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Linnean Class and Order. PENTA'NDRIA†, Digy'nia.
Natural Order. UMBELLIFERA‡, Juss. Gen. Pl. p. 218.-Sm. Gram. of Bot. p. 132.—Lindl. Syn. p. 111; Introd. to Nat. Syst. of Bot. p. 4.-Rich. by Macgilliv. p. 463.-Loud. Hort. Brit. p. 517.-Don's Gen. Syst. of Gard. and Bot. v. iii. p. 235.—Mack. F!. Hibern. p. 113.-Hook. Brit. Fl. (4th ed.) p. 408.--Umbellatæ, Linn. ROSALES; sect. ANGELICINE; type, ANGELICACE; subty. ANGELICIDA; Burn. Outl. of Bot. v. ii. pp. 614, 770, 773, & 774.
GEN. CHAR. Flowers nearly regular, imperfectly separated, the innermost more or less abortive. Calyx none. Corolla (see fig. 1.) superior, of 5, equal, inversely egg-shaped, oblong petals, entire or somewhat emarginate, with an inflexed point. Filaments (see fig. 1.) 5, thread-shaped, rather spreading, as long as the petals. Anthers roundish. Germen (see figs. 1 & 2.) inferior, egg-shaped, blunt, slightly compressed, ribbed. Styles in the flower very short, afterwards elongated, spreading, cylindrical, half the length of the fruit, tumid at the base. Stigmas blunt. Floral Receptacle (see fig. 2.) annular, thin, undulated; at first upright, afterwards depressed by the swelling bases of the styles. Fruit egg-shaped, a little compressed, somewhat contracted at the upper part, crowned with the floral receptacle, and permanent, spreading or recurved, styles. Carpels with 5 sharp, somewhat winged, equal ridges, of which the lateral forms a margin. Channels (see fig. 3.) with many vitta. Seed nearly oval. Universal Involucrum few-leaved, or none; partial involucrum of several strap-spear-shaped leaves.
The obsolete calyx; the corolla of 5 inversely egg-shaped, entire or somewhat emarginate petals, with an inflexed point; the oval fruit; the carpels with 5 sharp, slightly winged ridges; and the channels with several vitte; will distinguish this from other genera in the same class and order. This genus is nearly allied to Ligusticum.
One species British.
SILA'US PRATENSIS. Meadow Sulphur-wort. Meadow Pepper-saxifrage. English Saxifrage.
SPEC. CHAR. Leaves thrice pinnate; leaflets strap-spear-shaped, opposite. General involucrum of 1 or 2 leaves, sometimes wanting.
Besser enum. pl. Vohl. p. 43. No. 1367. fide Don.-Gray's Nat. Arr. v. ii. p. 523.-Lindl. Syn. p. 118.-Hook. Brit. Fl. p. 121.-Don's Gen. Syst. of Gard, and Bot. v. iii. p. 319.-Macr. Man. Brit. Bot. p. 101.-Bah. Fl. Bath. p. 20.-Lightf. Fl. Shrop. p. 127.—Luxf. Reig. Fl. p. 25.-Mack. Fl. Hibern. p. 118.-Cnidium Sildus, Spreig. Prod. p. 40.-Sm. Engl. Fl. v. ii. p. 91.-With. (7th edit.) v. ii. p. 373.-Johnst. Fl. Berw. v. i. p. 71.-Winch's Fl. of Northumb. & Durh. p. 20.— Walker's Fl. of Oxf. p. 83.-Irv. Lond. Fl. p. 196.-Cow. Fl. Guide, p. 27.— Peucedanum Silaus, Linn. Sp. Pl. p. 354.—Engl. Bot. t. 2142.-Mart. Fl. Rust.
Fig. 1. A Flower.-Fig. 2. Germen.-Fig. 3. A transverse section of the Fruit.
* A name used by PLINY, for an umbelliferous plant. DoN.
v. i. pt. II. p. 1406.-Sm. Fl. Brit. v. i. p. 305.-Sibth. Fl. Oxon. p. 95.-Abbot's Fl. Bedf. p. 60.-Purt. Midl. Fl. v. i. p. 150.—Relh. Fl. Cant. (3rd edit.) p. 116.— Hook. Fl. Scot. p. 88.-Fl. Devon. pp. 49 & 166.-Mack. Catal. Pl. Irel. p. 28.Sium Silaus, Roth. Fl. Germ. v. i. p. 129.-Legustium Silaus, Duby in DC. Fl. Bot. Gall. v. i. p. 230.-Seseli pratense, Bauh. Pin. p. 162.-Seseli pratense nostras, Ray's Syn. p 216.-Saxifraga anglicana, facie Seseli pratensis, Johnson's Gerarde, p. 1047.
LOCALITIES. In moist meadows and pastures; frequent.
Perennial.-Flowers in August and September.
Root spindle-shaped, wrinkled, blackish on the outside, white within. Herb smooth, dark green. Stem from 2 to 3 feet high, upright, branched, round, striated, leafy, solid, often of a reddish colour near the ground. Leaves twice or thrice pinnate; their leaflets elliptic-spear-shaped, entire ; either undivided, or separated, almost to the base, into 2 or 3 segments of the same shape and size. General Umbels of about seven unequal rays; partial ones small, of from twelve to twenty rays, and upwards. General Involucrum of one or two leaves, frequently wanting; partial Involucrums of several strap-shaped leaves, which are often deep purple or black at the ends. Flowers pale yellow or greenish white, with a thin floral receptacle, at first green, and upright, but as the fruit advances, spreading, depressed, confluent with the broad convex bases of the styles, and assuming their reddish colour. Fruit roundish egg-shaped.
It is a native of humid meadows in most other parts of Europe as well as in Britain; and also in Siberia. The whole plant is foetid when bruised, and has been supposed to give a bad flavour to milk and butter; but Sir J. E. SMITH says cattle certainly do not eat it, except accidently, or in small quantities, sufficient perhaps to have the effect in question. Where this plant abounds in pastures, it may be found partially cropped, though generally left almost entire.
Linn. Class & Order. SYNGENE'SIA†, POLYGA'MIA, ÆQUALIS Natural Order. COMPO'SITE§, tribe, CYNAROCEPHALE, Juss. -Lindl. Syn. pp. 140 & 152; Introd. to Nat. Syst. of Bot. PP. 197 and 200.—Mack. Fl. Hibern. pp. 142 & 154.—Hook. Brit Fl. (4th edit.) p. 410.—COMPO'SITE; subord. CarDUA'CEE; Loud. Hort. Brit. pp. 520 & 521.—Synanthe'REÆ; tribe, CYNAROCEPHALE; Rich. by Macgilliv. pp. 454 & 455.-CINAROCEPHALæ, sect. 1. Juss. Gen. Pl. pp. 171 & 172.—Sm. Gram. of Bot. p. 121.; Engl. Fl. v. iii. p. 334.—SYRINGALES; type, CYNARACEÆ; Burn. Outl. of Bot. pp. 900 & 931.—Compo'sitÆ, Linn.
GEN. CHAR. Involucrum (common calyx) (see fig. 1.) cylindrical, somewhat tumid, imbricated; the outer scales (fig. 1, a.) sinuated, with numerous spines, spreading at the points; the inner generally simple and acute; the innermost (fig. 1, b.) much longer, coloured, polished, strap-shaped, spreading horizontally in a circle, and resembling radiant florets. Corolla compound, uniform, flat; florets numerous, tubular (see figs. 2 & 3.), equal, all on a level, funnel-shaped, perfect; limb in 5 deep, upright segments. Filaments (see fig. 4.) 5, hair-like, very short. Anthers (see fig. 4, a.) in a cylindrical tube, easily separating, each with two deflexed bristles at the base. Germen (see fig. 4, b.) inversely egg-shaped. Style (see fig. 4, c.) thread-shaped, scarcely extending beyond the anthers. Stigma (see fig. 4, d.) oblong, either divided or entire. Seed-vessel none but the unaltered calyx. Seed conical, roughish, blunt. Pappus (see fig. 4, e.) feathery. Receptacle (see fig. 6.) flat, beset with strap-shaped, chaffy scales, which are split at the top into many bristle-like segments (see fig. 7).
The imbricated, tumid involucrum, with the outer scales spinous, and the inner coloured, polished, and resembling a ray; the feathery pappus; and the chaffy receptacle; will distinguish this from other genera, with a corolla formed of all tubular florets, in the same class and order.
One species British.
CARLI'NA VULGARIS. Common Carline-thistle. Common Carline.
SPEC. CHAR. Stem many-flowered, corymbose, cottony. Leaves spear-shaped, unequally spinous and sinuated, downy beneath.
Engl. Bot. t. 1144.-Linn. Sp. Pl. p. 1161.; Fl. Suec. p. 282.-Huds. Fl. Angl. (2nd edit.) p. 355.-Willd. Sp. Pl. v. iii. pt. III. p. 1696-Sm. Fl. Brit. v. ii. p. 857.; Engl. Fl. v. iii. p. 397.-With. (7th edit.) v. iii. p. 917.-Gray's Nat. Arr. v. ii. p. 440.-Lindl. Syn. p. 154.-Hook. Brit. Fl. p. 353.-Macr. Man. Brit. Bot.
Fig. 1. A Flower; a. outer scales of the involucrum; b. innermost scales of ditto. Figs. 2 & 3. Separate Florets.-Fig. 4. Stamens and Pistil; a. anthers; b. germen; c. style; d. stigma; e. a single ray of the pappus.-Fig. 5. A Seed, with its pappus.-Fig. 6. Section of the Receptacle, showing the chaff, &c.Fig. 7. One of the chaffy Scales of the Receptacle.
* Contracted from CAROLINA, from tradition that the plant was shown by an angel to CHARLEMAGNE, as a remedy for the plague, which prevailed in his army. See folio 27, a.
+ See folio 91, n. t.
See folio 147, n. t.