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PAGE 128. 1. 6. d plusieurs reprises, 'several times'. 1. 16. et de vous entendre, “and to come to some understanding'.

1. 21. s'appuyait de la hanche sur sa canne, 'was leaning with the hip on his walking-stick’; hanche (hip, haunch) is of Germ. origin.

1. 23. trouver le mot, 'find the solution,' lit. the key-word.

1. 29. apostille, 'postscript'; from Low Lat. postilla, explanation; the full phrase post illa (verba auctoris) explains its origin.


PAGE 129. 1. 9. de sa part, with his compliments'; cp. p. 67, 1. 11.

1. 13. sur nouveaux frais, .afresh,' over again'; frais, cost, expense, is derived from fractum which was used in this sense in Low Lat.

1. 16. ses archives sur toile, ‘his records on linen'.

PAGE 130. létait venu soutenir for était venu le soutenir ; cp. p. 127,

1. 15. 1. 17.


PAGE 131. 1. 9. dies seminalis, sowing-time’ (French, jour des semailles).

1. 33. ployant sous le faix, 'bending under the burden’; plier, to bend, is applied to substances which offer little or no resistance, while ployer is more generally to bend forcibly. This distinction made by grammarians is somewhat fanciful and is not admitted by Littré.

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1. 13. filet de Vulcain, 'net-work (after the manner) of Vulcan'. To Vulcan were ascribed all the most marvellous master-pieces of workmanship, e.g. the arms of Achilles, the palace of the Sun, Ariadne's crown, etc.

1. 15. au point de l'étouffer, lit. 'to the extent of stilling it'.

1. 38. n'en peut-on guérir? ‘is it impossible to get cured of it?' The primitive sense of guérir is to defend, formerly guarir, originally warir from O. H. G. warjan (Mod. wehren), to defend.


PAGE 134. 1. 12. il ne l'eût pu reconnaître, for il n'eût pu la reconnaître, cp. p. 127, 1. 17 and p. 130, 1. 15. .

1. 15. ses argus, ‘his Arguses'='his spies'. The fabulous Argus whom Juno employed to guard Io, had a hundred eyes, half of which were always open. At the bidding of Jupiter Mercury lulled Argus to sleep and slew him, but Juno metamorphosed him into a peacock and so preserved the eyes of her spy on the tail-feathers of her favourite


PAGE 135.

1. 2. des braves gens, 'good people'; braves gens, jeunes gens, honnêtes gens are regarded as single words and accordingly des is used instead of de which otherwise would be required before an adjective.

1. 32. baiser, 'to kiss,' from Lat. basiare; must not be confounded with baisser to lower, derived from Low Lat. bassus.

PAGE 136. 1. 2. du rôle qu'elle avait du jouer, 'of the part that it must have played,' i.e. ‘of the influence that it must have exerted with the philosopher'.

1. 5. se tiennent, 'stand,' lit. 'hold themselves'.

1.7. l'on se heurte, 'where men jostle each other'. On being a direct derivative of homo, it is easy to understand how it admits the article before it. L'on is in general used to avoid a hiatus and consequently after , si, et, and sometimes after que unless the word which follows on begins with the letter l. Cp. p. 40, 1. 26.

1. 26. une causerie, 'a chat'; derived from the verb causer, to talk, from Lat. causari, to defend a cause, then to discuss, lastly to talk. The other verb causer, to cause or to occasion, is derived from Lat. causa.

1. 35. tous deux, 'both'; tous les deux does not suggest the idea of reciprocity which is conveyed by tous deux.


Page 137.
1. 7. le vent de France, ‘French influence'.

1. 16. donner des gages aux deux partis, 'to commit himself with both sides,' lit. to give pledges to both.

1. 26 roturier, 'a plebeian,' lit. a peasant who holds a roture (Lat. ruptura), i.e. the right to break up and cultivate the soil. Ruptura is tenure by villenage,' opposed to feodum.

1. 34. appliqua un soufflet sur la joue, 'slapped the face'.

PAGE 138. 1. 6. curé, 'incumbent,' parish-priest (holding the cure); vicaire corresponds to our word curate.

1. 10. maladroite, 'ill-judged'; der. from malè ad directum.

1. 17. servait tranquillement la messe..., “he, the poor young agitator, quietly in the village assisted the priest at mass'. Messe from Lat. missa, one of the words of dismissal of the congregation, 'ite, missa est '.

1. 25. on fit de lui, 'they made him out to be,' lit. made out of him.

vu, 'considering'; vu, like excepté, ci-inclus, etc. does not agree with the subst. when placed before it; it is then used as a preposition.

1. 40. purer, v. n.= to parry, parer, v. a.=to adorn; both are der. from Lat. parare, to prepare (for a blow or for a show).

PAGE 139. 1. 24. des versants en pente douce, 'declivities with a gentle slope'.

1. 25. rosages des Alpes, .Alpine rhododendrons'. The Alpen-rose is the rhododendron ferruginosum of botany.

1. 39. Ariens. The Arians were the followers of Arius, a presbyter of the Church of Alexandria, who contended that our Lord was not God in as full a sense as the Father.

PAGE 140. 1. 10. sa Vierge à lui, ‘his own peculiar Madonna'; cp. p. 110, 1. 8. 1. 33. ainsi du reste, and so forth,' lit. ‘and so with all the rest'.

1. 40. quiétistes, 'quietists,' religious dreamers who hold that religion consists in repose of the mind and passive contemplation of the Deity.

PAGE 141. 1. 8. atteignit au sommet, 'reached the summit'; here atteindre is used as an intransitive verb.

1. 21. un foyer..., 'a fire-place, constantly supplied with fuel'. 1. 37. rouets, 'spinning-wheels'; rouet dim. of roue, Lat. rota.

PAGE 142. 1. 7. ménétriers, 'fiddlers'; formerly menestrier, der. from Lat. ministerarius; just as menestrel, minstrel, from Lat. ministrale, properly a servant in mediæval Lat. (Brachet, Etym. Fr. Dict.).

1. 29. si le restant de compte est de notre côté, 'if the balance is in our favour'.

PAGE 143. 1. 20. que celle...; 'we should have a complete history to relate were we to tell all the means he had to employ'. For the presence of this que, see p. 76, 1. 1.

1. 23. vaudra peut-être dêtre dite, 'will probably be worth telling some day'.


PAGE 144. 1. 9. après s'être rapidement raconté les principaux événements; here s' is the dat. and means to each other.

1. 22. que ce foyer d'indulgence..., 'that such warmth of forbearance and tenderness for mankind could thus have been kept up in spite of'.

1. 33. de bonne foi, 'perfectly honest.

1. 35. qui de nous n'en a eu besoin? which of us has not had need of it?' Pas and point are suppressed elegantly in similar interrogations implying a negative answer; as also in a sentence connected with a negative statement by que, qui, or dont: Ex. il n'y a personne qui ne le


PAGE 145. 1. 19. au moyen d'un tour, 'by means of a revolving box'. 1. 24. quelle privation is here the acc.

1. 27. de notre main, with our hand'. Obs. de is used in French where we use with in English and par corresponds to our by, except aster passive verbs expressing a state rather than an action, e. g. 'orné de tableaux; trompé par son ami; aimé de ses enfants'.

PAGE 146. 1. 25. jeté comme attache entre deux bastions, erected to connect two bastions'.

1. 29. qu'atteignait mon regard, for que mon regard atteignait.

1. 35. la saillie de sa giberne, “the projection occasioned by his cartridge-box'.

Page 147. 1. 6. la sentinelle, “the sentinel’; fem. because of that gender in Ital. sentinella, from which it is derived ; so also une vigie, a look-out man, une estafette, an express messenger.

1. 9. rien qu'à leur silhouette, 'merely by their profile'. Silhouette, of historic origin; a kind of portrait in profile which came in fashion when M. de Silhouette was Finance Minister under Louis XV.

1. 35. au milieu de ces épanchements, 'in the midst of these effu. sions,' i.e. notwithstanding them.

PAGE 148.

1. 4. la chaire d'instruction, the professorial chair'.


1. 12. développait devant lui, explained to him '.

1. 22. dont la détente, “the sudden expansion of which'; détente is a verbal subst. from détendre, to unbend.

Page 149. 1. 6. à défaut de leurs graines, ‘failing their seeds'.

1. 32. d'un seul jet, at one spring,' i.e. at the 'fiat' of the Almighty.

1. 39. les ailes agitées d'un frémissement particulier, 'the wings quivering (lit. agitated) with a peculiar tremulous motion.'

Page 150. 1. 10. à l'aventure, at a venture'. 1. 12. gardez-vous de le croire, 'beware of thinking so'.

1. 24. sa ponte, its eggs'; ponte is a verbal subst. from pondre (Lat. ponere), to lay eggs.

1. 34. vous n'y êtes pas, this is not all,' lit. 'you are not there (yet)'.

Page 151. 1. 1. quelque parti pris, 'some foregone conclusion,' lit. 'some side taken'. Cp. p. 42, 1. 31.

1. 11. un soupir adressé à sa fille, "a sigh at the thought of his daughter'.

i 17. l'essor, “the growth,' lit. 'the springing up'.

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