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genius of war borne upon lightnings, and proclaimed, like served, Up, Guards, and at them !” Then three of a second Jove, “ Soldiers ! we finish this campaign by a those cheers which are inspiration to the giver, but dethunderbolt that sball confound the pride of our ene- spair to the opposing hearer, announced the rushing of a mies!" When, in reply, the hat and the tricolor waved food of British bayonets! The existence of poetic feelon the gleaming bayonet, and “ Long live the Emperor!" ing in deeds and in things visible, was made manifest, echoed like a tempest from 80,000 voices ! When, at Jena, and the fate of Europe decided. These things were not it was but necessary to say, “ Are not we the soldiers merely the soul of poetry, but the body also. of Austerlitz ?" and Prussia became a cipher among the nations! When, with 900 men, he left the isle of his exile to overturn a government that bore rule over 30,000,000 of souls-yea, backed by the united interest
SINGLE BLESSEDNESS. of Europe to boot-only exclaiming, “ Paris or death !"
By a Lady. -when his foot touched the soil of France, and he called out, “ The Congress is dissolved !"-when meet I HAVE met with very few unmarried ladies who have ing the force sent to oppose him, he advanced dauntless not appeared to me to feel, after the age of thirty, that to the point of their weapons, and exclaimed, throw their existence was thoroughly comfortless and wretched. ing opeu his coat, and presenting his breast, “ Sol- Many have I heard express it openly; and that such is diers ! you have been told that I fear death ; if there be the fact, can very easily be discovered by an accurate obamoog you one soldier who would kill his Emperor, let server of the human countenance. It is also certain, that bim plunge his bayonet into this bosom !”—if there be three out of five of the young English ladies of the preDot poetry in this,-in its effect, when 6000 hostile men sent day must remain unmarried ; because no man can instantaneously cast their arms upon the ground, and fell exist on less than two thousand a-year when married ; upon each other's neck, exclaiming, “ Long live the Em- and how few young men there are with two thousand a peror !"—if the very soul of poetry be not in this, and in year, compared with the number of young ladies! Five, these things—what, in the name of prose and stupidity, six, eight, sometimes, in one family, generally all tolerawhat is Poetry?
bly pretty, and most of them pleasing and accomplished If there be one born in Britain who can hear the name women-many possessing talents of no ordinary stamp of Nelson pronounced withont feelings of poetical enthu- yet, perhaps, in our salons these lovely and accomplished siasm, he is a bastard, and a bloat upon his country, beings are completely neglected by the other sex, “ be. coward, traitor, is written on his milky, heart. No cause" (I must repeat the sentiments I have heard from man can think of the hero of Tenerife, of the Nile, of thousands of young men of fashion) “ I never talk to Copenhagen, and Trafalgar, without glorying in the idea girls—I dare not pay attention to unmarried women, bethat he is his countryman! The name of Nelson was cause I am not a marrying man - My friend the talisman of victory; his very presence was inspira- Airted with so and so, and was accused of behaving illtion, and the record of his last triumph is a poem more I don't like to excite false hopes—I shall never marry, sublime and imperishable than the Iliad itself. There unless I can find a wife with at least two or three thouwas a volume of poetry in his last signal" England ex. sand a-year, because I am much richer, unmarried, with pects that every man will do his duty !” This was the last the fortune I have." signal of Nelson—the last wbisper of the God of Battles It is of no use to quarrel with the state of society as to his servant! The sentiment was a something hovering it is at present constituted, for we cannot alter it; but I between the confines of earth and immortality, breathed think it might be beneficial to give a few hints on the enly by theangel of death and of victory, as he descended to education of women, which might perhaps be useful in wait for the soul of the hero. Was there not poetry in procuring them, in a state of single blessedness, as it is the feeling that followed, when courage became sublimity, very falsely called, a greater share of happiness, or a less as the loud, long shout of ten thousand voices rushed load of misery, than they at present appear to me to posalong the line with the speed and the power of electricity, sess after the awful age of thirty. arresting the astonished sea-bird in its flight, silencing A girl at thirty is called an old maid—she goes to a the deep-tongued voice of the waters, and falling on the ball, and generally sits neglected all the evening, or dances dismayed hearts of their enemies, saying, “ Every Eng- with some gentleman who has been often asked to dine lishman-will do his duty !"
at her father's house, and who, perhaps, remarks, “ Miss But it is unnecessary to record the actions of the is rather passée-a good old girl—and I must do mighty dead to illustrate poetry as existing in deeds; my duty there ; and now I shall dance with the beautithere is one still with us whose whole life has been an ful Miss
My heart always bleeds for the morexample; and in saying this, need I name the name of tifications I see endured by these poor old girls continuWellington-of Wellington the conqueror of Vimiera, ally. There are certainly some single women whose of Talavera, of Salamanca, Vittoria, the Pyrenees, talents have made them as much considered in society as Ortbes, Thoulouse, and Waterloo ? On the morning they ought to'be; but then I have generally observed of his last battle, when the first shrill notes of the pibroch that they have fortunes, or have had advantages above rang in the streets of Brussels with the gathering air, others to bring them into notice, and to give to the na“ Come to me and I will give you flesh !"-was it heard tural ambition of the human species some scope of action. by one of the tartaned mountaineers, who felt not in his I will suppose a case in which there are four girls—a breast the enthusiasm of a poet, and the heart of a Scots- moderate proportion in one family—and two sons; and man? When in the heat of the strife, the leader ex- I will suppose their father possessed of fifteen hundred claimed, “ Stand fiest, 95th ! we must not be beat! what a-year. The estate, of course, goes to the eldest son; the would they say in England ?” What would they say in second must be a clergyman, if his relations have any preEngland, was a volume of poetry bound up in six words. ferment, or he must be of some profession ; of course, he But if ever poetry were exemplified in action, it was at can never marry without a large fortune-unless, at the the crisis of Waterloo, when the Imperial Guard of the age of forty-five, he has made one for himself. The eldest ebemy, rushing like a torrent of fiery lava, amidst the son, having been to Eton and Cambridge, has learnt that thunderings and the roarings of artillery which covered tifteen hundred a-year is nothing, and, in all probability, them, sweeping away the opposing lines like chaff before determines (not to be taken in) not to marry any lovely the storm, had approached within a hundred yards of girl, without, at least, forty or fifty thousand pounds. I the dictator of the conflict, who, with his eagle eye, now come to my four young ladies. I will suppose one watching his opportunity to strike, to the veriest division very pretty, one tolerably pretty, and the other two raof a moment, exclaimed to his troops, who had been re- ther plain. They bave been educated, in all probability,
as the greater proportion of English girls are : 'First of That sweet spot endureth, all shelter'd and green, all, they have a strong orthodox belief in the Christian re And the nut and the nestling are still to be seen. ligion-goevery Sunday to church- and are, as I conceive all, or nearly all, the class of moderately rich English There are feelings more deep, recollections more bright, gentry to be, perfectly honourable, upright, and well. That swell in my bosom, and crowd on my sight; principled. It is only for their own happiness that I There are hearts that responded, in pain or in joy, would propose any change in the education of a class for To the tears of the child, or the bliss of the boy. whom I entertain so high a respect.
To return to the four young ladies : 'They have all been Affection's bright morn, in its vision of bliss, brought up with the idea that they will become wives A father's kind grasp, and a fond mother's kiss, and mothers, and are taught to cherish those natural af. The all of my boyhood, I long’d to retain--. fections which, if by soine remote chance one out of the Oh when, and oh where, shall I meet you again! four ever does marry, make them so amiable and lovely I may roam, I have done it, o'er mountain and liten, as such. They are all allowed to read modern novels, at least all such as are considered to have a moral tendency. I may see, I have seen it, what earth has to see,Now, I maintain that there is scarcely one of these works But whilst warm beats my heart-blood, I'll never forget which does not impress any young woman with the idea The friends of my boyhood, and “bonny Dunsyette.” that happiness can alone be found in love and marriage.
T. G. The heroine is very amiable and perfect, surrounded with admirers, all contending for the honours of her least notice; but where is the novel which represents four poor,
By Laurence Macdonald. pretty, unnoticed girls, who are destined to pass their young years without perhaps so much as one admirer THEY tell me that thy heart's no longer free, amongst them? Year after year passes—their bloom and And I believe it; for I've mark'd, of late, beauty fade-and my four lovely and accomplished warm That thy dark eye's sweet smile falls not on me; hearted beings, having seen all their youthful castles fall Its light is now grown cold, and settled hate one by one, become listless and unhappy. They have lit- Seems lurking somewhere as I gaze on thee. tle in life to interest them ;-one dies of a complaint in the
But I can meet this, as I've met my fate, spine ; another lives many years on arrow-root and calf's And show no sign of suffering, howsoe'er foot jelly, and is enveloped in Aannel even in July; a
It darkens o'er my spirit. I can bear, third is under the care of Dr S., for indigestion ; and perhaps the fourth, who is made of tougher materials, and Have borne, ere now, what should have crush'd a heart horn with less feeling than the others or perhaps from
That still throbs high, with all its strings unbroke, baving something to occupy ber mind, in preparing the But loves less wildly as the years depart! arrow-root for one sister, and ordering the hard dump The goaded ox grows callous to the stroke, lings, prescribed by Dr S., for the other_outlives her sor Nor heeds the pricking needle, nor doth smart, rows and disappointments; and, if she takes an interest As it was wont when first it bore the yoke. in her brother's children, or a share in their education, or
Thus I've become all harden'd; life's ills now in something which gives vent to those affections which Press harmless on me, nor can make me bow. are implanted by nature in the breast of woman, she becomes happy.
Nor love, nor bate, nor aught that thou dost keep This, then, appears to me to be the secret too much In that fair paradise-thy breast of snow neglected in female education. Teach them, by all means, Shall break my rest, or make me sounder sleep that one great source of happiness consists in the indul Insensible to all
the heart be properly regulated, it may take a warm and Of my existence—fame, my final goal.
Shall more have power my spirit to allure.
With mind's immortal beings, that endure
All time, and claim a kindred to the skies,
life doth grow.
Then farewell pleasures of the gay and vain; Os bonny Dunsyette ! in thy soft sunny glen,
I never loved them much, now less than ever, All apart from the voice and the vices of men,
And parting with them costs me not a pain ; I have lived in my boyhood, exulting and free,
But thus with thee I may not deem to sever ; And my heart, in its night-dreams, reverts still to thee. 'Twill take some courage to unbind the chain
Thy charms have wove around me; my nerves quiver; It is not that oft in that pure glassy flood,
Deep feelings stir within me: but I'll quell
The throbbings of this breast, and burst the spell
Happy I ne'er shall witness aught so fair,
So full of light and loveliness, as thee ! It is not the woodland that circled me round,
And if this breath of mine could shape a prayer Where the treasures of nut and of nestling are found;
That might avail in heaven, its scope would be,
That thy bright brow should be untouch'd by care; * Bonny Dunsyette, a romantic glen in the parish of Closeburn,
That thy dark eye should be undimu'd by tears, Dumfries-shire, the birthplace of the author.
And every joy that life can feel should crown thy years.
ANE NEWE SANGE TO ANE AULDE TUNE.
Or witch or warlock riding
On broomsticks to the moon, my boys ! Should kelpie wait our guiding
Across the spetted stream, my boys ! A' evil snares avoiding,
We'll wait the moruing beam, my boys !
By J. Imlach, Author of " May Flowers.”
Gude night, and joy be wi' you a'! We've drank to them that's hereabout,
We've drank to them that's far awa; But fill again, there's ane, nae doubt,
We yet could drink abune them a'. Wha drinks and deep-fair be his fa',
On him that winna, meikle shame, As round and round the cup we ca',
A health to her—we needna name ! I gie you joy, wha hae found grace
Wiane that's comely, kind, and true; I feel for you--I ken the case
Whom some fair thief o' hearts gars rue, Though nocht you say, and swear, and do,
Can wauk in ber's the tender flame, Yet we're forgiving when we're fou
Here's health to her-whate'er her name !
Gie me-gie me the gloamin',
When light wanes in the west, my boys ! It is the hour for roaming,
It is the hour for rest, my boys ! Here 's fove to winsome woman,
And luck to honest men, my boys ! 0! when day wanes to the gloamin',
A jovial time 'tis then, my boys !
TO AN OLD STRANDED WAR-SHIP.
By William Mayne.
O! wearie fa' the womankind,
They've been, sin' first the world begani, Sae fair o' mould-sae fause o' mind,
The blessing or the bane o' man; Yet, after a', do what we can,
The bonnie dears we canna blame; Sae a benison gae wi' our ban,
And health to her whom we could name!
There was not one who thought that day,
When thou wert launch'd in youthful pride, Glittering in rich and bright array,
Upon the glad embracing tide,
Upon this wild and bayless shore,
And all thy glory o'er !
And passes swift and wistfully
With fitful and impatient cry, As if it wish'd thee to arise
From thy ignoble place of rest, And in the free and gladsome skies
Once more upraise thy crest.
Auld Adam won a wearie life,
Till Eve, in Eden's bach'lor bowers, Was made the first o' men's gadewife
The fairest o' the garden's flowers ; Though dearly bought the social hours,
Wi' dool and death-wi' sin and shame We think them cheap, when pass we ours
Wi' her we'll drink-but daurna name.
The waukrife cock fa' loudly craws,
The merry morn begins to blink, And troth it's time to wear our wa's
When folk begin to lisp and wink; Whate'er we thole, whate'er we think,
In this we'll do and say the same, We'll brim the bowl, and deep we'll drink
A health to her—that each could name!
Oh! often bast thou proudly spread
Thy sails upon th’inspiring breeze, And merrily and boldly sped
Along the dark bewildering seas ; Exulting in thy glorious might,
Daring the dangers of the wave, Strong in the bearts that sway'd thy flight,
So careless, free, and brave!
It was not well in those who swept
With thee along the ocean wild, And in thy friendly bosom slept,
While the strong waves around it coil'd, To leave thee all forsaken here,
Half-buried in the drifting sand, No more across the deep to steer,
Far from the sluggish land.
And night glooms o'er the glen, my boys ! When cogs are fou and foamin',
A jovial time 'tis then, my boys ! Let daffin' youth gang roamin'
By burn and trysting tree, my boys, But when day wanes to the gloamin'
We meet for mirth and glee, my boys!
Yet, ah! perhaps they long have been
Reposing in the gloom of death, Down 'mid that wild and marvellous scene
The ocean darkly shows beneath ; Perhaps they're scatter'd from thee far
Along the broad sea's winding shore, And feel, like thee, the rousing war.
Of breeze and wave no more.
See, the drouthie sun is sinking
To tipple in the sea, my boys !
To brighten lift and lea, my boys !
Their cups of nectar dew, my boys ! And the stars of heaven be winking
Like us when roaring fou, my boys ! Should kirkyard ghaists be gliding
At night's mirk eerie noon, my boys !
Yet, was it here to waste away,
That thou still triumph'd o'er the storm, And 'neath the waves' destroying sway
Ne'er bent thy huge and gallant form? Oh, better were it far to dwell
Down in the dark and moaning sea, Beside those hearts thou loved'st so well,
Who deeply trusted thee!
When the broad waves of midnight gush
Up from the sea around thy side,
And rend thee in their wrath and pride,Upon their strength thou shouldst arise,
And hurry to the ocean's breast, And, torn by their fierce energies,
Sink in the waves to rest !
WRITTEN ON THE FRITA OF FORTH. The waters bound beneath us, and we ride In gallant trim along the brioy tide. All's life and motion, and the winds on high Sing their wild chorus while careering by ; But yon fair city, fading to the view, Holds all my heart adores; it is to you, : Thou dark-eyed beauty with the polish'd brow, Whose lovely image glides before me now, That all my thoughts are tending, as we fly O'er ocean's breast, like eagle through the sky! Shouldst thou but be to me, as is yon star, Adored and worshipp'd, though it dwells afar, I'll love thee not the less !—Though it may be That thy dark eye can never smile on me, Its light will not the less illume the way My faltering steps pursue through life’s dull day. No; I can shape thy image on the face Of the wide waters, and can people space, How far and fathomless soe'er it be, With fond and fairy forms that look like thee ! And though thy fancy or the fates enshrine Thy love within some nobler beart than mine, Thou art within my soul embodied so, That I can never all of thee forego; Bat at my will, as if with magic power, I'll call thee forth tp chase life’s gloomiest hourTo colour every scene that meets the eye, Whether I gaze on ocean, earth, or sky, Until those features in the play of mind Become so bright, they strain the vision blind. Should thy fair classic home of far-spread fame, Among her deathless sons enroll my name, 'Thou mayst behold me in thy visions, blending With thy sire's greatness, through all time extending; And should the fates thus much uccord to me, Fame's wing shall waft o'er time some trace of thee!
16th May, 1830.
The readers and admirers of the Life of Sir Thomas Munro will be gratified to learn, that a third volume of the Correspondence of that distinguished individual is about to be published. Besides a continuation of the letters to his family, which formed a principal charm of the preceding volumes, there are, we understand, in the present, his familiar communications to the Duke of Wellington, the Marquis of Hastings, Mr Elphinstone, Sir Graham Moore, and a great number of the most conspicuous public characters of the age.
The forthcoming Heiress of Bruges, by Mr Grattan, is, it appears, an historical novel, founded on events in the History of the Nether. lands in the year 1660, and the scene varies between Bruges, Brus. sels, and the romantic country towards the Meuse.
A lady of the name of Mrs Harding, who must be the very concen trated essence of all the blues, announces a work, to be entitled “πλουσης και της ψυχης, πλουτυς μοηος εστιν αληθης.”
The Midsummer Medley, about to be published by the author of Brambletye House, consists of a series of comic tales and sketches in prose and verse.
An Analysis of Elocution, exhibiting the most useful observations and rules on the art of reading and speaking, together with princi. ples of gesture-dissertation on the passions-and strictures on former writers on these subjects ;-with select extracts, peculiarly adapted for delivery, by John D. Russell, teacher of clocution in Edinburgh, is preparing for publication.
THE SIAMESE TWINS.-These remarkable youths are at prezent in Edinburgh, and have already been visited by many of the scientifc characters of this city, as well as by a great crowd of miscellanenus enquirers into the wonderful and the curious. We may probably take an opportunity next week of speaking of the exhibition at greater length, and in the meantime beg to point it out as one well worthy the attention of our readers.
CHIT-CHAT FROM LONDON.-Mr Buckingham, the Oriental tra veller, is anxious to have a ship built for him at the public expense, in order to perform a voyage round the world, from which he expects numerous mercantile advantages to accrue to this country. A public meeting has been held by those friendly to the plan; and the public generally are invited to lend it their support. Mr Buckingham is a stirring man, and may perhaps succeed in carrying it through - Jeremy Bentham has amused himself in his old age with drawing up a code of laws for the Horticultural Society -Boai, the person who plays tunes upon his chin, put off his performance the other day in consequence of his having caught a cold,-it must certainly have been the chin.cough. A lady has made her appearance in Germany who almost beats Boai, for she plays beautifully on the piano-forte with her nose! What will these people do next? -Ed. ward Irving has preached a funeral sermon for George IV., which contains some odd passages, and is consequently, talked of a little all that the orator wished, do doubt.-The King has sent a gracious message to the President of the Royal Academy, (Sir Martin Archer Shee,) enquiring in what way his Majesty can most promote the interests of the Fine Arts ; and the President has laid the royal communication before the members of the Academy, who will of course give the matter their most serious attention.
Theatrical Gossip.-This is a dull time at the Theatres. Nothing new is going on in London worth mentioning.-Miss Paton has been performing in Cork with applause, but Wood was not allowed to appear along with her. When she played Polly in the “ Beggar's Opera," a Miss Dyer played Lucy. We suppose this is the same Miss Dyer who disappeared from the Edinburgh Theatre rather mysteriously some years ago. –Miss Cubitt, a young lady who sang and was ad. dicted to the bottle, has died. Many of the provincial managers have opened their Theatres for a few weeks during the slack time in London.-Miss Jarman is performing in Worthing. As she is not to appear at Drury-Lane next winter, we take it for granted that we shall have her here, as we are not aware that the manager could engage any one nearly so likely of being generally popular, or so able to make herself useful in almost every department of her profession. -Kean is paying a farewell visit to Liverpool.-Rossini and Catalani have been together at Florence for some time. We are glad to learn that Jones has been drawing better houses of late at Perth. He has been playing Lord Ogleby in the “Clandestine Marriages with great eclat. Are we not to have Jones once more on our stage next win." ter?
Who mingle on the surface of the earth,
And think scarce one would give a pause to mirth, Were I to-morrow stiffening in my shroud, It almost startles me to find that I
Am bound to life by lịnks so passing few, Even in my prime, when every pulse beats high,
And much of nature still is fresh and new.. I am a miser in my wish to hoard
A mint of deep affections, for to me
The love of others is the golden key That doth unlock the shrine where lieth stored My hope of happiness. Let glory go! But, O! above my bier let many a fond tear flow!
H. G, B.
TO OUR CORRESPONDENTS.
LITERARY CHIT-CHAT AND VARIETIES.
We regret that the “ Sketches of Character in Low Life," by
“ W. H. G." of Glasgow, will not exactly suit us.-Our CorrespondA NEW Andual, called The Remembrance, is to be added to those ent at West Barns will perceive we have made considerable alteraalready on the list for 1831. It is to be edited by Thomas Roscoe, tions on his obliging communication.-We fear we shall not be able Esq., and will contain twelve fine engravings. Among these will be to make room for the paper ly“ H." of Peterhead. -The letter from the following subjects :-Her most excellent Majesty, Queen Ade Dunfermline is sensibly written, but the subject has become rather laide-the Coliseum at Rome-Mont Blanc-the Draugh l-players- trite. Windsor Castle-the Girl at the Brook- Warwick Castle-the Black. Our poctical Correspondents in Dumfries, Selkirk, and elsewhere, bird at Home-Who'd be a Butterfly-and John Gilpin. Most of must excuse us till next week, these engravings we have already seen, and can safely pronounce Our readers will perceive that we this week present them rith some of them exceedingly beautiful..
half a sheet of additional matter.
the office of a public prosecutor. The officials composing this branch of the administration were known by the
name of the Parquet, consisted of general procurators and THE PAST AND PRESENT STATE OF PRANCE. general advocates, together with a king's procurator and Bulletin Universel : Sections des Sciences Mathematiques, two substitutes for every tribunal in France, and amountdes Sciences Naturelles, et des Sciences Historiques. body kept watch were the courts in each arrondissement,
The tribunals over which this Avril, 1830. Edinburgh: Thomas Clark. Annales des Mines, ou Recueil des Memoires sur l'Exploi- which judge in the first instance; the courts of appeal, tation des Mines et sur les Sciences qui s'y rapportent; ré
whose jurisdiction extended over one or more departdigées par le Conseil Général des Mines. A Paris ; chez ments ; and the Coutt of Cassation. The number of the Treuttel et Wurtz. Edinburgh: Thomas Clark.
district courts amounted to 361, each consisting of three Dictionnaire Technologique, ou Nouveau Dictionnaire judges; the king's procurator and his substitute; the
Universel des Arts et Métiers, et de l'Economie Indus- clerks and ushers of court; and three or more suppléants, trielle et Commerciale; par une Société de Savans et distinguished lawyers, whose vote was taken in the ned Artistes.' Tome Quinzième A Paris ; chez Tho- cessary absence of a judge, or when there happened to be mine Libraire. Edinburgh: Thomas Clark.
a “ partage des voix." Each of these courts dispensed Veber die Gerichtsverfassung und das gerichtliche Ver- law through a population of from ffty to eighty thoufahren Frankreichs, in besonderer Bezie hung auf die sand souls. The courts of appeal were divided into three Oeffentlichkeit und Mündlichkeit der Gerechtegkeitspflege.
classés. The first class (thirteen in number) consisted Von Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach, (On the Legal
of four presidents, twenty councillors, a general-procuraInstitations and Forms of Process in France, as tend-tor, five general advocates and substitutes, clerks and ing to illustrate the effects of Pablicity and Oral Plead- ushers, and was divided into three chambers—la chambre ings in Courts of Justice. By Anselm von Feuerbach.) civile, la chambre d'appels de police correctionelle, et la
chambre de mise en accusation. The second class (ten in The nature of our last importation from France is of number) consisted of five presidents and twenty-five couna kind to confirm our inclination to take, instead of enter-cillors, and was divided into four chambers, of which two ing at present into a criticism of any individual work, a were devoted to civil affairs. The third class (of which more general view of the state and prospects of society there were only two, Rennes and Paris) were divided which have just received so rude a shock in their pro- into five chambers. Civil questions can only reach these gress towards maturity. Our remarks labour under a courts, by way of appeal from the courts of the different disadvantage from the extreme condensation imposed upon arrondissements, or from the chambres de commerce, insti. us by our limits; they are, however, the fruits of a long tuted for the judgment of purely mercantile matters, in and extensive examination into French affairs.
two hundred and twelve of the principal towns and cities. When we say that France was a representative mo- In questions of criminal law it was their office to decide narchy, we must guard against an impression, easily pro- on the relevancy of the accusations against persons whom duced by the vagueness of the term, that her constitution it was proposed to try at the assizes, and to give final was similar to that of England. With us, not ouly a sentences in such police matters as might be tried withportion of the legislative, but a large share of the execu out a jury. With this court lay the nomination of the tive management of the country, remains in the hands of judges of assize, who sat every quarter of a year in the the people or of their representatives. In France, the head town of every department, to try criminal cases whole executive, down to its pettiest details, was vested with a jury. There were, in general, named to this exclusively in the sovereign. In England, the rights of office, a councillor of the court of appeal, and four judges the subject are as undoubtedly and originally his as those of the arrondissement in which the assizes were held. of the monarch—the origin of both lies hid in the same The decrees of the courts of appeal were final, and could antiquity. In France, the rights of the subject were a not be altered by any other tribunal. The Court of gift from the king, and dated no farther back than the Cassation, which sat at Paris, consisted of four presicharter.
dents, forty-four councillors, a general procurator, with The king performed the public duties through the six general advocates, a principal and four depute clerks, medium of six ministers, whose inferior agents, all no with ushers; and was divided into three sections, one of Winated by the crown, were spread in the strictest sub- which was devoted to criminal, and two to civil matters. erdination and organization through every department ( To this court appertained the decision in all questions of of the kingdom. The first minister was the Minister contested jurisdiction, and the pronouncing sentence in of Justice. The office of this minister was, by means of the case of any judge accused of improper discharge of his deputies, to communicate to the different tribunals all office. It had likewise a power of reviewing such decisions of new laws, rescripts, and ordonnances -- to enforce the any courtof appeal that might be submitted to its considerastrict observance of legal forms and discipline in all the tion; of declaring them null when contrary to law, and recourts of France-to appear in every private case for the mitting such cases to be tried anew by some other court of interest of the law, when it is strained and perverted by appeal. These courts are freed froma mass of trifling cases, the interests of contending parties to act as the ad- by the justice of peace courts established in each canton. Tecate of the state in all fiscal questions and to discharge Each of these consists of a justice of peace, remunerated by