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certain fees of office; two unpaid suppléants ; a clerk, and | ception of condemned criminals, were a matter of great two ushers In most cases, no'one dared commence a law- importance in France, which had no external colonies suit until he had summoned his opponent before a jus- in which stie could deposit this refuse of society. tice of peace, with a view to attempt an amicable settle The Minister of Finance, by means of his Chamber at ment. The justices, moreover, conducted the preliminary Paris, controlled the post, registrations and domains, foinvestigations in criminal matters, sealed the repositories rests (France is divided into twenty forest districts) the of the dead, gave certificates of marriage, &c. They were lottery, the douane, the indirect taxes, the lifting of dijudges in all complaints of trespass, or disputed marches, rect taxes, the mint, the public salines, the general payand all disputes between landlord and tenant, or master master, the sinking fund, the Bank of France, thirty-one and servant. · They were judges in purely personal cases of the principal chambers of commerce, and the Exchange. to the amount of 50 francs without, and of 100 francs The direct taxes were collected in a simple and unopwith appeal. The practitioners in these different courts pressive manner; the domains and regalia were, for the were notaries, avoués, and avocats. In order to become a most part, farmed out; but some of the indirect taxes, notary, one must have satisfied the conscription laws, such as the tolls and tobacco, required a great number of passed bis twenty-fifth year, and served from four to six officials. years in the étude of a practising notary. Before one be The army of France bas attracted too much attention gins to practice, he must deposit a sum of money (by no to render it requisite for us to enter into the details of taries of the lowest class about 1000, of the highest, the Minister of War's office. The army can scarcely ex24,000 francs) in the government bureau, in security for ceed 100,000 men. It was assembled in divisions of his conduct, upon which he receives four per cent inte twenty-one military posts, scattered at practicable disrest. They were intrusted with much the same depart- tances through France. At each of these was a governor ment of the business of active life, as falls to the charge and lieutenant-general. France has 178 fortresses, of of their namesakes in this country. According to law, which the most important form the triple line extending the average number of notaries was fixed at one for along the frontiers towards Germany and the Netherlands, every 6000 citizens. The good-will of a notary's busi- from the sea to the Alps. ness used to sell in Paris for a sum varying from a hun The Minister of Trade and the Colonies, besides the dred to three hundred thousand francs. The character important duties which naturally belonged to his office, of the notaries in France stood deservedly high. The had intrusted to him the management of the fleet. It avoués supply the place of our procurators in the supreme consisted, in 1821, of 58 ships of the line, 39 frigates, and court. They were nominated by government, and their 289 smaller vessels. These were manned with 11,000 number throughout France might amount to 3847. The seamen. Many of the vessels were unfit for service. candidate for such an appointment, after studying for They were dispersed under five commandos, -- Brest, some years at a school of law, and receiving a certificate L'Orient, Toulon, Rochefort, and Cherbourg. There of proficiency, purchased the étude of an avoué retiring were several marine schools for the education of cadets from business. If an avoué took bis degree as licentiate The extension of the French fleet was chiefly retarded by in law, and took the advocate's oath, be was entitled to the difficulty of obtaining materials and seamen. plead at the bar without ceasing to be an avoué. The There yet remains the Minister for Foreigu Affairs, character of this body did not stand very high in public whose office was much the same as in other countries; and estimation. Every person who had completed his legal a minister—so termed by courtesy of the royal house. studies, and passed licentiate of law, was entitled to be Upon the King and these ministers in council depended admitted to take the oath of advocate in a court of ap- the whole management of state affairs in France. The peal (cour royale.) The office of advocate was to give only rule prescribed to them was, that they should act in advice in private respecting the conduct of lawsuits, and conformity to the laws of the land. This consideration to plead the cause of parties orally or in writing before the brings us to the other constituent part of the constitution tribunals. The avoué is a servant of the state; the ad- of France the legislative. yocate is a private person, whose profession it is to assist The Legislative Power was vested in the King, the his fellow-citizens in their legal affairs. A well-em- Chamber of Peers, and the Chamber of Deputies. The ployed advocate in Paris draws from his profession be- Chamber of Peers consisted of 278 members. No peer tween fifty and a hundred thousand francs yearly. The was admitted before he bad attained his twenty-fifth year; members of this body are regarded as qualified for the and even then he was not allowed to take a part in the highest offices of state. So much for the legal institu- discussions before he was thirty. The Chamber of Detions of France, and those connected with their admi- puties consisted of 430 members, chosen by the different nistration.

electoral colleges. The King had the initiative of all The Minister of the Interior had the superintendence laws, and it lay with him whether he would first present of the church, the university, the police, the general ma- it to the Peers or the Deputies. In both Chambers, a nagement of bridges, roads, and mines, the care of prisons, simple majority was sufficient to pass a law. A law was the preservation of registers, &c. Under this minister only valid after it had received the assent of the whole was the prefect of police, with his secretary; and imme- three orders. Either Chamber had the right to suggest diately under him a prefect at the head of every depart. a law to the King, as a proper one to be laid before them. ment, with a secretary who managed bis bureau, and All money bills, as with us, were first submitted to the from three to five counsellors. In every arrondissement Chamber of Deputies. The Chancellor of France was there was a mayor, with one or two adjuncts. To these ex officio President of the Chamber of Peers ; the Presiwas added, when the number of inhabitants exceeded dent of the other Chamber was named by the King from 10,000, a commissary of police. Cities with more than a list of five, presented to him on the part of the Deputies. 100,000 inhabitants had a general-commissary of police. As to its products, agriculture, manufactures, and The office of the mayors and the sub-prefects was to fix, trade, though Franee is naturally a rich soil, husbandry with the assistance of their councils, the quota of the di- has made comparatively little progress. Agriculture is rect taxes payable by each individual within their dis- prosecuted with most success in the north. In districts trict, and to report on its condition and prospects to the to the west of Paris, stretching from the English ChanMinister of the Interior. Under their command, and in nel to the Garonne, the breeding of cattle seems at prethe different cantons under the command of the justice of sent to be pursued with considerable interest. Bat the peace, were the troops appointed to carry police regula- vineyards are the pride of France. From the Rhine to tions into effect-the gens d'armerie. This body consisted the Pyrenees there is scarcely a hill whose sunny side is of 15,500 men, divided into legions, and these into com not covered with vines. In the manufacture of wine, papies. The prisons, especially those destined for the re- too, the French are allowed to excel all the other nations

of Europe. Vegetables are raised in immense quantities' young men could receive education to fit them for the in the neighbourhood of all the populous towns; fruit is universities, or the study of the learned professions, were in great quantity, and excellent quality. Olives, and the extremely defective. In the 38,990 communes of France oil extracted from them, succeed well in Provence, al. wcre, five years ago, 25,900 elementary schools, with upthough produced in less quantity than the consumption wards of a million scholars, Much had been done, too, of the land requires. The fisheries are important, both in different districts, by the private exertions of some in the rivers and the deep sea. The forests have, in a great spirited noblemen and large capitalists. Still much remeasare, recovered from the devastations of the Revolu- mained to be done, for, on a large calculation, one-third tion. The mines are of little consequence. The French only of the nation could read and write ; and the educabave hitherto succeeded best in manufacturing articles of tion of females was extremely neglected. luxury. Lyons, Paris, Valenciennes, and Alençon, pro Before passing from this sketch of the provisions for dace immense quantities of silk and laces; Rouen, Gre- general education, to give a still more brief sketch of the noble, and Sedan, cotton and woollen stuffs, and leather. state of literary and scientific exertion in France, a moPorcelain, musical instruments, soap, and hardwares, are, ment's glance must be cast at the state of the press—the after these, the chief manufactures. The home trade is atmosphere necessary to the life of intellect. For a short strong, and promoted by good roads and numerous canals. time it had been free from censorship. Every person France has also a flourishing commerce up the Levant, to who published was answerable for any offence given to America, the East Indies, and the Baltic. The Bank at the laws in his writings. It was chiefly against the peParis has 90,000 shares of 1000 francs each. There are riodical press that the jealousy of the government was pablic exchanges in sixty-three of the principal towns, directed. The office of printer was a monopoly: one or One characteristic is common to the manufacturing and two only were licensed in every town. Attempts were commercial industry of France, with that of every mo- made, on the part of government, to frighten the printers dern European nation, except England and Holland. The from lending their assistance to liberal journals; but the first impulse has been given to it, not so much by an in- courts of law, before which the question was brought, stinctive love of trade, as by a conviction, upon reflection, found, that as the right of printing was a monopoly, the of the benefit it brings a nation. In France, the educa- printer was not entitled to refuse to work for any one ted and influential classes have striven to give a commer who could pay him. He was a public servant. cial turn to the national mind. The consequence is, that The number of institutions in France for the encouwe recognise in its exertions, not unfrequently, the need ragement of science and art exceeded those in any other of an additional stimulus, a love of external show, a ten nation of Europe. There was the Institute, with its

dency to yield to the influence of over-refined theories. four Academies; the Royal Medical, Geographical, and * These drawbacks were, however, rapidly disappearing at Statistical Societies ; the Society for the promotion of

the time when Charles X. took his mad step : a manlier national industry, and that for the propagation of knowand more practical tone was visibly gaining the ascend- ledge; the Academy of Music; the Royal Museum, and ency in the national mind.

that of French Antiquities; the Jardin des Plantes; the We have next a few words to offer on the subject of numerous hospitals; the Royal and other libraries ; toeducation, moral and intellectual, of science, literature, gether with innumerable private societies for the further- and art. The first school of every nation is its church. ance of art, science, and literature, dispersed through

From it the tone of domestic morals is taken. The church France. The intellectual activity corresponded to such in France was no longer the fair outward cover of inter- encouragement. France stood foremost in the physical, nal rottenness, which it was before the Revolution. As chemical, and mathematical sciences. In natural hislittle was it such an object of scorn and loathing as at tory, she was equal to Germany. In metaphysics, juristhe time of that event. It had not the same firm hold of prudence, history, and antiquities, a new era was commenpopular feeling as in the other countries of Europe. The cing. France gave the first impulse to the study of Oriental Catholic was the national church; but all churches were languages and literature. In art, there was no deficiency protected by law, their clergy paid by the state, and sub- of industry or enthusiasm ; learned and ingenious artists jected to the control of the minister of the interior. In failed (if they did fail) only from that over-vivacity of the Catholic church were 12 archbishops, with 43 suf- temperament, which is characteristic of their nation. fragans, pretty equally dispersed over the surface of There were plenty of talented dramatists and lyrical France; and under them 35,286 resident and officiating poets—men of fine fancy and happy conceptions. In the clergymen, and 25,437 seminary priests. There were other departments of imaginative literature, there was about 2,200,000 Lutherans. Their clergy were divided something vacillating and unfixed in the national taste. into six inspections, and the whole stood under the imme. The French mind was in a state of transmutation, and diate saperintendence of the General-Consistory in Stras nothing great was produced. But it was not within the burg. The number of the Calvinists, which is still greater narrow limits of France that the minds of her sons conthan that of the Lutherans, we have not been able to fined themselves. They were to be found in Egypt, ascertain. They were divided into synods and consisto- measuring the pyramids; in Syria, exposing themselves ries, and had 101 consistorial churches. The Jews stood to the plague, in order to extend the bounds of medical under a central-consistory in Paris, and had six consisto- science, and over the wide continent of South America. rial synagogues.

Such was France, and such her prospects for the fuFrance long presented the strange spectacle of the most ture, some ten days ago. A rich soil and balmy climate enlightened capital, and the most ignorant territory, in -a race of men high-spirited and enterprising—braced Europe. The exertions of the inhabitants of the princi- and sobered by adversity--inclined to repose in the forms pal mercantile towns were rapidly removing this absurd- of a government free and energetic, not perfect, perhaps, ity. Under the minister of the interior stood a royal but consolidating daily—all this was the heritage of commission of sixteen persons, upon whom devolved the Charles the Xth. Of such a people, under such laws, cáre of all the educational institutions in the kingdom. and possessed of such natural wealth, he might have made There were two universities, each with five faculties, at any thing. There is a natural inclination in a FrenchParis and Strasburg. There were, besides, twelve high man to love a gallant and kind monarch. All that was schools of law or medicine, or both, which bore the name asked of him was to love his people to promote their inof universities. There were 36 royal colleges, and 59 tellectual and moral improvement. But this emasculated theological seminaries. Next in importance to these, were nursling of the saloon and the cloister could not see the l'école polytechnique, and a variety of schools for instruct- happiness and honour of such a career. His model of ing artillerists, engineers, architects, ship-builders, sol- kingly greatness was an old Spanish monarch, before diess, and sailors." The preparatory schools, in which whom all bowed in trembling obedience, while he in turn

did the same before a fantastic image, which, in his bewilder- | towards America as a fit place for the exercise of their ed imagination, had usurped the place of the Deity. This respective callings, and furnishes, we do not hesitate to dreamer opposed himself to the natural current of human say, a number of valuable hints for their guidance and events. He has succeeded in showing that a man too instruction. His observations on American character weak to do good may yet do an infinite deal of harm. and habits, on the commercial prospects and statistical The security, the happiness of a gallant and mighty na resources of the nation, on its morals, feelings, prejudices, tion, have been put to the hazard to gratify his self-will. and amusements, are in general both shrewd and sound. We confess we have little fears for the result. A really Nor does he confine himself to dry detail and abstract influential class has grown up in France, from the body disquisition, but mingles with his information much of of the people, during the storms of the Revolution. Their the pleasant liveliness of a personal narrative. He does politics, have been sobered by the sad realities of fifty not appear to have traversed the United States to a very years. There is no fear that they will now peril the great extent, but he has made good use of the opportunisafety of their country in an attempt to gain an ideal per- ties he enjoyed in those parts which he happened to visit. fection. The only danger results from the possibility that He sailed from Greenock, for New York, about the year a part of the army may adhere to the king. Even in that 1823. After remaining there some time, and making case, he could not ultimately succeed. Almost every third himself familiar with all that is remarkable in that capiman in France has been trained to arms_officers of the tal and its vicinity, he took an excursion up the Hudson highest talent and experience, and who deeply hate the to the state of Vermont, for the purpose of visiting some Bourbons, are scattered through the country—the intel- Stirlingshire relatives who were settled in that quarter. ligence and capital of the nation are at present opposed to Having returned once more to New York, he again left Charles—and such adversaries no army can subdue. But it, some months afterwards, for Philadelphia, of which the struggle may be long-the idle and the worthless may he gives a full and interesting account. From thence, increase in numbers and impunity and the progress of after having gone up the Delaware, and explored the surthe country be indefinitely retarded. All this possible rounding country with accuracy and attention, he sailed evil, and the blood which has already flowed, lies at the for the southern state of Carolina, and fixed his headdoor of that madman, whom thirty years of exile and pri- quarters in Charleston. This seems to have been the vation could teach neither humanity nor common sense.

extent of his travels in America ; but, in the course of them, he has picked up a fair collection of interesting particulars, and has approved himself one fond of knowledge,

and able to communicate it. Recollections of a Six Years' Residence in the United States of America, interspersed with Original Anecdotes, stowed upon Mr Neilson's work, by a few miscellaneous

We shall make good the commendation we have beillustrating the Manners of the Inhabitants of the great extracts, which, we feel confident, though

not possessed Western Republic. By Peter Neilson. Glasgow David Robertson. 1830. 8vo. Pp. 358.

of much eloquence of diction or depth of reflection, will

nevertheless be read with satisfaction. We begin with a It is a very difficult thing to write a first-rate book passage illustrative of the state of crime in New York: about America. We are by no means sure that any such

AMERICAN PENAL LAWS AND STATE PRISONERS. book has yet been written. In the first place, it ought to “ Were the penal laws of Great Britain as severe in the be recollected that America is a world of itself, almost as execution, as in the letter, it might be truly said, they were large as Europe, Asia, and Africa put together, and that if written in blood,-more than 200 different crimes incurring a “ Six Years' Residence in the Old World” would be con sentence of death. The Americans have framed the most sidered a comprehensive title for a book, a “Six Years' Re- of their laws and institutions after the manner of their ansidence in the New" is nearly as much so. In the next cestors, and, in some cases, with considerable improvements.

There place, this immense country is still in a state of infancy, with death,—the law blending mercy with justice in a very

are, however, but few crimes in America punished and is undergoing changes of importance every day, so that eminent degree, having the reformation of the criminal as an author has scarcely time to see his remarks on its va- much an object to be desired as the mere satisfying of the rious laws, customs, and institutions, fairly through the law. Many an unfortunate wretch, whose life alone could press, before circumstances may have made it necessary atone for his offence in Britain, would, under the Amerientirely to remodel the whole of them. Writing about can criminal laws, have had the opportunity of acquiring America is like writing for periodicals; your book may pos- with proper notions of that equity which man owes to his

habits of industry and honesty, and returned to society, sess some interest, only till a still more recent one appears, fellow. The American state prisons are established on wise and in the course of a few months at most, it becomes and good principles; and, in many instances, have been useless as a last year's almanack. The tourist through actually profitable to the state in which they are erected, the continent of Europe, finds a more stable state of condemnation to the state prison for life being a more forthings, and is consequently enabled to build his remarks midable punishment to many a desperado, than the gallows upon a less sandy foundation. But it is a dangerous ex- itself; the very idea of being cooped up from their compaperiment for him who aims at having his name of long habits

, operating upon their uncontrollable passions as a

nions, and compelled to observe industrious and regular continuance in the mouths of men, to exercise his pen on continual succession of penalties. The state prison of New the subject of America-a nation without any permanent York is a large building, enclosed by high walls, capable of classical associations, without any splendid works of art, containing 500 convicts : it is sometimes full of inmates. without any established literature, without any noble No criminals are sentenced to this prison for less than three public institutions which have stood the test of time and years. Upon admission, they are required to clean themexperience. Notes on America we are at all times de selves, and are accommodated with a new dress of striped lighted to see, for we watch with interest the growing ticular dress is put upon those who have been more than

cotton, if in summer ; and of woollen, if in winter. A pardispositions of the youthful giant; but for any thing like once committed. They are immediately set to work at a full and faithful biography, or even fragment of bio- some trade, and in case they have been brought up to none, graphy, likely to be long referred to as a standard and are instructed in some one of the branches which are carauthority, the time has not yet arrived.

ried on in the prison, viz. shoemaking, weaving, brushMr Peter Neilson's volume makes pretensions to no making, coopers, turners, blacksmiths, tailors, painters, such character. It is the volume of a plain sensible man, carpenters, carding, spinning, and whip-making. They who possesses eyes with wbich be sees, and ears with in winter, and continue until six in the evening. They are

commence work at six o'clock in summer, and at daylight which he hears, and who sets down in good and very locked up in separate rooms, which accommodate eight men readable English, all that strikes him as remarkable and each, at nine o'clock in summer, and eight in winter. The peculiar. Belonging himself to the industrious portion prison is kept comfortably warm in cold weather ; aod of society, he professedly writes for those who may look should any prisoner fall sick, the utmost attention and

man.

kindness is paid by physicians who daily visit the prison, shown at times to the bench or council, and the plaintiff and a young surgeon constantly resides in the house. Thé and defendant are sometimes at the point of a battle-royal utmost decency and order is observed in the prison, a keeper before the court-doors. The laws here give too much enand sixteen assistants being constantly on the look-out. couragement to petty suits, and the most trivial occurrences

“ The prisoners receive cocoa and molasses for breakfast, give occasion to a prosecution. The low pettifogging tricks and soup made of shins of beef, &c. for dinner, with plenty practised by many of the lawyers and justices, are only

of potatoes, and once a-week a dinner of pork; their supper equalled by their want of information and arrogance ;= consists of Indian meal porridge and molasses ; many of some of the latter can hardly sign their name, and as for

the workmen who are remarked for industry and sobriety, orthography, few of them know the meaning of the word. are occasionally indulged with a pint of beer. Every in “ To illustrate the matter, I may mention an occurrence ducement is held out to encourage them in good conduct, or two which took place within the scope of my own ob and their sentence is curtailed a fourth

part, provided they servation. My family having suffered much from the ague, have bebaved well, and have earned fifteen dollars per an- and receiving no relief from the principal doctor in the vilnum. An account is opened with each prisoner, who re- Lage, I was iuformed by a neighbour, that a Quaker doctor, ceives credit for his earnings, and at the end of his confine who resided a few miles in the country,

was much famed : ment he receives 20 per cent of what sum may be at his cre- for curing the ague, and made a rule of charging nothing

dit, deducting his expenses; the balance goes towards the if unsuccessful; in despair almost, I applied to this infallisupport of the institution. In certain cases, the prisoner's ble physician, but, in case of mistakes, made an agreement family are allowed to receive his earnings while in prison. that he should not charge me over five dollars, even if It is no uncommon thing for a prisoner to leave this place successful. After a few visits from this gentleman, I with 150 dollars in his pocket to begin the world with : found matters getting worse, as he evidently displayed they generally emigrate to some part of the country where the utmost ignorance of his profession; and the whole they are unknown, and many of them have turned out of his secret seemed to consist in administering most un good members of society, after having gone through the conscionable doses of common charcoal to my wife, who ordeal of the state prison. A chaplain attends to the esta was his chief patient. Being apprehensive that this mode blishment, and such of the prisoners as are ignorant, receive of treatment would end in nothing good, I gave him as instruction in reading. A specimen of the convictions, for civil a hint as possible, that no more of his medicine would one year, may be given--viz. 173 Americans, 15 Irish, be swallowed. A few days after this, without tirst de 13 English, 1 Scot, 1 Frenchman, 1 German, 3 Nova Sco- manding it, he sent me an account through the hands of tians, 3 West Indians, 1 Portuguese, 1 Swede, and I Dutch- a constable for fifteen dollars; and this appendage of justice

delivered me a summons at the same time, to appear before

the Squire.' Being well aware that I would receive any Passing from man to an animal of an inferior descrip- thing but fair play at such a court, (for I had observed tion, we beg to introduce to the attention of our readers previously, that a verdict is almost invariably given against THE POLECAT, OR SKUNK.

a stranger, especially if he be defendant,) I took a young

lawyer along with me, and upon our entering the court, “ I cannot help taking notice of a small animal which is found the justice, with my friend the doctor, each seated frequently to be met with here, namely, the polecat, or, as upon a chair, with their legs upon another, smoking most the Americans appropriately term it, the skunk. When socially. The justice having called the case, handed me a dosely pursued, the chief defence of this creature consists in copy of the account, and merely asked if the doctor had its possessing from nature the instinctive faculty of wetting attended upon my family. Having assented to this, he its tail, (not with agua pura, at all events,) by flourishing said, “ Why, then, what is the use of saying any more about which all around it with wonderful celerity, it besprinkles it?' I will enter judgment against you.'— Not so fast, its enemies, of every description, with a liquid, the effluvium friend,' answered I, • if you please; this gentleman agreed of which is the most abominable to be imagined. I once, to charge me a much less sum than what is specified in his , in company with a young man, gave chase to one of these account, even if he had fulfilled his engagement; and I can animals in Long Island, which at length took refuge be- bring you witnesses in a few minutes, who can bear ample neath the stamp of a decayed tree, and immediately com testimony to the truth of this.'-'No, no,' said his honour, menced offensive operations. In a few seconds, my friend. I want no proof whatever ; my mind was made up on the and I discovered the native we had to deal with, and re. subject yesterday.! My friend the lawyer attempted to say, a treated as speedily as possible from the scene of action; but few words, but without effect. Having left the office, I said to retreat from an odour the most villainous in nature, to the young attorney, ' And must I really be obliged to pay which adhered to our clothes and to our persons, was im- such an exorbitant charge, with expenses, to this rascally possible. Before entering our lodging, we were under the quack, for a few ounces of charcoal ? I would much rather give necessity of casting off a considerable part of our apparel; it to the hospital in Philadelphia-Is there no remedy?' The but in spite of all that soap and water could do, and our young gentleman, having then mused a little, said, "Why, I having recourse to the aid of perfumes more congenial to the olfactory nerves of civilized mankind, for several days out of the money for a few years; I will enter an appeal

can easily put you on a plan of at least keeping that fellow did the vile scent of the skunk predominate. A terrier dog for you to the Court of Doyleston—the capital of the county which assisted in our hunt, and received the greater part of and appear for you at the proper time, as you mention the skunk-water, did nothing for some days but roll in the that you intend removing to Carolina in winter, so you can mud, rub himself upon the grass, and use every method in just pay me the money, and I guess it will cost bim some his power to get rid of the odious flavour. I have heard it trouble to take it out of my fingers.' No one can appreasserted, and by no means doubt the truth of the affirma- ciate talents and honourable feeling in gentlemen of the pro tion, that the smell of the skunk has been known to reach fession of physic more than myself; and I do think that to the distance of two iniles.”

they are truly deserving of a fair and just recompense for In many of his remarks on the different classes of the their services; but to suffer such imposition from a quack, American community, Mr Neilson is at once smart and merely because I was a Scotsman, went against my con

science; so of two evils I chose what I deemed the least, lively, without, however, exhibiting any symptoms of na- and paid over the amount to the young lawyer, leaving him tional bigotry. We have been, in particular, not a little and the infallible doctor to settle the matter at their conveamased with the following graphic sketch of the pecu- nience. I am thus particular on this subject, as it may liarities of at least some of the

serve to show how matters are conducted here in law

affairs. AMERICAN COUNTRY JUSTICES.

“ I recollect a circumstance which afforded me not a In the country towns of America, there are generally little amusement. It was the case of a young man of the two or three justices of the peace, and an attorney or two. village, who got • half-seas over' one day, and, either through These justices, or judges, (in fact, they are both judge and mischief or accident, had shot an honest woman's pig; she jury,) as may well be imagined, are not men who have much had him instantly arrested, and brought before one of the Law at their finger-ends. In almost all cases, they subsist justices. As near as I can remember, the following colo: chiefly by following some mechanical trade, and not un- loquy took place. The judge was a Quaker and a mechanic: frequently the dignity of village . Squire' is conjoined with * Justice. Well, Jane, what hast thee to say against the more humble, but probably as useful occupation, of car. neighbour Bill, here? penter or shoemaker. They most commonly give a verdict .Plaintiff. Say? Why, I've too much to say about the in favpur of the plaintiff. It is well worth one's while to waggabone; would you believe it, the good-for-nothing felattend one of these courts. Little reverence, indeed, is I lor has killed my pig, without no manner of provocation !

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"" Justice. And did thee not want thy pig slain, friend evening, and continued till after two o'clock next morning. Jane?

The whole atmosphere seemed to be one mass of blue flame, Plaintiff: No; I guess my pig would have fed five attended with a strong sulphureous smell; the rattling of hundred weight come Christmas. I calculate I had good the thunder seemed quite lost in the more awful and uncomfeed for the poor thing; but that there Bill, the low fellow, mon noise produced by the wind, which, in occasional shot him. I guess he would be none the worse of a good gusts, carried every thing before it with inconceivable fury. spanking with a clever stick.

It would then seem lulled for a few minutes, as if collecting Justice. Peace, Jane, peace, we shall find law for thee fresh strength, and in a moment burst forth like a volcano. we shall find law for thee, woman, I say; but be not vio- The crashing of houses and chimneys, and the rattling of lent against Bill.-Why did thee slay that pig of Jane's, tiles, bricks, and timber, rushed down the streets with a Bill?

noise hardly to be imagined; while in most houses both Bill. Why, Squire, I expect that I was shooting at windows and shutters were carried in like sheets of paper, a mark on the fence, when that dar'nt porker poked his and the rain literally fell in torrents. Amid all this connose too near the mouth of my rifle, and I being slewed a fusion, the shrieks and cries of the

wounded and terrified bit, I guess be was shot.

inbabitants were most appalling. The effects produced by Justice: Why, then, Bill, you must pay Jane the price the violence of the wind is scarcely credible to those who of the pig, and two dollars damages, besides the expense of have not witnessed a similar scene; large trees were broken court.

off within a few feet of the ground, as if cut through with Bill

. No, Sammy, no, 'nation sink me if I do pay a a saw; many wooden houses were fairly overturned with cent of damages! I guess I must pay for the porker, but their contents; and the cupola of a church, which was sehang me, Sammy, if ever I take a shoe from you in my life veral tons in weight, and mostly made of copper, was carif you talk of damages ; I calculate I'll get them cheaper at ried several hundred feet over the tops of high houses, and all events from John B.

lodged in a street which it nearly blocked up. In the “ Justice. Now, friend Jane, since Bill has confessed country, complete lanes were formed through the forests, as his mistake, you must let him pass this time free of damages. it done by art. In one instance in the city, a family, couI guess Bill will treat.

sisting of nine, were all killed excepting the father, who Bill. Why, Sammy, I vow that's clever-I'll treat, had some of his limbs broken, and an infant child, which I swear I will. Come over to Bill S. _'s tavern, and was preserved alive in its cradle, over which a beam bad I calculate we'll have some good sling there, and fix our fallen in such a direction as to prevent the ruins from matters.

crushing it. The whole number of people who perisbed in

Charleston and the surrounding country was nearly five At Charleston, Mr Neilson had an opportunity of in- hundred. Next morning, several vessels were seen outside vestigating pretty fully the condition of the negro popu- the bar, bottom up, and on cutting through the bottom of lation, and his remarks on the subject are temperate and these, a Negro man was found alive, who asked if he was judicious. It is not our intention, however, to enter at

near Savannah ! On Sullivan's Island, the inhabitants, present on this much-canvassed theme. We content our

during such hurricanes, are placed in great jeopardy: the sea selves with making a short extract relative to one pecu- excepting at the fort, where people generally find refuge ;

frequently makes a complete breach over the whole island, liarity in the negro constitution, which ought, at least, but if too late to find their way thither, are left to the mercy to interest the phrenologists :

of the tempest, which has sometimes carried houses and inENVIABLE HARDNESS OF THE NEGRO'S HEAD.

mates fairly out to sea. In attempting to gain the fort,

individuals have been blown into the water.' “ It would appear as if nature had adapted the negroes for working under the rays of a powerful sun. I have re

We take our leave of Mr Neilson's volume, with the peatedly seen negroes bareheaded, lying asleep under the expression of our respect for the good sense and good tem- 4 direct rays of that luminary at mid-day, whilst, at the same per by which it is characterised. time, an European, at least an Englishman, could not have stood in the same place for only a few minutes, without running the risk of a coup de soleil,' or being sun-struck. Nature seems no less lavish in befriending negroes with a

A Review of the Principles of Necessary and Contingent skull of such strength and thickness, as renders that organ Truth, in reference chiefly to the Doctrines of Hume and almost as insensible to the effects of a good hard blow there Reid. Rivingtons. London. 1830. Pp. 222. on, as it seems impervious to the rays of the sun. I have seen two negroes quarrel in the street, run back a few paces This book has appeared forty years too late. Had it from each other, and then, with great force and velocity, been published in the lifetime of Hume, Reid, and Camp bring their heads in contact, causing a noise somewhat akin bell, or even in the earlier days of Dugald Stewart, it to that produced by the sudden rapping together of two

would have produced a deep sensation, and called forth heavy wooden mallets. They have been seen frequently to

the brightest talents on both sides of the Tweed, either to send their cranium through a pretty strong wooden door, with the velocity of a cannon ball(!); and I cannot say whe' assail or to defend its positions. But metaphysics have ther my astonishment or laughter was most excited on see

now ceased to be fashionable. The genius and taste of ing a negro wench take a piece of wood (which I am cer the country have for a time taken quite a different directain I could not have broken with a heavy stamp with my tion; and hence no degree of learning or research, at the foot) by the two ends, and bring it down upon the crown present moment, could succeed in attracting attention to of her head with a sudden jerk, which instantly snapt it in disquisitions on mind and matter, on the generation of two. I have known gentlemen, who have, in the benevo. ideas, the relation of cause and effect, and on the freedom. lence of their hearts, applied their fists in a summary way to the head of a young negro, by way of chastisement, found

of the will. Such studies are now doomed to that peritheir knuckles to have received the worst part of the bar-odical neglect, with which all human pursuits are sure to gain, while the only expression of uneasiness on the part of be visited in the course of every half century, the negro was displayed by a slight scratch or two of the We are informed by the author, that the disquisition head.'

and criticism contained in this work were intended to The space we bave already allotted to Mr Neilson's form part of a larger and more regular treatise on the work will convince him that we wish to impress the pub subjects to which they refer ; a notice which he thinks lic in its favour. We can afford room for only one other necessary, in explanation of that deficiency of plan, and specimen of our author's style :

even of connexion, which he apprehends may strike the

reader, as well as to account for the allusions that occaA HURRICANE AT CHARLESTON.

sionally occur in it to views and doctrines which are but “ Charleston has at different periods suffered greatly from imperfectly unfolded. The essay, in fact, is a mere rethe effects of hurricanes, which generally bappen in the fall view of the leading principles adopted by Mr Hume and of the year. The appearance of the atmosphere, previous Dr Reid as the foundation of their respective systems of to the occurrence of these phenomena, is generally lowering mental physiology, and is, in a great measure, restricted and dull, and people are in some degree prepared for it. “ That which happened in September 1822, was very de

to the language which these writers employed, while restructive in its effects ; 'it came on about ten o'clock in the commending their several tenets to the acceptance of the

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