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Cooke. Nay, so strikingly is the fact exemplified in one structure; and secondly, from vegetable physiology, or of the treatises before us, that when Mr Cruickshank the knowledge of the various cbadges of form they under. undertakes to give his readers an account of the sudden go, and the various functions they perform, through the and perfect creation of park scenery, by the Removal of instrumentality of external agents. But such persoas as Wood, as one of the most extraordinary efforts of modern these, of course, treat trees as they would treat mere iaart, and furnishes a minute account of all the practical organic matter. They operate on them, as the plough. details from Sir Henry Steuart's work, he cautiously ab- man operates on the ground, and the carpenter or the stains from any attempt to make his readers acquainted blacksmith on wood or iron, simply imagining, that they with the scientific principles ; a developement of which, themselves are to acquire scientific information, by mere had he given it, would have rendered those details ten dint of mechanical practice!, To reason with such men times more interesting to any reader, learned or unlearn- is vain. Their confidence and self-sufficiency are in the ed. But Mr Cruickshank could not develope what he ratio of their ignorance. Guided by such counsellors did not comprehend; as clearly appears from the whole however, they oftentimes succeed in misleading others, tenor and complexion of his book.
and in retarding the advancement of that knowledge, which As another eminent example of the same tardy diffu- they are able neither to appreciate nor comprehend. It is sion of scientific knowledge, we may quote a late meri- the lamentable want of this knowledge, that has made torious publication, on “ The Culture of Hardy Ever- Boutcher, and Marshall,, and Nicol, all meritorious greens," by Mr William M‘Nab, Superintendent of the writers, appear unsatisfactory; Hanbury useless; and Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburgh, a pamphlet which Pontey ridiculous; and has rendered the Pruning system we noticed in a late Number, with the approbation it of the last-mentioned so ruinous to the woods of Engdeserves. Mr M'Nab, we must say, is a person distin- land.* It is the same want that makes Billington and guished as a practical gardener ; he is possessed of much Cruickshank-two of our best practical men- sometimes observation as a florist and a nurseryman, and not write nonsense, and Withers always write it, with the unacquainted with systematic botany. In his tract on powerful excitement of his conceit and self-sufficiency. Evergreens, there is furnished the most ample evidence Even the venerable Evelyn, in the same way, appears of great experience in ordinary culture being found to wearisome and prosing to a mind, habituated to look to exist without a vestige of science, and, strange to tell, in principles as the groundwork of its researches. In a so judicious a practitioner, a most laughable conteinpt of word, it is this indispensable want of scientific informa any advantage to be derived from it! At the same time tion, that has kept Arboriculture, in all its branches, dow that he does this, he strikingly demonstrates the absurdity of to the low rank of a mechanical art, till the present per his own conduct, by giviog a variety of what he conceives riod. to be unaccountabl phenomena, or difficulties in practice, We should, then, earnestly advise our planters, and our which, to ourselves, or any other intelligent physiologists, writers on planting, to unite their best efforts, in bringing would seem nó difficulties at all, if the facts attending about a new era in this neglected but important art them were only stated with accuracy. In a word, were They should endeavour at length to learn, that a tree is we called upon to adduce the strongest proof of the vast not, as too many suppose, an inanimate substance, but a importance of science in the art in question, it would be living being like themselves ; that, in its constituent parts, in the extreme 'simplicity and ignorance of this worthy it contains the same chemical principles as they do, though wan, in every thing beyond the mere matter of mecha- with different properties, and under different laws of nical or gardener's practice. Yet this practice in him is, organization. " A plant,” as an able writer has observed, all the while, most excellent in itself, as far as it goes, “is a living being. Living beings are distinguished from while the fact of his ignorance of any thing existing inanimate bodies by peculiar characters. Their existence beyond it, that is important for him to know, never once depends upon certain conditions, and is regulated by deoccurs to his imagination !
terminate laws. It is obvious, therefore, that there can * The last example, which we shall mention, of the ge- be no scientific, and consequently no successful, mannged neral ignorance that prevails, regarding tree-culture, ment of such beings, without a knowledge of the phene especially in England, (where it has been more studied mena of life, of the actions upon which these phenomena than with us,) is the well-known imposition practised on depend, and of the laws which regulate them. Liring English landholders by Mr William Withers, a Norfolk beings are distinguished essentially from inanimate bodies attorney, in respect to Trenching and Manuring. This by the possession of a peculiar structure, and by the pare system he has succeeded in making the great majority of formance of determinate, and generally internal actions, country gentlemen believe to be a new discovery of his which are named functions. The structure peculiar to a own, particularly the manuring ; whercas the thing has living body consists in a determinate arrangement of the been well known in England for more than two centu- substances of which it is composed ; such an arrangemen ries. He has completely persuaded them, that it is the being denominated organization, and the body so formed only rational system to be followed for general planting, being said to be organized. Organization and functiaa instead of being fitted merely for particular departments; are correlative. Organization is the instrument; fanction and that it is the sole method of either raising good oak the action of the instrument; and the result the products, timber for the Navy, or of improving what is already or phenomena peculiar to life.” raised. The English, however, with all their intelli Such being the facts which vegetable anatomy and gence, as we know well, are, and have ever been, the most physiology open to our view, it becomes the indispensable gullible people on the face of the globe, from the days of duty of planters to study this curious being which they the Bottle-conjurer down to the present period. In fact, have to manage, as a body continually exerting its vegehonest John Bull is the only person, with whom conceit, impudence, and portentous ignorance, like Withers's, are
* It is a curious fact, that Pontey's “ Forest Pruner," which came sure to be swallowed for a season, until, by a return of out in 1805, had gone through four or five editions, and mixed buil his natural good sense and reflection, (which always the wood-owners of Britain, before his entire ignorance of the true come at last,) John heartily laughs at both the imposi- suspectedl; and it was not fully exposed till 1818.See : The Plane
principles of the art-vegetable anatomy and physiology--*as cru le tion and the impostor, with all the good-humour ima- er's Guide," p. 110, et seqq. ginable.
# It had long been ascertained, by chemical analysis, that the me
stituent parts both of plants and animals. contain precisely the sarci What is Scientific Arboriculture? We will tell Messrs ultimate principles-namely, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sná a te, Macnab and Withers, in a few words. It is the culture although it is commonly said, that azote is peculiar to animals
stance. The correet statemeni, however, is, that apote pineda of wood, conducted on physiological principles ; which nates in the animal substance, while the vegetable is by Bo Bus principles are drawn, first, from the anatomy of woody destitute of it. From this analogy of composition, it was inferre'. plants,--that is, a knowledge of their organs and internal has proved.
that there is an analogy of structure, which accurate in restigation
tative powers, and daily exhibiting the most striking | Royal Irish Academy, the well-known chemist, compovariations of external form, and often of internal structure. sed his enquiry into the nature of “ Soils and Manures.” They should strive to make themselves acquainted with Several of the instructive writings of Young had at that its appropriate organs, by means of which 'its functions time appeared, and those of Darwin soon followed. But are performed, and with the physical agents'or stimulants, it was not till the period between 1802 and 1812, that Sir which act upon those organs, producing the various im- | Humphrey Dary delivered and completed his excellent pressions, and exciting the various actions, that constitute, “ Lectures on Agricultural Chemistry,” and enjoyed the as above stated, the phenomena of life. In this way, they triumph which had at last been achieved, by scientific will perceive, not only how certain results are brought investigation, over prejudice and ignorance. We think about respecting trees, by wolny they are brought about. it improbable, from the experience of so tardy a progress Thus, they will be enabled at all times to resolve seeming in the sister art before our eyes, that arboriculture is not difficulties, to effect general and beneficial improvements, to iinprove with a far greater degree of rapidity. The and, by practice guided' by 'sound principles, learn to publication of “The Planter's Guide,” in the end of 1827, correct their own errors, as well as those of others. gave the first impulse : and although nothing scientific
On one point we should further take the liberty of has since come out to second it among ourselves, not even advising them, and that is, to read while they plant, and in the Quarterly Journal of Agriculture, (which promises plant while they read'; as there are no two things, that to become the best of our rural periodicals, and treats of will more benefit each other. Country gentlemen, we planting as well as husbandry,) yet we are glad to see, well know, will do any thing rather than read; but they that a series of papers on " Horticultural Chemistry" should remember, that no one ever yet became a superior has appeared in Loudon's Magazine, and also some similar practitioner in any art, who did not unite some portion of Essays in the Domestic Gardener's Manual, which do theory, or intellectual acquirement, with his mechanical or great honour to this nascent science in England. manual processes. From the sages of physiology much Before ten years go about, we conceive that we may may be learned. As their principles are well founded, so look forward to a revolution in our ideas of British their conclusions will be important and instructive. But arboriculture not more complete, than important to the from the sages of the Spade and the Quill, whose merits we interests of the empire. As it is clear, amidst all the have already touched upon, little that is valuable or cer- changes and chances incident to learning, that The tain can be expected. Having no light to guide their enqui- LITERARY JOURNAL will still survive, and preserve its ries, and no standard to which to refer their experiments, verdant honours uninjured by time, we flatter ourselves, ordinary gardener's practice is all that can be got from the that having been the first public writers to bring forone, and ignorance and quackery from the other. Stillward the subject, so we shall, in future, have more than it is by being able to trace the effects produced upon trees one opportunity of recurring to this our confident predicby their physical agents, on which we have already en tion. Even long before the time we have ventured to larged, and by ascertaining in how far the quantity of fix upon, we should hope, that the eyes of our present race those agents is best adapted to their peculiar organization, of planters may be opened, to the clear and comprehensive that planters will best consult the most perfect develope- views of science united with skill and industry, which ment of their suhjects, and bring them to the greatest we have condescended to Jay before them, and which, we perfection. In a word, it is by one and all of the above trust, they will erelong discover to be for their benefit. means ünited, that they will become competent to attain | At no distant day, we know, they will look back with the main object in view--namely, that of raising Arbori- surprise, at their present strange aud portentous want of calture from the condition of mechanical to that of a information. They will wonder how the good-humoured scientific art.
ignorance of principles, professed, and nearly boasted of, If it be asked, in what quarter this reformation in the by the Superintendent of a Royal Botanic Garden, or the study of arboriculture should originate ? We reply dis- far greater ignorance of both principles and practice by a tinetly and without hesitation, with the Landowners and Norfolk attorney, should have escaped general reprobation Country-gentlemen. These constitute the great and influ- by the watchful guardians of the press, or rendered ential class of British planters; and, were science to necessary the strictures which we have done them the become a favourite study among them, it would necessarily honour to bestow upon them. The future, compared be aequired by nurserymen and gardeners, who would, with the present, condition of these planters, will be like of course, aspire to become its ostensible professors. Were that of mariners, who had been at sea without a compass ; this once brought about, it is plain, that we should hear or like men, who had long worked in the dark, and the light no more of the prosing ignorance of M‘Nab, or the con of the sun was let in upon their labours. fideot pretensions, and still greater ignorance of Withers, Having some further observations to make upon this Oecasiotal pamphlets, while they stated new facts as they subject, we shall resume it in an early Number. occurred, would at once refer us to their true causes, mamely, the actions, simple or compound, of physical agents; and thus observation, instead of puzzling itself about The Death-Wake; or, Lunacy. A Necromaunt. In fanciful difficulties, would gradually arrive at general Three Chimeras. By Thomas T. Stoddart. Edinburgh, truth, by the only path which sound philosophy ever
Heury Constable. 1831. 12mo. Pp. 144. adopts an induction of facts and experiments. In the
(Unpublished.) case of agriculture, a similar course has already been pursued: and, although men of much science are not often This poem deserves attention, were it for nothing but found among professional farmers, or even among coun its singularity. Neither in name nor in substance is it uy gentlemen, as scientific persons of different classes like any other poem we have seen for a long while. In have already dedicated their time and talents to the art, these days of smooth and sweet versification, we are glad and rendered it an art of science, so practical men, who to find something like originality starting up among us. have no such knowledge themselves, have gradually come Mr Stoddart is a young man, not long out of his teens, to learn the results of science, and can bring them success but his mind is plainly one sui generis ; and strengthFally to bear on practice accordingly.
ened, as it appears to have been, by an attentive study of What length of time may elapse, ere the same benefit our elder poets and dramatists, we are inclined to think be coaferred universally on Planting, it is not easy to say. | that, when it arrives at its full and matured powers, it The ingenious Earl of Dundonald, whom we have already will show itself entitled to no inconsiderable elbow-room mentioned published bis essays “ On the Connexion in the literary world. Our author is evidently deterbetween Husbandry and Chemistry,” about 1794, and mined to reject all the innovations of modern schools subsequently his Essays. In 1796, Mr Kirwan of the whether of the Lakists or the Satanics, the Sentimentals or
the Misanthropics. He holds on his own separate course main, with that lifeless form for ever before him, and boldly, with many flashes of success, and many indica- upon which his whole soul has intensified itself. The tions of good things yet to come. We do not say that the third Chimera takes us to an island, where Julio lands style he has adopted is altogether to be admired, but, with the now decayed body of his Agathé, and where he when purged and improved, it will ultimately be found to meets a hermit, with whom he has some communing. possess much manly vigour, and much of the Doric sim- Refusing, however, to quit either the beach or the moulplicity of genuine poetry-poetry which depends upon the dering remains of the dead nun, a storm at length arises, author's thoughts, not upon his words. At present, there which sweeps him back into the sea, and his body and are many inequalities in Mr Stoddart's compositions. In that of Agathé are cast ashore, locked in a final embrace. spired with the afflatus, he plunges on right through, re- The hermit buries them, having first discovered that gardless of the art of rendering his course smooth by Agathé must have been his own daughter ;-and thus the skilful steering,—now careering gracefully over the top poem closes. of a broad-backed billow, now down with a sudden plunge It will be allowed that there is here considerable strength into the dark trough of the sea, where it is next to im- and originality of design, and the mode of execution is possible to follow him. It is all one to him ;--if bis quite as original. A few extracts will enable our readers conceptions assume a clear and distinct shape, it is well ; to form a pretty just estimate of Mr Stoddart's style and if he gets lost in their maze, he feels that he has a sort of vis poetica. The poem opens thus : notion of what he would be at himself, and he leaves the reader to make him out the best way he can.
“An anthem of a sister choristry!
And like a windward murmur of the sea, wish to impress upon Mr Stoddart is this, that the finest
O'er silver shells, so solemnly it falls ! ideas are good for nothing, unless they be clothed in dis A dying music sbrouded in deep walls, tinct language. Byron was a greater poet than Shelley, That bury its wild breathings!. And the moon, not because he had a loftier mind, but because he did not Of glow-worm bue, like virgin in sad stoon, attempt to do more with that mind than the words he
Lies coldly on the bosom of a cloud, had at his command enabled him to do. Shelley strained
Until the elf-winds, that are wailing loud,
Do minister unto her sickly trance, after impossibilities ; Byron, with superior judgment,
Fanning the life into her countenance; saw the exact extent to which execution could keep pace And there are pale stars sparkling, far and fent with conception, and knew that if he went beyond that In the deep chasms of everlasting blue, boundary he passed into a terra incognita, where all was Unmarshall'd and ungather'd, one and one, unsatisfactory and vague. Let it not be supposed that we Like outposts of the finar garrison. object to a high degree of intellect being infused into
“A train of holy fathers windeth by poetry; there can be no poetry above the wishy-washy
The arches of an aged sanctuary, trash to be met with in an inferior Annual, unless it be
With cow), and scapular, and rosary, instinct with intellect. But, in preference to even in On to the sainted oriel, where stood, tellect itself, we demand lucid arrangement-mathema By the rich altar, a fair sisterbood tical clearness. This, indeed, is one of the highest tri A weeping group of virgins! one or two umphs of intellect. Let the thoughts be such, that their Bent forward to a bier, of solemn bue, depth and novelty demand, a pause, but not the pause of
Whereon a bright and stately coffin lay,
With its black pall flung over :perplexing enquiry as to what the thoughts are which
Was on the lid--a name. And who? No more! the language wishes to embody. Byron has finely said,
'Twas only Agathé." that the “ stars are the poetry of heaven." Let their example profit the earth-born bard. They shine upon There is something solemn and attractive in this their mighty page revealed at once in their separate love- commencement. Still higher powers are displayed in liness ;-they inspire awę, and questioning, and medita- the passage in which Julio is described as digging up tion, but their actual and golden existence is involved in Agathé : no hazy uncertainty. The story of the “ Death-Wake, or Lunacy,” is simple,
“ He wields a heavy mattock in his hands, and easily told. Indeed, the impression it produces alto
And over him a lonely lantern stands
On a near niche, shedding a sickly fall gether is, in a great measure, to be attributed to the ear
Of light upon a marble pedestal, nestness with which so simple an incident is dwelt on Whereon is chisellid rudely tbe essay and amplified. . Julio, a youth of noble parentage, but of Of untaught tool, ' Hic jacet Agathé !' a peculiarly constituted mind,-moody and morbid, and And Julio hath bent him down in speed, apt to prey, upon itself-had retired at an early age into Like one that doeth an unholy deed. a convent, where he became a monk. Soon afterwards he formed an acquaintance with a fair nun, of the name
“ There is a flagstone lieth beavily of Agathé, which rapidly ripened into a passion of the
Over the ladye's grave; I wist of three deepest and most absorbing character. The holy vows
That bore it, of a blessed verity!
But he hath lifted it in his pure madness, he had taken became bateful to him, and his internal
As it were lightsomne as a summer gladness, struggles were such, that they drove him to the very And from the carved niche hath ta’en the lamp, brink of madness. At this crisis, Agathé died, and Julio's And hung it by the marble flagstone damp. misery and madness were completed. The first Chimera, or canto, which commences with the death of Agathé, consists “ And he is flinging the dark, chilly mould of his going to her grave alone hy night, opening it, and
Over the gorgeous pavement: 'tis a cold, carrying off the dead body of his beloved, no one knows
Sad grave, and there is many a relic there whither. The second Chimera discovers him seated in
Of chalky bones, wbich, in the wasting air, his frenzy on the sea-shore, with the corpse beside him.
Fell mouldering away; and he would dash
His mattock through them, with a cursed crash, He embarks in a small vessel, of which he and Agathé That made the lone aisle echo. But anon are the sole tenants, and he sails away across the great He fell upon a skull,-a baggard one, ocean, wherever the winds and waves may carry him, the With its teeth set, and the great orbless ere poet describing, as he proceeds, the feelings of the crazed Revolving darkuess, like eternityand bewildered man, and the storms, and calms, and
And in his hand he held it, till it grew little incidents which vary his long and dreary voyage.
To have the fleshy features and the hue There is a considerable feeling of sublimity conveyed
Of lite. He gazed, and gazed, and it became
Like to his Agathé-all, all the same! by the prolonged description with which we are pre Ile drew it nearer,—the cold, bony thing! sented of the distracted mariner, alone upon the trackless To kiss the worm-wet lips. "Ay! let ine cling
Cling to thee now, for ever!' but a breath
Of ocean and the sky—the sea and sky, Of rank corruption from its jaws of death
And the lone bark; no clouds were floating by Went to his nostrils, and he madly laugh'd,
Where the sup'set, but his great seraph light And dash'd it over on the altar shaft,
Went dowvii alone, in majesty and might; Which the new risen moon, in her grey light,
And the stars came again, a silver troop, Had fondly flooded, beautifully bright!"
Until, in shame, the coward shadows droop
Before the radiance of these boly gems, “ And Julio had stolen the dark chest
That bear the images of diadems! Where the fair nun lay coffin'd, in the rest
And Julio fancied of a form that rose That wakes not up at morning: she is there,
Before him from the desolate repose An image of cold calm ! One tress of hair
Of the deep waters—a huge ghastly form, Lingereth lovely ou her snowy brow;
As of ene lightning-stricken in a storm ; But the bright eyes are closed in darkness now;
And leprosy cadaverous was hung And their long lashes delicately rest
Before his brow, and awful terror flung On the pale cheek, like sun-rays in the west,
Around him like a pall-a solemn shroud !That fall upon a colourless, sad cloud.
A drapery of darkness and of cloud! Humility lies rudely on the proud,
And agony was writhing on his lip, But she was never proud ; and there she is,
Heart-rooted, awful agony and deep,
Of fevers, and of plagnes, and burning blain,
A weird and yellow spectre! And his eyes
Were orbless and unpupillid, as the skies That bears the burden of a silver gleam
Without the sun, or moon, or any star : l'pon its waters; and is even so,
And he was like the wreck of what men are, Chill, melancholy, lustreless, and low !
A wasted skeleton, that held the crest
Of Time, and bore his motto on his breast !” “ Beauty in death! a tenderness upon The rude and silent relics, where alone
Alluding to Julio, Agathé, and the hermit, the poem Sat the destroyer! Beauty on the dead !
ends as solemnly as it opened, with these lines : The look of being where the breath is fled !
“ All three are dead; that desolate green isle The un Warming sun still joyous in its light!
Is only peopled by the passing smile A time-a time without a day or night!
Of suii and moon, that surely have a sense, Death cradled upon Beauty, like a bee
They look so radiant with intelligence, Upon a flower, that looketh lovingly!
So like the soul's own element,—so fair!, Like a wild serpent, coiling in its madness,
The features of a God lie veiled there! Uuder a wreath of blossom and of gladness !"
And mariners, that have been toiling far
Upon the deep, and lost the polar star, In the second Chimera, the varying nature of the feel Have visited that island, and have seen ngs which Julio experiences in his lunacy is well brought That lover's grave; and many there have been
The curse of thirst, joined with that of madness, That sat upon the grey and crumbling stone, s strongly depicted :
And started, as they saw a skeleton “ And hours flew after hours, a weary length,
Among the long sad moss, that fondly grew
Through the white wasted ribs; but never knew - : Until the sunlight, in meridian strength,
Of those who slept below, or of the tale Threw burning floods upon the wasted brow
Of that brain-stricken man, that felt the pale Of that sea-hermit mariner ; and now
And wandering inoonlight steal bis soul away,
Poor Julio, and the ladye Agathé!".
These are sufficient examples to show, that Mr StodWild reason, like a demon, and he thought
dart can write when he pleases with no ordinary ability. Strange thoughts, like dreaming men-be thought how In addition, however, to our principal advice touching
those Were round him he had seen, and many rose
obscurity, there is one thing we must recommend to him,
which is, to cultivate his taste. He is in this respect His beart had hated; every billow threw Features before him, and pale faces grew
somewhat like the poet Young. He is often adınirable Out of the sea by myriads :--the self-same
for eight or ten lines, and the next five or six spoil the Was moulded from its image, and they came
whole. We confess that in looking out for extracts, we In groups together, and all said, like one,
were a good deal puzzled to select passages whose conti- Be cursed !' and vanish'd in the deep anon.
nuous excellence entitled them to that preference. We Then thirst, intolerable as the breath
could cull many detached sentences very happily expressOf Upas, fanning the wild wings of death,
ed, but too often set down like flowers in the midst of Crept up his very gorge, like to a snake, That stilled him, and bade the pulses ach
weeds. As an instance of coarseness, far beyond due Through all the boiling current of his blood.
limits, we must express our decided disapprobation of the It was a thirst, that let the fever floud
following passage. We have printed in italics those lines Fall over him, od gave a ghastly hue
which are particularly objectionable : To bis cramp'd lips, until their breathing grew White as a mist, and short, and like a sigh
“And there is not a braid of her bright hair Heaved with a struggle, till it falter'd by,"
But lieth floating in the moonlight air,
In eltin tresses, sadly murmuring.
The worm hath 'gan to crawl upon her brow
The living worm! and with a ripple now, ts author :
Like that upon the sea, are heard below “ But, as a passion from the mooded mind,
The slimy swarms, all ravening as they go, The storm had died, and wearily the wind
Amid the stagnate vitals, with a rush; Fell fast asleep at evening, like one
And one might hear them echoing the hush That hath been toiling in the tiery sun.
Of Julio, as he watches by the side
Of the dead ladye, his betrothed bride!
“ And, ever and anon, a yellow group And holy stillness, like a shadow, swam
Was crecping on her bosom, like a troop All over the wide sea, and the boat stood,
Of stars, far up amid the galaxy, (!) Like ber of Sodom, in the solitude,
Pale, pale, as snowy showers; and iwo or three A snowy pillar, looking on the waste.
Were mocking the cold finger, round and round, And there was nothing but the azure breast
With likeness of a ring; and, as they wound
About its bony girth, they had the hue
the same time, to present us with much important infor Of pearly jewels glistering in dew.
mation concerning New South Wales generally. His That deathly stare ! it is an awful thing
observations on the soil and country, his instructions to To gaze upon; and sickly thoughts will spring Before it to the heart: it telleth how
settlers, his advice regarding the clearing of land, and There must be waste where there is beauty now.
the planting of different crops, his account of the domestic The cbalk! the chalk! where was the virgin snow
and undomesticated animals, his description of the manOf that once heaving bosom !—even so,
ners of the convicts, and their mode of treatment, and The cold pale dewy chalk, with yellow shade
his sensible and candid remarks on the extensive subject Amid the leprous hues; and o'er it play'd
of emigration, are all entitled to attention, and are calThe straggling moonlight, and the merry breeze, Like two fair elves, that, by the murmuring seas,
culated to give his work a weight and value which it
might not otherwise have possessed. Woo'd smilingly together, but there fell No life-gleam on the brow, all terrible
Without farther preface, we proceed to lay before onr Becoming, through its beauty, like a cloud
readers several interesting extracts, as specimens of Mr That waneth paler even than a shroud,
Dawson's agreeable and instructive style. We begin All gorgeous and all glorious before;
with For waste, like to the wanton night, was o'er
A GENERAL VIEW OF AUSTRALIA.
“If I am not much mistaken, the prevailing idea in
England is, and always has been, that Australia is a ride Mr Stoddart must surely feel, that originality does not and naturally productive portion of the globe. I can only consist in rioting among the horrors of corruption, or
say, that such an opinion of it is quite at variance with my revealing to us all the loathsome details of the charnel experience. The great extent of the country if the ur
known interior be not barren-will, fari ages to come, in house, which a Mudford could do just as well as a Milton.
some degree compensate for its defective soil, but this cir. We must not, however, part with our author without cumstance, and the want of navigable rivers into the interior telling him, that we look upon him as possessing genius of the country, must for ever cause it to remain a pusteral, of great promise, and that his “ Death-Wake" entitles and consequently a comparatively thinly populated region. him to take a highly respectable place among the many
Districts ot' good soil are generally found in the immediate more youthful aspirants who are at present looking for neighbourhood of rivers, as well as on their banks: The ward to the fuller honours of the Muse. Had we not
scenery also is sometimes beautifully wild and striking, and thought so, we should not have allotted so much space to degree; but these do not constitute the general character of
sufficiently varied to interest the traveller in no lerdinary the present review; which we have done the more will the country; nor have I ever converted with any persons ingly that Mr Stoddart lives among ourselves, and that there of experience and observation who have not expressed we have had, for some time back, opportunities of watch- themselves greatly disappointed upon these subjects after ing the improvement he has been making.
comparing the reality of things with the descriptions that To the longer poem, a few minor pieces are added; however, and especially settlers who emigrated at an earlier
had been given of them in England. People in general, and the volume is neatly printed, and handsomely finished.
period, who have been fortunate in the situation and quality of their land, and whose employment is in the open air, are
captivated by the voluptuousness of the climate, and the The Present State of Australia ; a Description of the freedom of the air from distempered mjasma, arising from
decayed vegetable matter and stagnant pools. The absence Country, its Advantages und Prospects with reference to
of underwood secures this happy result, and leaves an open Emigration, and a Particular Account of the Manners, and grassy country on almost every side of them. It affords Customs, and Condition of its Aboriginal Inhabitants. also, without previous labour, facilities for grazing fucks By Robert Dawson, Esq., late Chief Agent of the and herds upon the spontaneous herhage of the soil, and Australian Agricultural Company. London. Smith, forms a pleasing relief to the eye, under the blaze of an Elder, and Co. 1830. 8vo. Pp. 464.
almost perpetual sunshine ; but, unfortunately, all these
advantages, which render it so pleasant and so healthy a Tais is a useful and interesting work, but the title is abode for man, are produced by causes which are also the too general, and does not convey a correct idea of the origin of its poverty, and which I shall endeavour more nature of the contents. Mr Dawson has limited himself particularly to explain in the body of this work. in a great measure to an account of the aboriginal inha
“ There is another feature in this remarkable country, bitants, and characteristic sketches of the different wan,
which must ever have great influence on the extent of its dering tribes of New South Wales. Having resided population, and the quantity of its exportable productious,
at least, as far as present settlements are concernedlittle at Sydney, the capital, or in any of the already
mean the want of navigable waters. Nowhere bas any colonized portions of that vast continent, but having been discovery been made of a river which is navigable above principally occupied in founding a new settlement, and twenty or twenty-five miles, and enough is now known of in breaking up new ground for himself, he was neces- the coasts at very considerable distances from the present sarily brought inuch into contact with the simpler forms settlements, to warrant a belief that there are none in existof what we are accustomed to call savage lite, but which
ence of greater extent. The form of the country will esappear to have little or nothing savage about them, ex
plain in some degree the reason of such an extraordinary
fact. On the line of coasts, as far as I have seen them, cept that the customs of the woods are different from the
wbich is from about latitude 27° to 40° both on the outcustoms of cities. The native Australians are an acute, ern and western sides, there are dividing ranges of mourmild-tempered, affectionate, and interesting race. Iftains running from south to north, not more than fifty or their minds are uncultivated, and their notions limited, sixty miles from the sea. The waters from the interior do their desires also are temperate, and their wants few.
not appear anywhere to have penetrated them, and consContentment makes their country delightful to them, quently, rivers which discharge themselves into those parts health gives animation to their spirits
, and the little they of the ocean, take their rise on the exterior sides of the
ranges, not more than sixty miles from the sea. have plucked of the tree of knowledge has not been suffi.
“ It is not yet ascertained on what quarter of the coast cient to open up to them the harassing distinctions be the great interior waters have their outlet; but from the tween good and evil. Mr Dawson mingled with them little that is known of the country, and from its exterior under all circumstances, and bas described in a pictu- appearances, it is conjectured that it takes place on the resque and lively manner their dispositions, habits, and north-west side of it. In this case, the waters which rise pursuits, enriching his narrative with numerous anecdotes
in the mountains south of the settlement called Bathurst, and characteristic stories.
even though they moved in a direct line, must run a dise
tance of nearly 2000 miles, but which, according to the Our author, however, while the elucidation of every
tortuous course of rivers, could not be less than 6000 er peculiarity in the aboriginal state of society in Aastralia 7000 miles, the extent of the country being about 2010 is evidently his more immediate object, does not fail, at miles across it. Ou t'he eastern coast, the range has been