, “ All men are more or less mad.” In other words, the greatest veneration; we are sure we venerate him as all men, under certain given circumstances, think, feel, much in our hyperborean distance as his countrymen in and act differently from the manner in which any other the south ; and so long as England exhibits such masterly men under the same circumstances would either think, and practical scholars at the head of her literary establish- feel, or act. What is commonly called knowledge of the ments, so long shall she maintain her pre-eminence over world, is in truth nothing else but a knowledge of this her sister kingdom in the elegance and profundity of her fact. The mere ignoramus gapes and cries out at every classical erudition. Unfortunately, as we deem, for the step, because he is continually meeting with something classical youth of Scotland, our eminent scholars indulge which had not previously come within the narrow sphere, too much in the exercise of their national propensities to- of bis own observation. The possessor of a more enwards metaphysical disquisition, and consume their facul- | larged mind is, on the contrary, astonished at nothing, ties, too unprofitably for the majority of their pupils, in because the very circumstance which has enlarged his disputations regarding the nomenclature or arrangements mind is, that he has had his eyes opened to the great of grammar-subjunctive and indicative moods, &c. law of nature expressed in the four Latin words-lot points which, in their very nature, are indeterminable; and, homines-tot sententiæ. It is delightful to see a small even though they were with the most indubitable nicetý mind and a great mind brought into immediate contrast determined, can be to the student in his practice of little anywhere-at a dinner-party, for example. The small or no use whatever. We should like to see a Valpy or mind has made its own experience (trifling as that in tuo arise in Scotland Isome profound, yet plain, efficient, all probability has been) the groundwork of certain and influential scholars, who should infuse animation into principles, which it has built up with the most pragmatia the torpidity of our system; and, as a principal step to cal nicety and obstinate self-sufficiency, and whatever wards this object, should frame for our schools such be- seems to go beyond this narrow and puny boundary, at neficial books as Valpy's Elegantia Latinæ, and Valpy's once throws it off its balance,—surprises, confuses, stuGreek Exercises. We should be inclined, even from pities, and demolishes it. But the great mind makes the humble recess of our umegavov, to advise even the re. allowance for every possible diversity of opinion-for sloubtable and world-challenging Professor Pillans him- every possible mode of feeling. The great mind knows


the constitution of its own nature-its powers and its been madder, except something we also wrote which we feeblenesses, and also knows that there exist other na called poetry. We have been mad among the snows of tures no less admirable no less instinct with the glo- Norway, skating after the wolves and bears at the rate rious workmanship of an Almighty hand---whose pecu- of about thirty miles an hour ;- we have been mad in the liar idiosyncrasy is totally distinct from its own. Hence, forests of Germany, summoning the wild huntsman with a great mind is full of forbearance and benevolence towards many a frightful incantation ;-we have been mad upon all mankind. In company, a small snappish mind, gift- the vine-robed hills of France, dancing through the clouded with some quickness, but very little extent of vision, less summer night to the sound of pipe and castanet ;seizes upon petty errors and trifling discrepancies of judg we have been mad among the old ruins of Italy, scaring ment, and triumphantly tears, and rugs, and shakes its the dark bats out of their murderous holes, and striking head over them like a puppy-dog over a glove or a worsted fear into the hearts of the unprincipled owls ;-we have stocking, wagging its tail all the time in token of self-ap- been mad in the centre of all the light and revelry of Lonprobation, and ever and anon emitting a short bark to don, staring on and on at the whole scene, until we thought attract more general attention. A great mind views with we had pushed back the surface of a mighty churchyard, interest and delight every state in which intellect deve- and were gazing at a busy world of death, which, in every lopes itself, however imperfect that developement may be. stage of corruption and decay, hurried through a perEven the clever little conceited creature who occupies plexing and fantastic maze of profitless occupation. But almost all the conversation, and lays down the law so in a most especial manner we have been mad in our own empbatically, affords to such a mind an amusing and not native country of Scotland, and still more so in our dear unprofitable study. It has consequently been invariably city of Edinburgh, and through all its delightful vicinity. remarked, that the manners and conversation of all those We have been mad in the Old Town, diving down the men who have made advances in science and the art of most indescribable closes and dark alleys,walking up ratiocination beyond any of their contemporaries, have narrow winding staircases, which led to ruinous apartbeen remarkable for simplicity and affability. They have ments that have been deserted since the time of the great learned to respect the individual from having deeply plague, finding in them nothing but fragments of old studied the species. As the botanist discovers in the tapestry, and here and there the mouldering legs of anmeanest weed attributes linking it indissolubly with the tique chairs and tables, all the rest having crumbled away whole of the vegetable kingdom, so does the philosopher into dust, and evaporated into air. We have listened till in every condition of mind, and in every manifestation we heard in some upper story, or along some broken galof feeling, acknowledge the presence of that nobler and lery, the creaking and the slamming of a door opened or ethereal essence which distinguishes man, not from the shut by some unknown agency; mysterious footsteps lower animals, for to them also belong both mind and rang in our ears, and a dark circle of the men of other feeling, but from the flowers of the field and the stones times seemed to gather around us, pale and silent, but of of the desert.

stern and haughty aspect, and here and there, like a dia. In the eye of philosophy, therefore, madness, in the mond set in ebony, a form and face of delicate and uncommon acceptation of the word, is a phenomenon of rare earthly beauty gleaming sadly among the darker shapes. occurrence, and is limited to that particular disorganiza- Then has fear mingled with our madness, and we have tion of the system which produces positive corporeal dis-rushed out into the long and winding lanes, populous with ease. Unfortunately, however, philosophy is seldom met squalid life, and listened distractedly to the sharp wailings with in ordinary life, and as the unphilosophical are less of penury, the fierce out-breakings of passion, and the hiscrupulous in the choice of their terms, all men are pro deous ribaldry of hardened immorality. Then, as we nounced mad whose thoughts and actions are not like hastened on by a thickly-huddled congregation of pawnunto their thoughts and actions. Respectable gentlemen brokers' shops, filled with all their motley display of tarof fifty generally inform us that love is madness ;-hun- nished finery and paltry goods which formerly puffed up dreds of worthy tradesmen, who make from five to fifteen with pride the souls of the men and women to whom they shillings a-day, look upon ambition as madness ;-coun- belonged, we have bitterly laughed at the arts and refinetry clergymen, the husbands of one wife, and the fathers ments of society, reading its folly in some broken mirror, of thirteen children, consider military individuals in red, and its emptiness in some threadbare coat, dangling upon who wear spurs and moustaches, not altogether in their a pole, as if in mockery of its former owner, yet hung out right mind ;—the spendthrift maintains that the miser is for show in the hope of alluring a second purchaser ! cracked, and the miser is clear that the spendthrift is non We have been mad in the New Town, rattling in a compos ;--the merchant, who has worked all his life at coach to some great assembly of rank and fashion, and, on the ledger, is in terrible distress if his son turns out a arriving there, flinging ourselves, like a swimmer from a genius, which to him is synonymous with entire useless. promontory's brow, into the ocean of gaiety which lay ness; and the son, as he grows up, begins to discover that before us. We have given ourselves up to the delusion his father is a particularly weak and contemptible sort of of the scene and the hour. We have taught our eyes to character. Thus mankind go on, each admiring his believe that they gazed on beauty,—our ears that they own wisdom, and overwhelmed with astonishment at the drank in music. We have fancied that noise and bustle evident insanity of every body else.

constituted pleasure,—that scandal and laughter were the Well, be it so. We are all mad; and since it is im-chief ingredients of wit. We have devoured ices and possible to avoid the imputation, let us make a virtue of jellies, and quaffed sour champaign, almost as if they had necessity, and turn our lunacy to the best account we can. been novelties, and have actually caught ourselves soothed We plead guilty, for our own part, to the most uncon into a feeling of vanity by the coquettish attentions of a scionable fits of madness that ever turned the brain of few girls in their teens. We have returned to the dan. earthly Editor. We have grown mad under all circum- cing-room after we have supped ; and we have come back stances in all scenes, and at all times. We have been to the supper-room after we have danced ; and we have sometimes stark staring mad, sometimes idiotically silly, renewed the alternate enjoyments of supping and quadriland sometimes piteously imbecile. We have been wild | ling till the lights burned dimmer, and till, like the ghost and furious in our madness, like the enraged ball, or the in “Hamlet,” we began to “scent the morning air.” If horned rhinoceros; and we have been gentle, maudlin, this was not madness in an Editor, Dr Abercrombie and innocent as an old man tipsy in his dotage. Think himself could not tell what madness is. not we mean to deny having been mad when in our We have been mad in all the places of celebrity which, SLIPPERS ; and most willingly do we confess, that in boots like the border of an Indian shawl, hem in our Athens we have been mad times and ways beyond computation. upon every side.

We have been mad at Roslin and in We have written prose so mad, that nothing could have Hawthornden. Who has not been mad amidst scenery

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