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say he had not found him; and, in the meantime, gave spiracy, how they stood on the eastern border.. Since that notice of Cullayne's motions to some of his enemies, who period, the frame of society and the province of the Court met and murdered him at the place which he had named of Justiciary have undergone a complete change; and it in his letter. Afraid lest his accession to the murder seems to us, that a brief contrasted statement of the past should be discovered by the means of the lad William and the present will be pregnant with instruction. Dalrymple, who had brought him intelligence of Cul At the beginning of the 17th century the arm of the layne's journey, Mure sent him out of the way; but as the law was impotent as soon as it was stretebed beyond a boy always returned back upon his hands, he resolved to narrow circle round the capital. The barons were, be take a more effectual mode of getting rid of him. Having yond its limits, effective sovereigns, despising authority, communicated his intentions to his son James, and a con- and making war upon each other. When the turbulence fidential follower of the name of Bannatyne, the latter of any one of them became excessive, a little army had brought the youth, about ten o'clock in the evening of a to be dispatched against him. The lower orders were day in September, 1607, to the sands of Girvan, where bred amid the bloody scenes produced by the rivalries of his employers were waiting for him. There the two their chiefs, and destitute of all education. They were Mures murdered him; and after several fruitless attempts, subject to the jurisdietion of hereditary sheriffs, who with the assistance of Bannatyne, to dig a hole in the would have looked with indignation upon the interfer sand, within the tide-mark, for the purpose of inter- rence of any other court. Hence it arises that an unduly ring the body, they carried it as far as they could into great proportion of the crimes which come under the the sea, leaving it to be floated out by the ebb tide. The cognizance of the Court of Justiciary, are committed by body being some days afterwards cast ashore, suspicion the nobility and small gentry. The commons, although attached to them as the perpetrators. Fearing that flight, no longer serfs, were held as little better in the eyes of which they found necessary in their cireumstances, would government. Their crimes, unless when very atrocious, be construed into a confession of guilt, they attacked a were left to provincial jurisdictions. It was to the inis gentleman of the name of Kennedy in the neighbourhood deeds of such criminals, as by their power and connexof Ayr, with whom they had some feud, in order to ob-ions threatened the stability of society, that the Supreme tain a plausible reason for keeping out of the way. Court turned its attention. Shortly afterwards, the elder Mure was apprehended, The case is, now-a-days, widely different. It is very whereupon his son voluntarily came forward; but as rarely that we see a member of the higher classes do any there were no pregnant suspicions against him, he was li- thing that brings him within the power of our criminal berated on bail. At the time appointed for his examina- laws. It is not merely that the gentry are seldom brought tion, he had the boldness again to appear, having, in the to the bar; the educated class even of farmers, farm-sermeantime, persuaded Banvatyne to abscond to Ireland. vants, and shopkeepers, are rarely implicated in crime. Having contradicted himself in the course of his examina- | The mass of the business that occupies the Supreme tion, he was, by the King's orders, put to the torture, Court, consists almost exclusively of acts of stealing, which he endured with the utmost resolution, and with housebreaking, and robbery, or of violences committed out making any discovery. The popular feeling was now with a view to their perpetration, and these committed excited in his behalf, and many of the nobility were ur. in nineteen cases out of twenty by individuals of that gent for his liberation, but the King refused to comply. wretched class, to whom crime serves for a profession. In order to remove all evidence against them, the father Occasional assaults of a more or less fatal nature, geneand son employed an emissary to murder Bannatyne ; and rally committed by uneducated men, and under the inwith a skilful combination of crime, they instigated a per- fluence of liquor, almost exhaust the catalogue. The son at enmity with their new agent to take him off in Court of Justiciary is in a fair way of sinking into a turn. But Bannatyne escaped their snares; and irri- more dignified sort of Police Court. tated on the one hand by their machinations against his How has this change been brought about ?-By the ljfe, and wearied on the other by the hot search after him concentration of power in the hands of the sovereign, by on the part of the government, surrendered himself and the diffusion of useful knowledge, and by the former orconfessed every thing. The chain of evidence being now ganization of the executive. The higher classes, without complete, the two Mures were brought to trial the 17th any encroachment being made on their property or exof July, 1611, found guilty, and condemned to be be- ternal show of superiority, have thus been as effectually headed.

reduced to the subjection of law as the lower. They 5th. In July, 1610, a band of pirates were tried in are no longer tempted to wild projects of ambition, Edinburgh before the High Court of Admiralty, and be for they see on every side the limits beyond which they ing found guilty, were sentenced to be hanged within the cannot move with safety. Their desires and aims have high-water mark at Leith. In December of the same been directed to new objects they have sought to occupy year, another party received a similar sentence. It ap- themselves with pursuits which do not lead beyond these pears, from the proceedings upon the two trials, that the bounds. The pursuits of taste and intellect have refined northern coasts of Ireland, the Hebrides, and the Orkney and elevated their characters, rendering their submission islands, were at that period haunted by numerous and to law not the despairing acquiescence of those who can daring bands of pirates. The unsettled state of the coun do no better, but a conformity from conviction that it is try facilitated their lawless trade in the spoils of their best. This joint effect of an energetic police, and the nefarious voyages.

diffusion of education, has struck deeper downwards into These are the traits of Scottish crime brought to light society than could well be imagined. We need only refer by the most important trials in the Sixth Part of Mr such as doubt the truth of this assertion, and have no Pitcairn's work. The numerous documents which that opportunity of verifying it from their own observation, gentleman has collected for their illustration give us a to Sir Thomas Dick Lauder's History of the Floods in trustworthy and graphic picture of the state of society at Morayshire, for a proof of the wide spread of a high the commencement of the seventeenth century in the moral culture. The presence-of-mind, resignation, and, Orkney and Western Islands,—in the districts along the self-devotion, evidenced by our northern peasantry in the west coast of Scotland, from the Mull of Cantyre north- hour of danger, are the fruits of having their reflections wards--and in the district comprehending Dumfries- habitually directed to the duties of lifo, and to the alleshire, Galloway, and Ayrshire. The documents con- viations of its calamities. nected with the history of Clan Gregor, published in the Whence come, then, the incessant complaints we hear preceding Part, show how matters stood along the High- of the wickedness of the age? How do we account for and line ; and the history of the Laird of Restalrig, as the immense body of crime that undeniably exists in the brought out in the papers connected with the Gowrie Con- country? In answering the latter question we must re- ,


fer to the fact already adverted to, that the great mass ready formed an attachment for Chatelard. By his inof malefactors in the present day consists of those whose fatuated conduct, however, Chatelard at length subjects only profession or inheritance is crime. That this class, himself to the punishment of death; and time having which has hitherto been found to exist in every organ- moderated Adelaide's grief, 'she becomes the wife of ized community, should increase in number with the ge- Southenpan on the very evening that Rizzio is assassinaneral density of population, is nowise wonderful.. That ted, with which intimation the novel (if we must call it it should, in process of time, grow in boldness and ex- so) concludes. pertness, is also quite natural. But the more a country Our readers will naturally enough wonder how these advances in the well-ordering of its police, the more nar- very simple materials are spun out into three volumes; rowly will this class be watched, and the more will its and we confess we doubt whether the task could have misdeeds be laid open to the day. As to the wickedness been accomplished by any but so confirmed a votary of of the age, we have no hesitation in saying, that it is Leadenhall Street as Mr Galt has, in this instance, only those ignorant or unobservant persons who bave not proved himself to be. The great secret, it appears, for soticed the higher moral tone of general society on the swelling out one's pages, is to introduce a number of serone hand, and the stricter scrutiny into the doings of cri- vants and inferior dramatis persone, and whenever you mirtals on the other, who cry out that crime is increasing. have nothing else to do, to scribble out long dialogues for

The truth is, that crime, taking every thing into consi- them to speak, which can be introduced ad libitum. It is ! deration, is decidedly on the decrease. Like the dis not the least necessary that there should be any wit in these

comfited aborigines of a country, crime is now taking dialogues, farther than the wit necessarily arising from the refuge in her last inaccessible fastnesses. To eradicate use of broad Scotch and low phraseology. They are exher thence is, to judge from the history of the past, and pected to form a pleasing relief to the more dignified porfrom the composition of our nature, a hopeless task. But tion of the narrative, and to the more polished sort of it is necessary that she be kept within the narrowest conversation attributed to the principal characters. Inbounds, and constant attention given to diminish her fol- deed, the general rule of a Leadenball Street novelist is, lowers to the smallest possible number, for her haunts are that whenever incidents fail, conversation will do inthe abodes of a pestilence, ever ready to spread its conta stead. But even this is not the chief objection to Southgion the moment the laws of strict quarantine are ne

The persons whom the author introduces to his glected.

reader, both high and low, are sketched in lines so indis tinct and characterless, that not the slightest interest is

excited for one of them. · And not only is this the case, Southennar. By Jobn Galt, Esq., Author of “ Lawrie but so far as the book gives any historical impressions at Todd,” “ The Annals of the Parish,” &c. &c. 3 vols. all, they are for the most part deceptious, and false. Nor London. Colburn and Bentley. 1830.

has any attempt been made to represent any thing the

least like the manners of the period at which tbe story From beginning to end, this is a piece of the most va is laid. Were a few names and dates changed, the whole pid, fuzzionless stuff that ever weakened the mind of a might be converted into a story of the year 1830, instead novel-reader. We have never entertained a very high of 1561. The Earl of Morton himself is made to speak opinion of Mr Galt's powers, but we entertain so low an just as Lawrie Todd does, or any of the worthies in the opinion of Southennan, even in comparison with any Annals of the Parish; and in addition to this grossanaof its author's former productions, that we are almost in chronism, and want of vraisemblance, Galt does not elined to doubt the fact of its having proceeded from his seem to be at all acquainted with the best historians of pen. We were quite prepared to find, that in any at the age, the men and actions of which he affects to de tempt at the higher kind of historical novel, Galt would scribe. He presents us with only occasional glimpses of entirely fail, but we at least expected to see that failure Mary, and writes the most hideous twaddle about her relieved occasionally by a few such sketches of vulgar that can possibly be conceived. Takc, for instance, the life and traits of broad low humour, as in his earlier following: -“ One day, as her Majesty was descending works were considered clever enough to entitle him to a the stairs, attended, accidentally, by Rizzio and Chatecertain degree of reputation. Even in this forlorn họpe Iard on her right and left, followed by Adelaide and the we have been disappointed : Southennan is a mass of Lady Mary Livingstone, she slightly stumbled. The sheer insipidity, a profitless succession of dull and taste Italian instantly offered his arm, but she took hold of the less sentences, without incident, without spirit, without Frenchman's. It was an act of the moment, unpremepassion, without vitality. Had the book issued from the ditated, and done without intentioned favour or disting Minerva press, no mortal would have ever thought of tion, but it seemed not so to the seething spirit of Rizzio." noticing it ; and had it been published anonymously, it This would make a good subject for a caricature ;—the would have inevitably been set down as the maudlin Queen going down stairs, arm-in-arm with Chatelard drivel of some feeble sexagenarian, or the rickety bant- in the most cozy manner possible, and Rizzio's spirit ling of some frail and imprudent spinster. Do not let seething” behind! But worse even than his portrait of Mr Galt flatter himself with the idea that we talk thus Mary, which is silly and trifling to a degree, is our austrongly from any prejudice we entertain against his thor's conception of both Chatelard and Rizzio. The works ;-We are as disposed to judge him candidly as former he represents as a vain heartless coxcomb, urged any other author, and shall be delighted to praise him on to his ruin by the subtle machinations of the Italian, when he appears to deserve praise; but his presumption so that, when his fate at length overtakes him, the reader in attempting to palm such trash as this upon the public, has no sympathy for it. Besides, Mr Galt does not seema as a tale illustrative of the Court and Age of Mary, Queen to know that Chatelard committed the offence of obtruof Scots, deserves no mercy, and sball have none. ding himself into the Queen's bedroom twice, Mary ha

The very slight tenure upon which the existence of ving agreed to pardon him on the first occasion, and that this novel depends,—the piece of packthread that tacks the second time was not at Holyrood, but at Burntisland, together the different chapters, may be described in a few where the Queen slept, on her way to St Andrews. words. Southennan is a young laird from Ayrshire, Neither does Mr Galt appear to be aware that this imwho comes into Edinburgh, to be presented at conrt on prudent foreigner was tried and executed at St Andrews, the return of Mary from France, to assume the reins of not in the Castle of Edinburgh. These are facts so nogovernment in her own country. He there falls in love torious, that ignorance of them is unpardonable, and perwith Adelaide, the daughter of an outlawed chief, of the version of them no less so. The greater part of the third name of Knockwhinnie; and is instrumental in obtain volume is occupied with the maneuvring of Darnley and ing ber father's pardon, but finds that Adelaide has al- others against Rizzio; but no individuality is given to

Darnley any more than to any body else, and the ultimate hesitate not to say, that a whole Pantheon full of such cause of Rizzio's assassination, which was a plot got up writing would inspire them with any thing rather than principally by the banished Lords, with the assistance of respect or pleasure. the Earl of Morton, is totally misunderstood, and the most wishy-washy narrative substituted in place of the simple truths of history. The novel possesses, at all Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte. From the French of M. events, this distinction, that there is not a single person introduced into it for whom the reader cares at the con

Fauvelet de Bourrienne. By John S. Memes, LL.D.

3 vols. clusion one farthing.

Vol. I. Being Vol. LVII. of Constable's We had intended to quote several passages to show how

Miscellany. Edinburgh. 1830. vapid the whole of this composition is, but as they would An intense degree of interest attaches itself to Bourpot afford particularly agreeable reading, and would need rienne's Memoirs of Bonaparte. Bourrienne's intimate lessly encumber our columns, we abstain. It is only by connexion with the subject of his narrative for a period condemning oneself to go through the whole as we have of six-and-twenty years, during a considerable part of done, that the justice of our remarks can be fully appre- which he acted as Napoleon's private and confidential seciated. There is one passage, however, which we find cretary, gave him an opportunity of presenting us with quoted in a London weekly periodical, which we have a picture of the public and private life of that wonderful just received, as a specimen of the exquisite humour man, a thousand times more complete and satisfactory , which abounds in Southennan; and to show how critics than any which had previously appeared. And when we may differ, we shall quote the same passage as a specimen consider, that besides possessing a quick perception, a ready of the abortive and vulgar attempts at pleasantry with pen, and a vigorous style, Bourrienne is, moreover, known · which the book is disfigured. The extract describes a scene to be an honest man, and that every thing he says is con.which is supposed to take place before the Lord Provost sequently entitled to belief, the value of his work is still of Edinburgh in the time of Queen Mary. We should more enhanced. The original French edition extends to like to know whether the interlocutors are not much ten volumes, but these are widely printed, and in large more like some of the bodies one would expect to meet type ; though the present translation will not exceed with in Mr Galt's native village at the present day, three volumes, it will, nevertheless, comprise the whole. bodies, too, whom the author has succeeded in making So far as he has gone, Dr Memes has executed his task sufficiently dull and inane:

with great ability ; his version possesses the highest merit “ • Nae doubt your lordship kens that the first thing ye

which can attach itself to any translation—that of appearhae to do in the precognition, is to speer, in presentia domi- ing to be an original. We feel confident that the Pro'norum, if the panel has a person standing judeeshy ?" prietors of Constable's Miscellany could scarcely have fixed

**Jobnnie,' said the Provost, looking at him with pro- upon any work more likely to sustain and increase the per magisterial solemnity, and adding with a dignified in popularity of their publication than that now before us. flection of voice, • I know my duty.' And turning to the Without farther preface, we proceed to make a few ex. prisoner, he said, “Hugh Montgomerie of Aucheubrae, tracts from these Memoirs ; but our difficulty is where to what is your name?'

“I think,' replied the delinquent, “ your lordship has begin, for every chapter teems with matter of deep and no need to ask that question.'

general interest. With all the vividness, and with less “ • He confesses to the fact,' said the Lord Dean of Guild of the partiality, of a personal narrative, this volume brings

“"Yes,' observed the Provost; and, looking towards the us down from the commencement of Bonaparte's career clerk, dictated, • Hugh Montgomerie of Auchenbrae, being to the year 1800, when he reigned in the Luxembourg, convened before us, declares that he is Hugh Montgomerie First Consul of France. On the Egyptian expedition, of Anchenbrae.' “ * I beg your lordship's pardon, interposed the accused; ing the fatal events which took place at Jaffa, he writes

Bourrienne is particularly full and interesting. RegardI have made no such declaration.' “ • Hold your peace,' exclaimed one of the bailies, ' and

more explicitly and conclusively than any author who don't interrupt the procedure.'.

has preceded him. We extract the following passage : "• Clerk, have you written down what I told you ?' said the Provost, and addressing himself to the prisoner, enquired, · Ilugh Montgomerie of Auchenbrae, bave you not been “ The siege of Jaffa, a paltry town, dignified as the anguilty of baimseecken?'

cicnt Joppa, commenced on the 4th, and terminated by as“Oh!' cried Johnnie Gaff, ' my lord, ye hae forgotten sault and pillage on the 6th, of March. The carnage was to caution the panel not to say any thing to hurt himself; horrible. 'Bonaparte sent his aides-de-camp Beaubarnois for it is laid down in the law, that every man is bound to and Croiser to appease, as far as possible, the fury of the be innocent for his own sake, until he be found guilty.' soldiery; to examine what passed, and report. They learned

* • Clerk,' said one of the counsellors across the table,' is that a numerous detachment of the garrison had retired that really the law?'

into a strong position, where large buildings or caravanserai "• I canna speak positively,' replied the clerk,“ but I surrounded a court-yard. This court they entered, dis rather think that it is the new law; at least I ha'e heard playing the scarfs which marked their rank. The Albathe like used in pleading afore the Lords.'

nians and Arnauts, composing nearly the entire of these re“•

Well, but we must stick to the matter in hand,” said fugees, cried out from the windows that they wished to “the Provost. • Clerk, write down declares what did surrender, on condition their lives were spared; if not, ye declare, prisoner?'

threatening to fire upon the officers, and to detend them* « Declare ?--nothing,' replied Auchenbrae.

selves to the last extremity. The young men conceived they :." Don't be contumacious," said one of the bailies, ad- ought, and bad power, to accede to the demand, in opposivisingly.

tion to the sentence of death pronounced against the garri“ * When did this take place ?' enquired the Provost. son of every place taken by assault. I was walking with “What?' rejoined the prisoner:

General Bonaparte before his tent, when these prisoners, « • He's dure indeed,' said the bailie who first observed in two columns, amounting to about four thousand, were his ungainly countenance.

marcbed into the camp.

When he beheld the mass of men “ I'm thinking, my lord,' interposed Johnnie Gaff, 'that arrive, and before seeing the aides-de-camp, he turned to the proceedings quoties toties, should be quam primum ; that me with an expression of consternation, What would is, as soon as possible.'

they have me do with these? have I provisions to feed * • Be silent, sir,' said the Provost."

thein ? ships to transport them either to Egypt or France ? We leave it to our readers to determine whether they how the devil could they play me this trick?' The two would be disposed to trust more in the opinions of those the strongest reprimands; to their defence, that they were

aides-de-camp, on their arrival and explanations, received who pick out such passages as the above for their amuse- alone amid vumerous enemies, and that he had recommend'ment and edification, and as proofs of the excellence of ed them to appease the slaughter, · Yes,' replied the Creueral the work in which they are contained, or of those who in the sternest tore,' without doubt, the slaughter of wo


men, children, old men, the peaceable inhabitants; but not sacriticed to one paramount public good, and humanity itof arined soldiers; you ought to have braved death, and not self be forgotten. It is for posterity to judge whether such brought these to me: what would you have me to do with was the terrible position of Bonaparte. I, on my part, them?'

have an intimate conviction of the fact; moreover, it was “ But the evil was done-four thousand men were there by the advice of the council of officers, whose opinion finally -their fate must be determined. The prisoners were made became unanimous, that the matter was decided. I owe it to sit down, huddled together before the tents, their hands also to truth to state, that he yielded only at the last exbeing bound behind them. A gloomy rage was depicted in tremity, and was, perhaps, one of those who witnessed the every lineament; they received a little biscuit and some bread, massacre with the greatest sorrow.” deducted from the already scanty provisions of the army. A council was held in the General's tent, which, after long

It is unnecessary to make any comment on the above. deliberation, broke up without coming to any l'esolution. Having marched on to the siege of Acre, where BonaThe day following, arrived, in the evening, the reports of parte was for the first time discomfited, the miseries atthe generals of division; these contained only complaints tending bis retreat, when obliged to retrace his former on the insufficiency of provisions, and the discontent of the steps, are powerfully painted : soldiers, who murmured because of their rations being deyoured by enemies withdrawn from their just vengeance.

THE RETREAT FROM SYRIA. All these reports were alarming, especially those of General “ The troops quitted Acre on the 20th of May, when Bun; they even induced the fear of a revolt. Again the Bonaparte issued a proclamation, which insults truth from council assembled, to which were summoned all the generals one end to the other. We took our departure at night, in of division. The measures here discussed for hours, with order to avoid a sortie from the besieged, and to place the a sincere desire of adopting and executing that which might army, having three leagues of flat to traverse, beyond range suve these unfortunate captives, were the following :-- of the English gun-boats and vessels of war, in the bay of

“ Should they be sent to Egypt? and have we the means Mount Carmel. The removal of the wounded and sick of transportation? In this case it would be necessary to bad commenced two days before. Thus terminated this give thein a numerous escort, and our little army would be disastrous expedition. But a fcarful jouruey was yet before too weak in a hostile country. Besides, how feed both pri. us. Some of the wounded were carried in litters, and the soners and escort, when we could give them no provisions rest on camels and mules. A devouring thirst; the total on setting out, over a tract already exhausted ot' resources want of water ; an excessive heat; a fatiguing march among by our passage? If it is proposed to send them by sea, scorching sand hills, demoralized the inen; a most cruel wbere are the ships? With every telescope turned upon selfishness, the most unfeeling indifference, took place of the ocean we could discern not one friendly sail

. Bonaparte, every generous or bumane sentiment. I have seen thrown I afirm, would have regarded this as a real favour of for-froni the litters officers with amputated limbs, whose transtune. It was this hope-I have pleasure in saying som port had been ordered, and who had themselves given inoney tbis thought alone, that enabled him to brave, for three as a recompense for the fatigue. I have beheld, abandoned days, the murmurs of his arıny. But we ever hoped in among the wheat fields, soldiers who had lost their limbs, vain for distant succour: it never came.

wounded and plague patients, or those supposed to be such. “Shall these prisoners then tre liberated ? They will, Our march was lit up by torches, kindled for the purpose in this event, either set out directly for Acre, to reinforce of setting on fire towns, villages, bamlets, and the rich crops the Pacha, or, throwing themselves iuto the mountainous with which the earth was covered. The whole country tract of Naplouse, harass our rear and right Hauk, and the was in flames. It seemed as if we sought a solace in this destruction of our own men will be the price of the life exteut of mischiet' for our own reverses and sufferings. We which we have spared. If this be deemed incredible, ask were surrounded only by the dying, by plunderers, by inthe question of our own experience what is the life of a cendiaries. Wretched beings, at the point of death, thrown Christian dog in the estimation of a Turk? Ingratitude by the way-side, continued to call with feeble voice, ‘I will here become with them an act of religion.

have not the plague; I am but wounded ;' and, to convince “ Shall we then disarm and incorporate these men among those that passeil, they might be seen tearing open their our own troops? Here occurred, in all its force, the ques real wounds, or inflicting new ones. Nobody believed thein. tion of provisions. Afterwards occurred the danger of It was the interest of all not to believe. Counrades would such companions in an enemy's country. Wbat was to be say, ' Ile is done for now: bis march is over ;' then pass dope with them in the event of a conflict before Acre ? or ou, look to themselves, and feel satisfied. The sun in all his how dispose of them beneath the walls of that city? The splendour, under that beautiful sky, was obscured by the difficulties of provisioning and of guarding them increased smoke of continual contlagration. We had the sea on our more and more.

right; on our left, and behind us, lay the desert which we “ The third day arrived, yet no means, so desired, of safety, made; before were the sufferings and privations that awaitpresented for these unhappy men. The murmurs of the

Such was our real position. camp augmented,—the evil went on increasing,-remedy “ We reached Tentoura on the 20th. The heat had been appeared impossible,—danger was real and pressing. Oo suffocating, and universal discouragement prevailed. Our the 10th of March, the order, that they should be shot,' loss among the wounded and sick had already been consi. was issued and executed. There was no separation of the derable, since leaving Acre. This truly afflicting state of Egyptians, as bas been said--there were none.

an army, denominated the triumphant, made upon the com*Many of these miserable beings, composing the smaller mander-in-chief an impression such as could not possibly column, which, amounting to about tifteen hundred, was fail to be produced. Scarcely had we halted, when he calidrawn up on the beach, at some distance froin the main ed me, and hastily dictated an order for every one to march body, while the butchery was going on, escaped by swim on foot, and that all horses, mules, and camels, should be ming to some reefs out of gun-shot. On perceiving this, given up for the transport of the sick and wounded who yet our men laid down their muskets on the sand, and, employ, survived. Carry that to Berthier.' The order was ining the signs of reconciliation and of arnity which they had stantly issued. Scarcely had I returned, when Vigogne, learned in Egypt, invited the return of their victims. They equerry to the commander-in-chief, entered the tent, hat in did return; but, as they came within reach, they found hand. • General, wbat horse do you reserve for yourself?' death, and perished amid the waters. I limit myself to In the first ebullition of indignation excited by this questhose details of this horrible necessity, of which I was an tion, he inflicted a violent blow with a whip upon the pereye-witness. The atrocious scene makes me yet shudder son of the equerry, then added, in a voice ot' terrific expreswhen I think of it, as when it passed before me: much ra sion, 'Let every soul be on foot, scoundrel! I the tiistther would I forget, if possible, than describe. All that Heard you not ihe order?-Begone!"" can be imagined of fearful, in this day of blood, would fall short of the reality. I have reported the truth-the whole It was on arriving again at Jaffa that a deed was pertruth. I assisted at all the debates at all the conferences- petrated still more terrible than the previous massacre, at all the deliberations. I had, of course, no deliberative concerning which Bourrienne gives the following painvoice; but I owe it to verity to declare that, had I pos- fully distinct account: sessed a right of voting, my vote for death would have been affirmative. The result of the deliberations, and the circumstances of our army, would have copstrained me to this “ We returned to Jaffa on the 24th May, and remained opinion. War unfortunately offers instances by no means there till the 29th. This city, but lately the scene of a terrare; in which an immutable law of all times, and common rible necessity, was once more to behold the same trecessity to all nations, has decreed, that private interests shall be of commanding death. Ilere bare la rigorous duty to fultil:

ed us.


I shall fulfil it, and will declare what I know what I saw. upon the canvass, or to call forth from the marble, the fenSome tents were erected on a little eminence near the gar- tures of that extraordinary man, The greater number of dens which surround Jaffa on the east. The order was secretly those skilful artists whose talents honour France, hare given to blow up the fortifications, and, on the 27th, upon the happily seized the type of his countenance; yet may we signal appointed, we suddenly beheld the town uncovered. say, that there is not in existence a perfect resemblance. It An hour afterwards, the General, attended by Berthier, with is not granted even to genius, to triumph over an impossiseveral physicians and surgeons, and the ordinary staff, en-bility. The noble contour of the head, the expanded front, tered his tent. I accompanied him. A long and melancholy the pale and elongated visage, and the meditative cast of deliberation ensued respecting the probable fate of those incu- the countenance, might be represented; but the mobility of rably sick of the plague, and their term of life. After the bis glance was beyond the dominion of imitation—that most conscientious discussion, it was decided to anticipate, glance which obeyed volition with the rapidity of lightning, by a potion, an inevitable death, which must take place a In the same minute, there might be read in bis quick and few hours later, but under circumstances more grievous piercing eye, an expression, now sweet, now stern, now and painful.

terrible, and anon caressing. It might be said, that every “ Bonaparte rapidly traversed the fallen ramparts of the thought which agitated his soul, muulded an appropriate little city, and entered the hospital. There were here some physiognomy. with amputations, some wounder, many soldiers afflicted Bonaparte had finely formed hands, and higbly estiwith opbthalmia, uttering lamentable cries, and the plague mated this beauty. He likewise took particular care of patients. The beds of the last were to the right, on enter. them; and often, while conversing, regarding them with ing the first ward. I walked by the General's side. I complacency. He had also pretensions to fine teeth; but affirm never having seen him touch a single infected patient. these claims appeared to me less justly founded. When he And why should he have touched them? they were in the walked, whether alone or in company, in a room or in his last stage of the malady. No one spoke a word. Bona- gardens, he stooped a little in bis gait, with hands crosseri parte knew well that he had no safeguard against infection, behind his back. Frequently, he made an involuntary and that to expose himself needlessly was to expose his movement of the right shoulder, by slightly elevating it; at army, wbo had no hope save in him. He traversed the the same time, a motion in the mouth from left to right, wards quickly, switching the yellow top of his boot with was observable. If one had not known that this was only the whip which he carried in his band. While moving ra a babit, these motions might have been mistaken for spas pidly along, he repeated these words,— The fortifications modic affections. They, in reality, indicated deep cogitaare destroyed : Fortune has been against me at Acre: I tion,-a sort of condensing of the spirit, while it cherished must return to Egypt, in order to preserve it from the ene- lofty thoughts. Often, after these walks, he drew up, or mies that are coming: The Turks will be here in a few dictated to me, the most important papers. It seemed alhours. Let all who feel themselves able, rise and come with most impossible to tire him, 'not merely on horseback, and us; they shall be transported in litters and on horseback.' with the army, but in his ordinary exercise; for sometimes There were barely sixty plague patients. Whatever has he walked during five or six hours in saccession, without been said of numbers above this, is exaggeration. Their being sensible of the exertion. He had a habit, too, in total silence, their complete exhaustion, or universal lan- these walks, when accompanied by any one whom he treated guor, announced their approaching end. To carry them familiarly, of passing his arm through his companion's, out in that state, was evidently to inoculate the army with and thus supporting himself. the pestilence. All the various theories and accounts of this “ Bonaparte used frequently to say to me, You see, event, of which I am by no means ignorant, are fabrications Bourrienne, how temperate and spare I am. Well, I canor fables. The fact ought to be frankly avowed, proving, not divest myself of the apprehension, that forty years at the same time, its indispensable, though painful neces hence, I shall be a great eater, and become very corpulent. sity. For my part, I declare what I believed then to be I foresee that my constitution will undergo a change ; and trae--what I believe now to be true. I cannot say that I notwithstanding I take sufficient exercise. But what would saw the potion administered; I should tell an untruth. I you? It is a presentiment, and will certainly be realized. am unable, therefore, to name any person, without hazard- This idea troubled him much. As nothing then permitted ing something incorrect. But I know quite positively that me to participate in them, I never failed to argue against such determination was taken--and ought to have been these fears as groundless. But he would not listen to me; taken-after deliberating. That the order, in consequence and, during the whole time of my residence in his service, of this determination, was given, and that the plague pa this presentiment haunted him continually. It was but tients died, are facts which I guarantee for the discovery of too well founded. the truth. How! is that which formed the whole subject “ For the bath he had an absolute passion, and mistook of conversation at head-quarters, on the morrow after our this partiality for a necessity of life. He remained habitudeparture from Jaffa, as a thing not to be doubted; that of ally two hours in the water. During this time, I read to which we spoke as a lamentable necessity; that which was him extracts from the journals or some new pamphlets; spread throughout the whole army by public report; that for he desired to hear all, know all, and see all for himself. which men regarded as a fact, the details only requiring ex While in the bath, he kept continually turning the warm planation ;-is that become an atrocious invention to ruin water valve, raising the temperature to such a pitch, that the fame of a hero ? Napoleon's own statement from St we found ourselves enveloped in an atmosphere of vapour Helena is in the main correct, except as respects the num so dense as to prevent my seeing sufficiently to read. We ber, which signifies nothing. If it was right in the case of were then forced to open the door. the seven or eight, which he acknowledged did receive the “I never knew Bonaparte to be but extremely temperopiate, the act was equally justifiable in the case of sixty, to ate, and an enemy to all excess. He was aware of the abo whom I believe it was administered, and for whom I know surd stories circulated concerning him; and they some it to have been ordered. If wrong, the crime was the same times put him out of humour. How often has it been rein either case. His reasoning on its propriety, necessity, peated, that he was subject to attacks of epilepsy! During and even humanity, is but a repetition of that which every the space of more than eleven years, I never saw any symp one, and he among the rest, employed and admitted twenty tom which resembled in the very least that malady. He years before at Jatfa."

was very healthy, and of an excellent constitution. But if, on

the one hand, his enemies have thought to degrade him, by The splendid romance of Bonaparte's subsequent ca describing him as subject to a grievous periodical intirmity, reer,—his secret departure from the army in Egypt, bis his flatterers, apparently tiguring to themselves sleep as in. voyage across the Mediterranean, his narrow escapes, his compatible with greatness, have not less belied truth, in triumphant landing in France, his rapid journey to Paris, speaking of his imaginary watchings. Bonaparte made the tumults and military revolution of the 18th and 19th others wake, but he himself slept, and slept soundly. He Brumaire, his complete success, and rapid ascent to almost desired that I should call him every morning at seven. I

was, therefore, always the first who entered his bedroom; absolute power, are all described with the graphic power but, pretty often, on attempting to rouse - him, he would which none but an eye-witness can impart to his narra say, his eyes still shut Do, Bourrienne, I beseech you, tive. We can afford room for only one other extract, but let me sleep a moment longer. When there happened to it is one which few of our readers will pass over without be nothing very pressing, I did not return again till eight. perusing :

In general, he slept seven hours out of the twenty-four, be

sides dozing a little in the afternoon. BONAPARTE'S PERSONAL HABITS AND DISPOSITIONS. “ Among the private instructions delivered me in writing, “ The ablest painters and sculptors have laboured to fix there was one very singular on this point : During the

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