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TO OUR READERS.

to mankind, as at once selfish and rational creatures

as beings whose highest interest is to advance their own The Proprietors of the EDINBURGH LITERARY JOURNAL having happiness, and whose understandings are capable of purchased the copyright of the Edinburgh Literary Gazette, that guiding and directing their wills by the power of motives. paper will be henceforth discontinued, and copies of today's JOUB

But here an important distinction is to be drawn. Man XAL are forwarded to all the subscribers to the Gazette, with an understanding that, unless intimation is received to the contrary, is not alone in the world. On the contrary, be is surthey will henceforth continue subscribers to the JOURNAL. The rounded by creatures similarly constituted and similarly JOURNAL having already so extensive and well-established a circula- influenced with himself; he is placed in certain relations tion, it is probably unnecessary to mention to our new readers, that

to those creatures, by which his absolute or natural liit has been supported from its outset by some of the ablest writers berty is, to a certain extent, abridged ; and hence he is both in this and the sister country, and that it has now acquired a strong hold of the public mind, particularly in Scotland, where it bound to respect their rights and their happiness, at the as the first to introluce a regular system of weekly literary criti

same time that he is entitled to resist all encroachments ciam, affording the earliest intelligence of new works of interest, upon his own. There is room for usurpation upon neither and paying especial attention to all books published north of the side ; while mutual concession is a necessary consequence Tweed. It has thus taken possession of ground not before occu. of mutual dependence. The rule of morality, applicable pied, and has met with success commensurate with the want

to such cases, is therefore obvious and evident. It is which was felt of such a periodical. To the department of Miscellaneous Literature also, much attention has always been paid, and

lawful for every man to promote his own interest and arrangements are at present in progress, by which it is expected happiness by every means not adverse to, or inconsistent that a still lugher degree of interest will speedily be given to this with, the interest and happiness of other men--underand all the departments. Among other things it may be mentioned, standing by the terms interest and happiness, all that is that it is proposed ere long to increase the size of the Journal, re really and truly conducive to human welfare and imtaining the same shape, which is so well adapted to binding into handsome volumes, but adding, as has been done to-day, several provement. But, not to mention those internal movepages to each Number. In short, nothing will be overlooked, either

ments wbich operate involuntarily, or at least without by the Proprietors or Editor, to secure a continuance of that sup being preceded by any act of volition of which we are port they have already received, and to render this periodical worthy conscious, are there not some actions, it may be asked, of the name and of the exclusive privileges it enjoys, as the only which man wills from other motives than the advantage Weekly Register of Criticism and Belles Lettres existing, or likely be expects to derive from them ? to exist, in Scotland. To Adrertisers, we ein state with confidence, that from the na

This question has occupied the attention of philosotore and extent of the circulation of the JOURNAL, there is no better phers, ancient as well as modern : but we are not aware medium in this country for announcements connected with Litera- that, before the time of Grotius, disinterested actions had ture, Science, and the Arts.

been resolved into two classes ; the just, which are the result of certain laws, the knowledge of which constitutes

a particular science called natural jurisprudence ; and the THE PHILOSOPHY OF LAW,

good or the virtuous, which result from another descrip

tion of laws, and form the object of the science of morals. AS CULTIVATED AND TAUGHT IN GERMANY.

The distribution in question was first promulgated in the (Wz are happy to give a place to the following erudite and able ar celebrated treatise De Jure Belli et Pacis

, published in ticle, on a subject of much interest to a considerable portion of our 1625, when its illustrious author was living an exile in readers. It is from the pen of a writer well known in the literary France; and although it is grounded on principles which world, who has not hitherto contributed to this Journal, but from

we think altogether erroneous, and has, in fact, been rewhom we hope for occasional assistance in future. -Ed.]

jected as such by subsequent enquirers, yet was it not only The investigation of the laws which govern human a great step made in advance of the barbarous philosophy actions has at all times been considered one of the most of that age, but also a convenient form for arranging two important objects of philosophy. That the greater part distinct classes of phenomena, which it was of the greatof those actions are the result of a judgment, on our part, est consequence to keep perfectly separate. Hence it was by which weconclude that they must either conduce to our at first, and for a considerable period afterwards, received good, or enable us to avoid evil, is what cannot reasonably without challenge or dispute ; for, as the sensation probe doubted. Every man, as the Stoics observed, is com- duced by the great work of Grotius was prodigious, mitted by Providence to his own care, or, in other words, and the authority which it almost immediately acquired k intrusted with the special guardianship of his own in- unlimited, the learned were for some time much more terest and happiness; and these ends he is called upon occupied in studying its doctrines, and endeavouring to to promote by all means in his power not inconsistent store their minds with the treasures of its boundless with the interest and happiness of other men. The erudition, than in hunting out objections to the one, or first duty which he owes is to himself: the chief ob- trying to discover reasons for proving the inutility of ject of all his pursuits is, to procure the greatest pos- the other. One thing is certain, however, that the rible amount of good, and to suffer the least possible treatise question created the science of natural juris. amount of evil. Had the case, indeed, been otherwise, prudence, and also produced its second greatest exposihad human nature been differently constituted,--po- tor. The first chair of natural law was erected at Heisitire laws would have been of no avail, and rewards delberg in 1661, and the first professor who occupied and punishments idle sanctions. These are addressed it was Puffendorf. Indeed, Grotius and Puffendorf are

to be considered as the fathers of this new science; and, had drawn their theories of natural law from the most

n many parts of Europe, they are still regarded as its opposite sources. Grotius, for example, supports his poonly aathoritative expounders. This observation, how- sitions, not by reasonings founded on the principles of ever, does not include Germany, which, since the days of human nature, or the immutable dictates of natural jusPuffendorf, has become, so to speak, the classic region of tice, but by quotations from the Old and New Testanatural law, and where the number of works which have ment, and the classical authors of antiquity, the opinions appeared on the subject would of themselves form a con- of modern philosophers, and not unfrequently also by siderable library. Philosophers, civilians, diplomatists, proofs and illustrations derived from history. Puffenand jurisconsults, all applied to this study with the greater dorf advanced a step farther, and adventured on a few ardour that the connexion of natural law with the sciences, psychological observatious; but, in his great work, the which principally engaged their attention, was alike com- authority of authors is still the principal foundation upon mon and intimate : but, as might have been expected, which he rests his opinions. And, notwithstanding the each of these classes has given a different character and mathematical form into which he absurdly endeavoured to direction to the subject, although the influence of the phi- cast his disquisitions on the philosophy of mind, Wolf is losophers has proved by far the most decisive. This will not a whit more rigorous or exact than Grotius and be made sufficiently apparent by the following notices of Puffendorf; founding bis precepts of natural law upon the history of the science in Germany since the time of such vague and variable elements as popular sentiments, Puffendorf.

philosophical opinions, and historical documents. But, About the year 1705, the celebrated jurisconsult Tho- in the school of Kant, all this learned trifling was sternly masius* attempted to establish natural law upon a new rejected, and natural law became a science purely rational. foundation, by distinguishing it more carefully than had The great problem which this school undertook to rebeen hitherto done, from the science of ethics. According solve was, That there exist, for every man, rules of conto him, the former science admits only negative, but per- duct independent of his interest, absolute, universal, and fect duties ; while the latter recoguises positive, but im- exhibiting characters of certainty which belong only to perfect rights. Thus the precept of Christian morality, truths discoverable à priori. Its principle, therefore, is Quod tibi non vis fieri, alteri ne facias, is the fundamental pure reason ; and hence, in the nomenclature of this principle of natural law; while the corresponding positive school, the denomination of natural law (which, at the principle, Quod tibi vis fieri, et aliis facias, constitutes the best, is exceedingly vague) has been replaced by that of basis of ethics. Again, negative but perfect duties may philosophical law, or the philosophy of law, or, to use its be enforced ; and hence all law includes, as an essential own appropriate epithet, vernunftrecht, the law of reason. element, the power of employing force against those who In the year 1792, Kant published his Metaphysical disregard or transgress its rules. But the science of Principles of Morals, the first part of which contains the ethics admits of no such auxiliary; for the idea of an im- developement of the theory of law to which we have just perfect right implies a moral, not a legal obligation ; and alluded. His notions of the origin of law, so far as we , hence there is no power by which respect to it can be en- have been able to understand them, may be very shortly,

forced but the power of conscience alone. Such were the and, we trust, intelligibly stated as follows. simple principles upon which Thomasius founded his sys The will of man is not alone determined by the detem of natural law; a system which was well received at sires inherent in his nature. There exists another printhe time, and which, half a century Inter, was revived and ciple ot action, and that principle is reason.

But reason adopted by Wolf, with such modifications as he deemed is endowed with autonomy, that is, with a legislative l'equisite for accommodating it to the peculiar doctrines power applicable to itself. The rules which it prescribes and tenets of his master Leibnitz. These doctrines and are, like itself, absolute and universal. Again, the ob.tenets are too well known to make it necessary to enter ject of the legislation of reason is either interior or exteinto any specification of them in this place, but with re- rior. In the former case there is morality; in the latter, ference to the modifications of the Thomayan systein in- legality; while, in both, the fundamental principle is, troduced by Wolf, we may observe, en passant, that they that categorical imperative which occupies so proininent a appear to have been more favourably received in France place in the philosophy of Kant. Reason enables us to disthan in Germany; that bis works have always been cover an absolute rule, from which it is not permitted on

nuch studied by the jurisconsults of the former country; any pretext whatever to deviate; and the forinula of this .and that his doctrines on the subject of natural law rule is, " Act in such a way that the principle of your have been very ably and zealously illustrated by two action may become a general rule of conduct for all men." French writers of our time---viz. in 1803, by M. Maf- The exterior legislation of reason, or natural lare, is the fioli of Nancy, and in 180k, by M. Rayneval, both au- union or aggregate of those conditions under which the thors of considerable note; while even the distinguished will of man can act without violating the common law author of the Cours de Droit Civil Français has been in- of liberty. Every action, therefore, is conformable, to debted to Wolf for the greater part of the philosophical law, and consequently just, if it be compatible with the · reasonings with which his able and instructive work is general law of liberty. But law necessarily implies coninterspersed. But neither the subtleties of Leibnitz, nor straint. This Kant attempts to prove by the following

the expository reasonings of Wolf, appear to have made reasoning :— The opposition directed against an obstacle i much iinpression in Germany; and both were destined which binders the performance of an action, belongs to to give way before the new system of natural law which the same principle as that action : the resistance opposed arose in that country almost immediately after the pub- to every unjust action, is conformable to the law of genelication of the philosophy of Kant.

ral liberty : what is conformable to general liberty, is leThe predecessors of the philosopher of Koenigsberg gitimate and of natural right: ergo, resistance or con

straint enters as an element into the complex idea of nadistinguished himself by an inaugural thesis, or dissertatio De Crl- primitive right of mau; and this right is the principle

* Four yenis previous to this, viz. in 17''!, Thomasius bad greatly tural law. Liberty, aocording to Kant, is an innate or ing, the prevalent belief in witchcraft, and exposel, with a powerful that pervades the whole of his philosophical theory of law. and unsparing hand, those insane and murderous delusions which Other authors of this school, however, have expressed, had conducted whole hecatombs of victims to the gibbet or the stake. This thesis, en bodying the first formal attack on the creed and con- in a manner somewhat different, 'the fandamental prinduet of the dæmonologists, was publicly read in the University of ciple of law. Heydenreich, for instance, has proposed scepticism of the jurisconsult: and so well did the latter perform his the following formula :-—" Every action is just when it task. that a century and a quarter have added nothing to the weight does not violate in others the nature of man considered of the arguments, or the force of the reasonings, with which the fictions and phantasms of the popular belief were assailed in this maso law the recognition of the dignity of man, or the idea of

as a reasonable being ;" and Schmalz takes as the basis of terly perforinance.

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humanity, respected in our fellow-creatures. As it is tions have been alternately the objects of his commendareason which distinguishes man from things, and makes tion and censure ; and it has been alleged, that material him a person, others, again, have assumed this personal- utility and physical pleasures appear to him the only moity as the basis of natural law; that is to say, they hold tives calculated to influence the human will ; the same that man is uiters)s, self-sufficient, and that he can objection, it will be remarked, which has been urged never be treated as a simple mean, or instrument, for ac- against the Utilitarian theory of our own venerable jurist, complishing an end proposed by one of his fellow-crea- Mr Bentham. In fact, the banner of M. Hugo has not even tures. Kant and his disciples, however, equally main- been followed by the jurisconsults of the historical school, tain, that the rights of man, being inherent in his na- although they recognise him otherwise as one of their ture, accompany him through all the stages of his exist-most illustrious chiefs, and although his manner of conence; that he enjoys them even beyond the pale of so- sidering natural law is altogether in the spirit of that ciety, it being the object of the social state merely to se- school; for it is undoubtedly true, as M. Hugo asserts, eure and protect them; that these rights are inalienable that there is no other method of discovering the general and imprescriptible; and that man can no more be de- laws of human societies, than by means of a comparative prived of them than he can cease to be man, or be divest- history of ancient and modern legislation. ed of the character of humanity.

Meanwhile, the study of natural law has not been alSuch is a condensed abstract of the fundamental doc- together abandoned in Germany, where the philosophers, trines of this school. At first no one thought of enqui- and even some of the jurisconsults, still continue to give ring what good or useful parpose these theories were their attention to the subject. Without adopting the likely to serve; and it was only after an attempt was doctrines of Hugo, both classes have gradually seceded made to apply them, that their intrinsic worthlessness from the systems of Thomasius and Kavt. And the prin-' became manifest. Difficulties now started up on all ciple now generally received is, that natural law is only sides. The questions to be resolved were, whether na to be considered as a model, to which the positive laws of tural could be modified or restrained by positive laws; each country ought to approach as nearly as its custos' and whether obedience was due to the latter, where dis- and the actual state of knowledge will permit; in other conform or opposed to the former. Some writers, in- words, natural law is to be viewed as a sort of abstract cladiag Reinhold, hesitated not to take the bull at once laiv, which stands to the different forms of positive legisby the horns, and to answer these questions in the nega-lation in the same relation precisely as the principles of tive. According to them, the rules promulgated by le- mechanical philosophy do tothe various useful arts in which gislators are not to be considered as veritable laws, ex these are applied. Among the jurisconsults who have cepting in so far as they are conformable to the principles attempted to rest the science on this new basis, may be of natural law; a dogma which appears to be perfectly con mentioned M. Baumbach of Jena, and M. Falk, professor formable to the quibbling maxim so often repeated of late at Kiel, as well as author of 'an Encyclopædia of Law. years by the small fry of French jurisconsults, Il n'y a The former has ably demonstrated the radical defect of point de droit, contre le droit. But the great majority of the system of Kant, which is wholly unsusceptible of apauthors, whatever their theoretical views might have been, plication : while the latter, also rejecting this system, is, sbrunk from the hopeless task of upholding the reason of nevertheless, of opinion, that there exist principles of law each individual against the legislative authority of a state, independent of all political sanction ; that these princior encouraging a struggle, of which it was easy to foresee ples are nothing more than the expression of the relations the consequences, between power on the one hand, and a resulting from social life; and that from the fact of civil doubtful philosophy on the other.

association, and the constitution of families, flow all the Towards the close of the last century, M. Hugo, since consequences from which the rules of law are derived. so celebrated by his numerous works on jurisprudence, M. Falk published his theory in 1821; at' wbich time a took the field as the declared opponent of the doctrines of controversy arose between a philosopher of the name of natural law, then more or less in favour in Germany; Hegel, author of a work on Natural Law and the Science of and denouncing them as both philosophically useless and Government, and the juriscousults of the historicals

school, politically dangerous, produced a strong sensation among relative to this subject. Hugo pounced upon poor Hethe esprits forts of that country. His attack was general gel's book, which he criticised with great severity, but, it and unsparing. He began with Thomasius, whose sys inizst be confessed, with more of sarcasm than of argtrtem he combated with great vigour in the first edition of ment. Hegel, finding the laugh was against him, retortbis Lehrbuch des Naturrechts; and, descending through ed with abuse. But the veteran of Gottingen was not to the line of his successors," he levelled a naturalist at every be discomposed by hard words coarsely applied. He reonset. According to M. Hago, there are no absolute rules plied in a tone of pleasantry, almost worthy'of the veneraof conduct for man in the social state. Every thing, on ble and jocose octogenarian of Queen Square ; comparing the contrary, is relative. Hence, rules the most various poor Hegel to that Favorinus, who, in the third century, may be erected into laws, because the degree of civilisa- disputed with the jurisconsult Sextus respecting the Detion, iodividual wants, and religious opinions, which cemviral Constitutions, and talked of law en philosophe, afford the only ground and measure of such rules, are ne that is, like a blockhead, wbo knew nothing at all about cessarily variable, and consequently different at different the matter. times. The positive law of a given period ought, there But it is time we should draw these notices to a close. fore, to be considered as the expression, more or less exact, The general conclusion to which they lend is sufficiently

of the wants of that period : and, upon the same princi-obviou, namely, that, notwithstanding so many different ple, he contends that almost all the institutions which, works and different systems, the philosophical study of • history informs us, existed among the nations of amtiqui- law is still in its infancy, not only among the Germans, ty, were justified by the situation of those pations, and but among all other pations; and that this state of things 'arlapted to the conditiour of the people who lived under is likely to continue, until some superior genius shall theni. M. Hugo takes Montesquieu as his model, only arise to continue the work which Montesquieu began, and

he restricts bimself to considerations connected with pri- which that great man was only prevented from prosecu* vate law,' to the exclusion of broader and more general ting further by the imperfect state of philosophical and

views. Nhtwithstanding bis acknowledged talents, how physical knowledge at the period when he wrote. ever, "M. Hugo's philosophical doctrines mot with but an

Q. F. F. Q. SE indifferent reception ; while the ironical tope in which he treated the doctrides of his opponents raised up against him a whole host of enemies. He has also been accused, with some reason, of scepticism, seeing that all institu

sider the details—the ability which he has shown in fillLITERARY CRITICISM.

ing up his general sketch.

We do not hesitate to say that we have found the work

when subjected to this narrower scrutiny, extremely deThe Book of Scotland. By William Chambers. One

fective. Nor is this to be wondered at. The author is volume. Post 8vo. Pp. 532. Edinburgh. Robert Buchanan. 1830.

a young man--he has not, we believe, enjoyed the bene

fits of a very complete education—he is no lawyer, and, Madness runs in families : and so, it would seem, does, has no practical knowledge of business (political or comhook-writing. Here is a book by Williain, the brother of mercial) on a large scale. It was to be expected from Robert_our marvellously well-beloved Robert-of him, these circumstances, that although we might find in his the retailer, garrulous and pleasant, of the traditionary pages much graphic delineation, and much shrewd reJore of “poor auld Scotland.” For the sake of this es- mark, (and, assuredly, we find both,) yet that there teemed relative of the author before us, we would fain would be many omissions and mistakes. We willingsmooth our wrinkled front, and be as gentle as possible ly omit the invidious task of exposing the smaller erwith this new errant in the list of authorship.

rors, seeing that he will find plenty of good-natured Mr Chambers announces the aim of his work in these friends to undertake it, the more especially as some of the words :-" The volume now introduced to public notice errors are in matters so completely within the sphere of has been compiled with a view of furnishing, for the first his observation, we wonder he could fall into them. We time, to strangers and others, a connected comprehensive prefer adopting a more generous style of criticism, and delineation of the chief institutions in Scotland, as well pointing out, not so much his inaccurate details, as the as the more prominent and peculiar laws and usages by fountain whence the main body of them flows. This which this northern kingdom is still distinguished from fountain is twofold,—first, erroneous opinion, and se the other portions of the British empire, and more espe- cond, jaundiced feeling. cially from England; and as such, to form a useful com First, of erroneous opinion. The author says of the panion to the Picture of Scotland. While the latter pub- manner in which he has collected his materials :-" It lication adheres principally to a description of things of a may be necessary to state that the line of procedure adopttangible nature, the present may be best depicted as an ed in gleaning information, has been different from that attempt to expose the mechanism regulating society in its usually pursued in making compilations. Unless it has public relations. In other words, while the one presents been to the works of a few erudite lawyers, among whom a luminous picture of the body of the country, the other Blackstone, that glorious pattern of style and sentiment, aspires to exhibit the soul with which it has been endow- stands pre-eminent,” ( fudge!)“ scarcely any reference has ed.”. The reader will see from this introduction, that the been had to the evidence of printed books, and, except author, with a good fraternal feeling, attempts to raise his when absolutely necessary, oral and visual testimony have work by connecting it with his brother's popular book, been used in preference. · By expiscating intellimuch in the way that we used, when younkers, to send gence in this way, and simply using his own bumble scraps of paper, ycleped “ messengers," whirling up the powers of observation, he has brought together a mass of string to our soaring kite. Or, to use a more classical fresh information on a number of topics, which, though simile, he attaches himself to the old hero as the lesser sometimes partaking as much of the hue of fireside gossip, Ajax to his bulkier compeer when discharging bis shafts as of the discussions of an institutional annotator, may, from behind the seven-fold shield of the latter. This nevertheless, be not only amusing, but beneficial, in illam last simile, however, will scarcely hold, for the weapon minating the main subjects under review.". Now, passbrandished by the junior is in this case more ponderous ing over the very obvious objection to this plan,—that he than that in the grasp of the senior. Thus discomfited, who writes from the store of his own observations alone, therefore, in our attempt to be brilliant, we proceed to without consulting what others have published on the subcriticise the book in plain prose.

ject before him, is apt to expatiate on the novelty and inThis volume is quite unique in execution, and all terest of a subject familiar to many as their A B C, but original in its design. There is no work in existence, there is a serious objection to a system of book-making, so far as we know, which professes, as this does, to intro- not quite so original as Mr Chambers flatters himself, duce the stranger into the public and domestic life of a for it is the fashionable one of the day. Before the era country to put a clew into his hand, with which he may of letters in a country, oral communication is the only safely thread the mazy labyrinth of its social relations, source of information, but it is quickly superseded when and carry back with him to bis home,—not disconnected they are introduced. Nay, in a country where educaphenomena, which he must piece together for himself, at tion is so widely diffused as in ours, the topics of the most the risk of committing a thousand ludicrous blunders, unlearned gossips are frequently derived from books but a thorough and systematic notion of the nation's do- through the medium of those who can read. A school mestic course of life. The mere power of projecting such boy reads the stall edition of Wallace, and relates to his a work gives us a favourable opinion of Mr Chambers's grand.-dame what he remembers of it. This mangled tale, intellect. And this presumption is confirmed by a glance still further disfigured by her dulness of apprehension, at the heads of the chapters. The author commences is repeated by the old crone to a storm-sted traveller, and with a brief sketch of the Government of Scotland before is immediately published as a genuine legend, instinct the Union, and of the changes induced upon it by that with life and poetry, and far superior to any thing that great political transaction. Out of the state into which has been handed down to us through the deadening mesociety was then thrown, he evolves all the peculiarities dium of paper and ink. This is indeed like the dog in the of our Scottish institutions, and proceeds to explain these, fable, leaving the substance to grasp at the shadow. The in as far as they are to be found in our courts of justice fallacy becomes still more contemptible when it assumes -in our commercial arrangements—in our church and the form of preferring the easy communication made by educational establishments—in the marriage and game a gentleman over his wine and walnuts, to that which he laws--in the constitutions of our burghs—and in our has prepared for the public examination, with the fear of societies for the encouragement of literature, science, and friends and foes before his eyes. The truth is, that the

The reader, who has given any attention to the people who gravely announce the superiority of knowledge structure of society in any country, will easily perceive gained in the course of conversation over that derived that a pretty complete portrait of a nation's peculiarities from books, have no distinct notion of what they are says may be given under these different heads. Bestowing, ing. They identify it somehow or other with that which therefore, our unqualified approbation upon the plan and ascribes the superiority to practical over theoretical knowgeneral outline of Mr Chambers's work, we turn to con- ledge, with which it has not the most distant connexion;

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We have no objections to the strenuous use which Mr able to him; and that the execution, although disfigured Chambers seems to have made of his eyes and ears, but in some parts by want of knowledge, in others by a caphe might have escaped some egregious blunders had he tious and petulant spirit, is in many instances adorned deigned to consult a few “ prent buiks” we could name by original and ingenious remark. We have been particuto him. At the same time, some of his minor blunders larly struck with his observations on the changes that have are rather startling for one who sees and hears so well. been induced upon the structure and feelings of society, Was it from “ visual testimony" that he learned the by the gradual rise of New Towns inhabited exclusively Writers to the Signet wear silk gowns ? or from “ oral” by the rich, and the relinquishment of the old to the sole that the Scots Law Chronicle, is published quarterly? inhabitation of the poor. We may also notice, as well Was it from tradition he learned his novel account of worthy of attention, Mr Chambers's account of the bank“ Burghs of Regality ?"

ing system of Scotland—its character and effects. On The second source of Mr Chambers's errors we have the whole, as we feel that the deep interest we take in pronounced to be jaundiced feeling. He belongs to a very some subjects of a controversial nature touched upon in peculiar class of patriots who flourish at present in" these this work, has led us to express ourselves warmly, it is parts." They are extremely national, and devotedly and but just that we should explicitly state, in taking leave of exclusively attached to their country: but their attach- Mr Chambers, that we entertain a high opinion of the · ment and admiration do not apply to Scotland as it is, nor talent and industry he has, in more ways than one, mato Scotland as it was ; but to Scotland as it neither is, nor nifested in the present work. was, nor will be to Scotland as it exists in their ideato Scotland as they would bave made it, had they had the making of it. Mr William Chambers is the beau ideal of this sect. He hates innovation, and calls for change. He The Undying One, and other Poems. By the Honourregrets the gradual decay of old Scottish customs and in

able Mrs Norton. London. Colburn and Bentley. stitutions, but regrets also that they were not abrogated

1830. 8vo. Pp. 272. at once by the Union ;-he is attached to oligarchy, but laments that the burgh system is opened ;-he thinks the All that Mrs Norton has written possesses much of body of the Scotch good Christians, but considers their the true leaven of poetry, but in the present instance she church inadequate, únorthodox, and not apostolical ;-he has been unfortunate in the choice of a subject, and still thinks them better trained than their Southern neigh- more unfortunate in the manner in which she has handbours, but not so moral ;-he disapproves of our marriage led it. When the “ Undying One" was first announced, laws, but thinks the facility it affords to divorce “ fortu- nobody knew who that individual was to turn out to be,' nate;"-he disapproves of expending the incomes of the and we confess we were a good deal surprised to find at royal burghs in “ treats,” but is indignant that the Court length that it was our old friend the Wandering Jew. of Session no longer allows its macers to swallow half a We should have had no objection, however, to meet an landed-proprietor's estate at one huge feed, before they old friend with a new face, provided he made his appearadmit him to be the owner of it. In short, Mr William ance in a dress not unsuited to his real and original chaChambers is a very " particular fellow," and will not be racter. But we have always been of opinion, that the pleased at any thing.

Wandering Jew has been rather harshly treated by most Seriously, the minor inconsistencies of this work we authors. We see no very good reason why a gentleman might have passed over, but the incessant and unjustifiable doomed to live as long as the earth continues, should be attacks it contains upon our national church, call for gra- constantly held up as an object not only of the greatest ver reprehension. We are no bigoted adherents to Pres commiseration, but of positive reprobation. We deny bytery, but the mincing spirit which decries the Kirk of the whole consequences attributed by Godwin, Maturin, Scotland because it is less genteel than the Episcopalian Shelley, and others, to a long-protracted lease of this -the slavish spirit which does not sympathise with its world. We cannot discover why a worthy gentleman, generous stand the hour of persecution—the lying spi- blessed with perpetual youth, should be a whit more unrit which represents it as deficient in the character, learn- happy than Calypso herself was before the departure of ing, and talent of its professors, shall always be opposed Ulysses. There can be no doubt he would meet with a by us. Mr Chambers repeats, after some nameless per- good number of crosses and losses, but there seems to be verters of bistory, that the Episcopalian was once the es an equal probability that he would learn to bear these tablished fotm of church government in Scotland, and with at least as much equanimity as those who know that it was overturned simply for its adherence to the that they must die at the age of seventy or eighty. If Stewarts. This is untrue. Bishops were kept up during he loved, and was faithful to one person for the better the two last reigns of that dynasty by the assistance of half of a century, he could scarcely be plunged into irredragoons, but never recognised by the nation. He asserts mediable woe, by seeing the worthy lady to whom ho that the majority of the gentry were Episcopalians, and had been a good husband since she was nineteen, yield at that a large minority continue to be so. Both assertions length to the law of her nature, and depart this life full are incorrect. He maintains that the discipline of the of years and infirmities. His own constitution remainSeottish Church has evidently tended to promote schism. ing as vigorous as ever, it is to be concluded that he would We request any man in his senses to compare the state of soon recover from a calamity which he must lorig have England with that of Scotland on this head. He insinu- contemplated, and that he would pay his addresses in good ates (speak it broadly out he dares not) that Socinian doc- time to some fair being belonging to a younger generation. trines have spread largely within the pale of the church, We are, moreover, of opinion, that, instead of being a although he ought to know that the very church he ca- gloomy and solitary man, our hero would be one of the lumniates is the purest in Christendom. In connexion pleasantest and most affable persons imaginable at a dinwith all this, we take leave further to remark, that we ner or evening party. Possessing so many accomplishkre a fasbion creeping in of speaking of the “ Episcopalian ments, backed by so much experience, he could not fail to Church of Scotland." There is no such church. There be an object of general attention and admiration, and is but one national church of Scotland, and it is Presby- though young ladies might at first feel a little afraid of terian. . What would be said on the other side of the him, he would very soon overcome their scruples, and Tweed, should a body of dissenters erect themselves, of would be seen twirling them through the valse in the their own authority, into the “ Presbyterian Church of most elegant and fashionable manner possible. The books, England ?" 1.

too, that he would write for Colburn and Bentley, and - We conclude our notice of Mr Chambers's book, by re- for Murray's Family Library, would be more read than peating, that the general plan of it is excellent and credit 1 any other modern publications ; and his profits would be

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