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1. 26. à contre-temps, \at cross purposes '.

1. 29. chantent déjà à tue-tête les buveurs, where tipplers are already bawling '; à tue-tête = with head-killing (noise).

1. 32. se multiplier, 'bustle about,' to seem to be in several places at once, i.e. to be more than one person.

1. 33. giannine (Ital.), 'maids,' pl. of giannina.

PAGE 90. 1. 5. vitres, 'window panes,' from Lat. vitrum (or rather from pl. vitra mistaken for sing. of ist decl. fem.); its doublet is verre, glass, which is masc.

1. 6. de commande, "prescribed,' 'which is part of the programme'. 1. 7. des mousquetades à poudre, blank cartridges'. 1. 10. à l'abri d'un coup de main, 'beyond reach of a sudden attack'. 1. 19. fait l'appel aux cavaliers, 'sounds the cavalry call’.

1. 30. dont la plaine se hérisse, with which the plain is now bristling'. Hérisser is derived from hérisson a hedge-hog, originally ériçon, from Lat. cricionem, dim. of ericius.

PAGE 91. 1. 11. lui-même, on le voit, for on le voit lui-même, in order to emphasize the pronoun.

1. 17. un madrigal à coups de canon, 'a madrigal composed of cannon-shots'.

1. 26. bat aux champs, beats a salute'; a beat of the drum by which troops are summoned to come out in the open (aux champs) to salute an officer.

1. 40. il la fallait d, war was needed for'. Obs. that il faut, il fallait, require the acc. of the thing and the dat. of the person.

PAGE 92. 1. 9. les neuf cents hommes ; obs. cent, when two or more hundreds are spoken of, takes the mark of the plural if not followed by another numeral ; similarly with vingt.

1. 14. s'ébranle, 'sways forward’; s'ébranler, to stagger, or totter, is used to convey the idea of a mass beginning to move.

II. 1. 27.

elle en revint, 'she began again'; lit. she came back from it,' i.e. from this state of prostration.

PAGE 93. 1. 9. c'est toujours ça de gagné, it is at all events so much to the good'. Obs. the gen. after ça (cela); this construction we find also with rien, quoi ; cp. p. 16, 1. 3.

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C. P.

1. 13. cela vous va-t-il ? does that suit you?' vous is dat.

Buon viaggio (Ital.), 'a pleasant journey to you '=if not, then good. bye!

1. 15. enferré, 'entangled'; enferrer, der. from fer (Lat. ferrum), is to run through with a sword; it is used here figuratively.

1. 23. ils eurent beau, 'well might they'=in vain did they.

1. 26. bêtes de charge, de selle et de båt, 'beasts of burden, saddle and pack-horses'. Båt from Low Lat. bastum.

1. 31. défiant, eluding,' lit. setting at defiance.

1. 34. voitures foraines, ' hawkers' carts'. Fo ain from Lat. foraneus, that which is from foras (outside), foreign.

1. 38. auvent de toile goudronnée, tarpaulin awning'.

PAGE 94.

1. 29.

1. 18. de même (manière, understood), ' in the same way?.

un bougeoir, a bed-room candlestick '; derived from hougie, a wax-candle, so called from the town of Bougie in Algeria where they were made. Some prefer to derive it from bouger, to move.

1. 33. couple, a married couple, is masc., also when it means two beings animated by a common interest ; it is fem. when signifying simply two.

i. 34. pardonnez à ma question, 'allow me to ask you'. Pardonner à is said of things only in cases when the agent is more present to the mind than the thing done.

PAGE 95.

1. 6. deux pièces à saint Jean-Baptiste, 'two crown pieces with the effigy of St John the Baptist,' ten francs of French money.

1. 9. vous ne devez pas être gênante, ‘you cannot be much in the way’; gêner is derived from gêne, trouble, which originally meant 'torture,' contracted from gehenna, the place of torment.

1. 22. n'en peuvent plus, "are dead beat'. Losca and Zoppa are the names of the mules.

1. 27. un simple sequin de Venise..., ' a single Venetian sequin (about jos.) is worth more than a double Genoese parpaiole' (a coin of small value). Prov. equivalent to a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush'.

1. 34. tant bien que mal, “as best she could,' lit. "partly well, partly ill’.

PAGE 96. 1. 17. débiter, 'to sell (by retail)'; débit, from Lat. debitum, is a doublet of dette ; the verb débiter is used for retail trade in necessaries of life.

s'emportent, 'hurry,' start off with a rush'. When used of persons s'emporter means to let oneself be carried away by one's temper, to fly into a passion.

1. 18. des tessons, 'fragments,' ‘potsherds'; from Lat. testonem, dim. of testum, clay, then clay vessel, then fragment. 1. 28.

en guise de, .by way of'; guise, manner, way (A. S. wise). 1. 39. marchant sur les bas-côtés du chemin, 'keeping along the edges of the road'; bas-côtés=' lower sides,' sloping towards the ditch.

PAGE 97.

1. 16. lui fit ouvrir les yeux ; obs. lui, not la ; faire ouvrir has the force of a transitive verb=to open, just as faire voir=to show, faire savoir=to announce; accordingly we have the person in the dat. and the thing in the acc. Cp. p. 42, 1, 28.

1. 37. de quoi gronder, 'grounds for scolding'; de quoi='wherewith'.

1. 38. pourvu qu'elles n'aient pas, lit. 'provided they have not '='I trust they have not taken advantage of my sleep'.

PAGE 98.

1. 4. figura le signe de la croix, crossed himself': figura=fit.

1. 9. le petit lever, the early reception'; levée, s. f. = 'levy'. The Eng. use of levée for lever is incorrect, 'hold a levée' should be hold a lever.

1. 26. au rez-de-chaussée, on the ground floor'; compounded of rez (Lat. rasus, on a level with) and chaussée, the road (Lat. calciata sc. via, properly a road trodden down with the heel).

1. 28. la vitre plombée, 'the latticed window'. The fem. gender of vitre seems to indicate that it was derived from vitra (pl. of vitrum) mistaken for a fem. subst. of the first declension.

1. 30. un carreau s'entr'ouvrit, 'a panel opened a little'; carreau is properly anything square, Old Fr. carrel from Lat. quadratellum, dim. of quadratus.

1. 36. enfoncée dans le mur, 'niched in the wall,' lit. sunk into.

PAGE 99.

1. 8. razza maladetta! (Ital.), 'accursed race!' 1. 17. restez des nôtres, stay and be one of us'; for une des nôtres. 1. 18. drudi ballarini (Ital.), 'smart dancers '. 1. 19. Contadina, an Italian dance.

PAGE 100.

1. 1. cohue, crowd'; verbal subst. of cohuer (to hue and cry together)

1. 38. farandole, an Italian round dance.

1. 40. de bonne volonté, 'willing to join in it,' lit. of (i. e. with) good will’.

PAGE 101. 1. 15. sortie à flots d'Alexandrie, 'which had poured forth from Alexandria’; à flots='with waves'. The dat. is used to form many adverbial expressions of manner, price, etc., e. g. à l'improviste, à toutes jambes, à vil prix, à bras ouverts.

1. 28. sur l'un des plis..., ‘on one of the undulations of this same ground'; sur l'un=sur un, just as si l'on=si on; cp. p. 40, 1. 26.

PAGE 102. 1. 3. le bouquet d'arbres, 'the clump of trees’; bouquet, in Old Fr. bosquet, properly=petit bois, der. from Low Lat. boscum, a wood.

1. 6. au risque des aiguillons, 'notwithstanding the thorns'.

1. 11. lierré rampant, .creeping ivy; lierre, Old Fr. ierre, hierre, from Lat. hedera. In the middle ages people properly said l’ierre, and it was not till towards the 15th cent. that the article became absolutely joined to the subst. so as to form lierre. This noun was then in its turn preceded by another article le lierre. This same corruption is found in the words le lendemain, le loriot, la luette, lors. Compare a similar absorption of the article into the subst. in the English words: nickname, newt, nugget (="an ingot ').

1. 15. qui passementent..., 'which fringe its waters,' i.e. grow on its hanks ; passementer properly is to trim with lace.

1. 33. les a paralysés de l'aile et de la voix, ‘has paralysed them in wing and voice :

Page 103. 1. 21. le terrain débarrassé, 'the ground free (for the moment)': 1. 29. vouloir se faire repousser, “to court a repulse'.

1. 34. lisse..., smooths the plaits on her brow'; der. from Ger. leise, soft.

1. 40. Albane. Francesco Albani (b. 1578, d. 1660) belonged to the Bolognese School founded by the Caracci. In point of original invention he is superior to Domenichino and perhaps to any other of the School ; and in his representations of female forms he has no equal.

PAGE 104. 1. 1. sur une grande toile, on a large painting of a battle'. Toile, 'canvas,' Lat. tela.

1. 2. Salvator Rosa, a Neapolitan (b. 1615, d. 1673), belonged to the Roman School. Savage scenery, Alps, broken rocks and caves, wild thickets, and desert plains, are the kind of scenery in which he chiefly delighted; his trees are shattered, torn and dishevelled; and in the atmosphere itself he seldom introduced a cheerful hue, except occasionally a solitary sunbeam.

...que cette chaste toilette, 'was not this chaste attire...?' Why this redundant que? See p. 76, 1. 1.

1. 8. dans un même essor, lit. at one and the same spring'='all at once'; essor is a verbal subst. from essorer, late Lat. exaureare, 'to balance in air'. 1. 19. reprit le dessus, 'got the upper hand'. Cp. p. 86, 1. 8.

se frayer un chemin, 'force her way through'; frayer, Old Fr. froyer, from the Lat. fricare, to rub.

1. 31. vint à se dissiper, 'at length cleared away! Obs. that, when followed by an infinitive, venir à='to contrive to ', venir de='to have just done.

1. 37. faillit renverser, not manqua de; cp. p. 28, 1. 21. 1. 39. sacrant, 'cursing'; many oaths begin with sacré, .sacred '.

1. 25.

PAGE 105. 1. 17. elle s'y refusa, 'she refused to do so’. Obs. that refuser, when used reflectively, requires the dat. of the indirect object='to oppose oneself'; y='to it'.

III.

1. 21. qu'au milicu d'un groupe..., 'when in the middle of a group which opened out'; que is here used for lorsque.

PAGE 106. 1. 18.

sa femme, his wife'; femme is used colloquially for épouse. 1. 26. embrasé, 'all in a blaze’; embraser, to set on fire, derived from braise, glowing embers; not to be confounded with embrasser, to embrace (in brachia).

PAGE 107. 1. 25.

ce que peut la captivité, 'what captivity can (accomplish)'; pouvoir quelque chose, without faire, is a Latinism.

1. 34. suit d'autres lois que la justice des hommes, 'follows other laws than the justice of men'.

PAGE 108. 1. 2. réseau, “a net-work’; formerly resel, from Lat. reticellum, diminutive of rete.

1. 8. heurtés de front, 'encountered in front'; heurter, lit. to hit, to strike.

IV.

PAGE 109.

1. 7. serres de la Malmaison, the greenhouses of Malmaison’. The Château of Malmaison is about half-way between Paris and St Ger

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