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IN presenting a THIRD EDITION of this work to the Public, the Author can have no occasion to expatiate on the interesting Nature of its Subjects, or on the Utility of his Plan. A BIOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL LIBRARY, in the form of a Dictionary, and in the compass of a single volume, challenges the respect of every Lover of Literature. It is obviously designed to answer the purpose of an easy and satisfactory reference on all points of enquiry, connected with BIOGRAPHY, CHRONOLOGY, AND HISTORY.

In drawing up the various articles, considerable pains have been taken to introduce every prominent and characteristic event and circumstance. The works of eminent Writers have been carefully enumerated, and their best editions specified; the distinctive merits of Artists have been pointed out, and their principal productions mentioned; and the most remarkable events in the lives of more active characters, as in those of Sovereign Princes, Warriors, and Statesmen, have been perspicuously narrated, and the dates affixed and determined with scrupulous exactness. studied plainness of style has been adopted, as suitable to the nature of the work; and it may be safely affirmed, that in no single article has any attempt been made to give a distorted or partial colouring to the character delineated. TO THIS THIRD EDITION the Author has annexed a reference to the Authority of each article; an addition, the value of which will be felt by every Man of Letters.


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The author has endeavoured to render his work COMPLETE, by inserting every interesting name and event likely to be sought for in a collection of this kind; and although he cannot presume that there are not many defects and omissions, yet it will be obvious on comparison, that this work now contains from two to three thousand articles more than are to be found in any similar work in the English, or perhaps in any other language.

Observing, with regret, the great number of distinguished names which have been passed over by preceding Biographers, he has diligently employed himself in rescuing a considerable number of those names from neglect and oblivion. Ile has not contented himself with barely gleaning from all other Dictionaries, but has sought in every respectable quarter for memoirs of departed excellence. Many single memoirs and fugitive pieces, and many scarce tracts and voluminous periodical publications, have in the preparation of the NEW EDITION been sedulously examined,

The additional articles will be found to be very numerous and important, especially of modern characters; and it is hoped that, in the accuracy of narrative and impartiality of delineation, the most essential duties of a biogapher have been faithfully discharged.

For the numerous valuable communications which the Author has received from various correspondents, and literary friends, and by which he has been enabled consider ably to enrich the present edition, he begs leave to return his most grateful acknowledgments.

London, December, 1806,

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AARON, the elder brother of Moses, was born about A. M. 2434. He accompanied his brother in all his interviews with Pharaoh, and afterwards assisted him in the government of the Israelites. But he was guilty of a great error in complying with the idolatrous disposition of the people, and making them a golden calf, which they worshipped as their God. Notwithstanding this, the Almighty ordained that the priesthood should be confined to Aaron and his sons, which occasioned discontent among the people. Aaron enjoyed the of fice of high priest till old age compelled him to resign it to his son Eleazar. He soon afterwards died on Mount Hor.-SS.

AARON, a British saint, who suffered martyrdom with his brother Julius in Dioclesian's persecution. Their bodies were interred at Caerleon, the metropolis of Wales.-Biog. Br.

AARON, a physical writer of the 7th cen tury. He wrote in Syriac several treatises on medicine, entitled the Pandects, of which there are no remains. He was the first author who described the small-pox and measles-Moreri


AARON (Schaschon), a learned rabbi, who wrote the Law of Truth, Venice, 1631, folio.-Moreri.

AARON the Caraite, a Jewish physician at Constantinople, in 1294. He wrote a commentary on the Pentateuch, printed at Jena, 1710. There was another of the same name who wrote a Hebrew grammar, printed at Constantinople, 1581.—Ibid.

AARON (Hacharon i. e. Posterior, to distinguish him from the preceding), born in Nicomedia, in 1946. He wrote a book on the Jewish doctrines and customs, called the Garden of Eden.-Ibid.

AARON (Levite), of Barcelona, wrote 617 precepts on Moses, printed at Venice 1523; died 1292.—Moreri.

AARON (Ben Chaim), an African Jew, of Morocco, who wrote some treatises on the scriptures, which were printed at Venice, A. D. 1609.—Ibid.

AARON (Ben Aser), a learned rabbi, to whom some have attributed the invention of the Hebrew points and accents, in the 5th century. He is the author of a Hebrew grammar, printed 1515.-Ibid.

AARSENS (Francis), lord of Someldyck, in Holland. He became agent for the United States at Paris, in the reign of Henry IV., who raised him to the rank of nobility. But after fifteen years residence in France, he was recalled and employed as ambassador to several other powers. In 1620, he was sent to England; and again in 1641, to negotiate the marriage of the prince of Orange, with a daughter of Charles I. In 1624, he went again to Frauce, and was much esteemed by cardi-` nal Richelieu. He died very old, leaving a son immensely rich.-Bagle

AARSENS, or AERSENS (Peter), a cele brated painter, born at Amsterdam, in 1519. He painted a fine altar-piece, representing the crucifixion, at Antwerp, which was destroyed in an insurrection in 1566, He died in 1585, and left three sons, all eminent painters.-Houbraken.

AARTGEN, or ACRTGEN, an eminent B

painter, born at Leyden, in 1493. He was at first a wool-comber, but turning his attention to painting, became so distinguish ed, that Francis Floris went to Leyden on purpose to see him, and finding him in a mean hut, promised him a handsome maintenance if he would settle at Antwerp, which he refused. He was drowned in a drunken frolic, in 1564.-Pilkington.

infant, his mother sent him to Geneva, to prevent his being brought up in the Rom ish persuasion. For this she was confined in the castle of Somieres; and did not arrive at Geneva till two years after her son. She gave him an excellent education, which he repaid by his improvement. Having fi nished his studies, he went to Holland and England, and in the latter country formed an intimacy with sir Isaac Newton. King William wished him to settle here, but filial affection recalled him to Geneva,where in 1726 he was admitted a citizen, and appointed librarian. In 1780 he published an improved edition of Spon's History of Geneva. He died in 1767. His writings in defence of christianity are very valuable. the-Sennebier's Hist. of Geneva.

ABA, or ALBON, crowned king of Hungary in 1042, after defeating Peter, surnamed the German. He involved his country in perpetual wars, and cruelly oppressed his subjects, who put him to death in 1044-Mod. Un. Hist.

ABAKA-KHAN, eighth emperor of the mogols of the race of Zingis, succeeded his father Hulagu in 1264. He defeated king of Bokharia and the Egyptians, who had invaded his dominions. He died in 1282 D'Herbelot.

ABANO, Peter de, see ArONO.

ABARIS, a personage of antiquity, concerning whom there is more fable than truth. One author says, that the world being visited with the pestilence, the oracle required that the Athenians should offer prayers for all other nations, on which various countries sent ambassadors to Athens, among whom was Abaris the Hyperborean. His learning and accomplishments are spoken of highly by several writers, but from what country he came is an undecided question. Some say he was a Scythian, and a modern makes the hyperborean countries to be the western islands of Scotland. The Greeks say that he rode through the air on a sacred arrow, which he gave to Pythagoras, in return for the instructions he received from that philosopher.-Herodotus. Bayle.

ABAS (Schah), the Great, 7th king of Persia, ascended the throne in 1585. With the assistance of the English, in 1622, he took Ormus from the Portuguese. He died in 1629. He was the first who made Ispahan the capital of Persia.-Mod. Un. Hist.

ABAS (Schah), great-grandson of the preceding, began to reign in 1642. He was a tolerant prince, being used to say," that God alone was lord of men's consciences;" and that "it was his duty to watch over the government of his country, and to administer justice with impartiality to all his subjects of every persuasion." He died in 1666, aged 37.-Ibid.

ABASSON, an impostor, who pretended to be the grandson of Abas the Great, king of Persia. On visiting Constantinople, he was taken notice of by the grand seignior, but being discovered, was beheaded.-Gen. Biog. Dict.

ABATE (Andrea), a painter of fruit and still life, was born at Naples, and employed by the king of Spain. He died in 1732. -Pilkington.

ABAUZIT (Firmin), born at Usez in J679. His father dying when he was an

ABBADIE (James), an eminent divine, was born at Nay, in Bearn, in 1658. He took the degree of D.D. at Sedan, and was afterwards made minister of the French church at Berlin. In 1688, he accompanied mareschal Schomberg to England with the prince of Orange, and was with that great man when he fell at the battle of the Boyne. On his return to London, he was appointed minister of the French church in the Savoy; and not long after promoted to the deanry of Killaloe, in Ireland. He died in London, in 1727. His chief work is a "Treatise of the Truth of the Christian Religion,” 1684.—Biog. Brit.

ABBAS (Halli), or Magus, being one of the magi, a Persian physical author, who flourished in the 10th century. A treatise of his, entitled "The Royal Work," is still extant.-D'Herbelot.

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