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granary into which the fruit is gathered; comp. v. 14, and for similar imagery Matt. ix. 37, 38.

(va. This is God's purpose. Ps. cxxvi. 5, 6 promises that the toil of sowing shall be rewarded with the joy of reaping; but in the Gospel the gracious work is so rapid that the sower shares in the joys of harvest. The contrast between His failure in Judaea and His success in Samaria fills Jesus with joy. Christ, not the Prophets, is the Sower. The Gospel is not the fruit of which the 0.T. is the seed; rather the Gospel is the seed for which the O.T. prepared the ground. And His ministers are the reapers; in this case the Apostles.

37. év neuvos. For herein is the saying (proved) a true one, shewn by fulfilment to be a genuine proverb and not an empty phrase. See on v. 23, vii. 28, xix. 35. 'Ev Toúty refers to what precedes (comp. xv. 8, xvi. 30), in your reaping what others sowed (vv. 35, 36).

38. KEKOTTIÓKate. Ye have laboured. The pronouns, as in v. 32, are emphatic and opposed. This will be the rule throughout; sic vos non vobis.

allo. Christ, the Sower; but put in the plural to balance queis. In v. 37 both are in the singular for the sake of harmony; ó o telpwv, Christ; Depifwv, His ministers.

39. Tolloi étr. eis aŭ. Strong proof of the truth of v. 35. These Samaritans outstrip the Jews, and even the Apostles, in their readiness to believe. The Jews rejected the testimony of their own Scriptures, of the Baptist, of Christ's miracles and teaching. The Samaritans accept the testimony of the woman, who had suddenly become an Apostle to her countrymen. The miraculous knowledge displayed by Jesus for a second time (i. 49) produces immediate and complete conviction, and in this case the conviction spreads to others.

40. ^pctw. Kept beseeching (vv. 30, 31, 47). How different from His own people at Nazareth (Matt. xiii. 58; Luke iv. 29) and from the Jews at Jerusalem after many miracles and much teaching (v. 18, &c.). And yet he had uncompromisingly pronounced against Samaritan claims (v. 22). Comp. the thankful Samaritan leper (Luke xvii. 16, 17).

peîval. See on i. 33. They wished him to take up his abode permanently with them, or at least for a time.

42. oủkéTU K.T.N. Note the order: No longer is it because of thy speech that we believe (see on i. 7). Aalia and Wóyos should be distinguished in translation. In classical Greek laliá has a slightly uncomplimentary turn, gossip, chatter.' But this shade of mean. ing is lost in later Greek, though there is perhaps a tinge of it here,

not because of thy talk ;' but this being doubtful, speech' will be safer. S. John uses loyos both for her word (v. 39) and Christ's (v. 41). See on viii. 43, where Christ uses lalıá of His own teaching.

aútol y. ák. For we have heard for ourselves.

αληθώς ο σ. τ. κ. See on i. 48 and 10. It is not improbable that such ready hearers should arrive at this great truth so rapidly. They had the Pentateuch (comp. Gen. xii. 3, xviii. 18, xxii. 18, xxvi. 4), and not being in the trammels of Jewish exclusiveness would believe that the Messiah was not for the Jew alone. The Samaritan gave up less than the Jew when he accepted Christ. It is therefore unnecessary to suppose that S. John is unconsciously giving his own expression (1 John iv. 14) for theirs.


43–54. THE WORK AMONG GALILEANS. Tds 8. f. The two days mentioned in v. 40. These three verses (43—45) form a sort of introduction to this section, as ii, 13 and iv. 1-4 to the two previous sections.

44. aŭtos ydp Kot... This is a well-known difficulty. As in xx. 17, we have a reason assigned which seems to be the very opposite of what we should expect. This witness of Jesus would account for His not going into Galilee: how does it account for His going thither? It seems best to fall back on the old explanation of Origen, that by ‘His own country' is meant Judaea, “the home of the Prophets,' and, we may add, the land of His birth, for centuries connected with Him by prophecy. Moreover, Judaea fits in with the circumstances. He had not only met with little honour in Judaea ; He had been forced to retreat from it. No Apostle had been found there. The appeal to Judaea had in the main been a failure, True that the Synoptists record a similar saying (Matt. xiii. 57; Mark vi. 4; Luke iv. 24) not in relation to Judaea, but to Nazareth, where He had been brought up. But as they record the Galilaean, and S. John the Judaean ministry, it is only natural that a saying capable of various shades of meaning, and perhaps uttered on more than one occasion, should be applied in different ways by them and by S. John. Origen's explanation accounts quite satisfactorily not only for the záp here, but also for the oův in v. 45, which means When therefore He came into Galilee, the welcome which He received proved the truth of the saying; 'Galilee of the Gentiles' received Him whom oi idiol (i. 11), the Jews of Jerusalem and Judaea, had rejected.

45. £v Tŷ coprì. The Passover; but there is no need to name it, because it has already been mentioned in connexion with these miracles, ii. 23. Perhaps these Galilaeans who then witnessed the miracles were the chief of the rolloi who then believed.

46. leev oŮv. He came therefore, because of the previous invitation and welcome: see Introduction, chap. v. 6, c.

Baoilikós. Royal official of Herod Antipas, who though only tetrarch was given his father's title of Baoilets. The word has nothing to do with birth (nobleman' A.V.), nor can we tell whether a civil or military officer is intended. That he was Chusa (Luke viii. 3) or Manaen (Acts xiii. 1) is pure conjecture. Here and in v. 49 the form βασιλίσκος is strongly supported. .

47. átnev... ripura. Comp. vv. 27, 30, 40, 50, and see on xi. 29. The leaving his son was a single act (aor.), the beseeching (vv. 31, 40) was continuous (imp.). For iva see on i. 8. Some scholars think that in constructions like this iva does not mean ‘in order that,' but “that,' and simply defines the scope of the request or command; comp. xi. 57, xvii. 15, 21, xix, 31, 38, xv. 17, 12, xi. 57. Winer, pp. 425, 573.

kataßû. Down to the lake (ii. 12); about 20 miles. See on i. 7.

ñuelle. MÉXXELV here simply means “to be likely' without any further notion either of intention (vi. 6, 15, vii. 35, xiv. 22), or of being fore-ordained (xi. 51, xii. 33, xviii. 32).

48. σημεία κ. τέρατα. Christ's miracles are never mere τέρατα, wonders to excite astonishment; they are “signs' of heavenly truths as well, and this is their primary characteristic. Where the two words are combined onueia always precedes, excepting Acts ii. 22, 43, vi. 8, vii. 36. S. John nowhere else uses tépara: his words for miracles are σημεία and έργα. .

où uri TOTEÚONTE. Strongest negation (v. 14). Ye will in no wise believe : or interrogatively; Will ye in no wise believe ? Comp. où un mlw; xviii. 11. The words are addressed to him (Trpòs aúróv), but as the representative of the many who demanded a sign before believing (see on 1 Cor. i. 22). Faith of this low type is not rejected (x. 38, xiv. 11, xx. 29); it may grow into something better, as here, by being tested and braced (v. 50). But it may also go back into sheer unbelief, as with most of those who were won over by His miracles. The verse tells of the depressing change which Christ experienced in returning from Samaria to the land of Israel.

49. Κύριε. See on v. 11. His words shew both his faith and its weakness. He believes that Christ's presence can heal; he does not believe that He can heal without being present. The words for the child are characteristic: the father uses taidlov, the term of endear. ment; Jesus and the Evangelist use viós, the term of dignity; the servants the more familiar mais.

50. επίστ. τω λόγω. Not yet επίστ. εις αυτόν: but this is an advance on κατάβηθι πριν αποθανείν. .

52. Kop¥ótepov foyev. Literally, got somewhat better; a colloquial expression: kouyos éxels, ‘you are getting on nicely,' occurs as a doctor's expression, Arrian, Diss. Epict. III. X, 13. The father expects the cure to be gradual: the fever will depart at Christ's word, but in the ordinary way. He has not yet fully realised Christ's power. The servants' reply shews that the cure was instantaneous.

éx@ès ópav éßs. Accusative; during or in the seventh hour. Once more we have to discuss S. John's method of counting the hours. (See on i. 39, iv. 6.) Obviously the father set out as soon after Jesus said “thy son liveth" as possible; he ha 20 or 25 miles to go to reach home, and would not be likely to loiter. 7 A.M. is incredible; he would have been home long before nightfall, and the servants met him some distance from home. 7 P.m. is improbable; the servants would meet him before midnight. Thus the modern method of reckoning from midnight to midnight does not suit. Adopting the Jewish method from sunset to sunset, the seventh hour is 1 P.M. He would scarcely start at once in the mid-day heat; nor would the servants. Supposing they met him after sunset, they might speak of 1 P.M. as .yesterday.' (But see on xx. 19, where S. John speaks of the late hours of the evening as belonging to the day before sunset.) Still, 7 P.M. is not impossible, and this third instance must be regarded as not decisive. But the balance here seems to incline to what is antecedently more probable, that S. John reckons the hours, like the rest of the Evangelists, according to the Jewish method.

53. čyvw. Recognised, perceived.

&TOTEUTEV. Els aŭtóv, i.e. as the Messiah: comp. v. 42, i. 7,51, vi. 36, xi. 15, where, as here, TLOTEÚw is used absolutely. The growth of this official's faith is sketched for us in the same natural and inci. dental way as in the cases of the Samaritan woman (v. 19), the man born blind (ix. 11), and Martha (xi. 21).

oikia aú. öln.. The first converted family. Comp. Cornelius, Lydia, and the Philippian gaoler (Acts x. 24, xvi. 15, 34).

54. TOÛTO T. 8. o. This again as a second sign did Jesus, after He had come out of Judaea into Galilee. Once more S. John carefully distinguishes two visits to Galilee, which any one with only the Synoptic account might easily confuse. Both signs confirmed imperfect faith, the first that of the disciples, the second that of this official and his household.

The question whether this foregoing narrative is a discordant account of the healing of the centurion's servant (Matt. viii. 5; Luke vii. 2) has been discussed from very early times, for Origen and Chrysostom contend against it. Irenaeus seems to be in favour of the identification, but we cannot be sure that he is. He says, 'He healed the son of the centurion though absent with a word, saying, Go, thy son liveth.' Irenaeus may have supposed that this official was a centurion, or centurion may be a slip. Eight very marked points of difference between the two narratives have been noted. Together they amount to something like proof that the two narratives cannot refer to one and the same fact, unless we are to attribute an astonishing amount of carelessness or misinformation either to the Synoptists or to S. John.

(1) Here a ‘king's man' pleads for his son; there a centurion for his servant.

(2) Here he pleads in person; there the elders plead for him.

(3) The father is probably a Jew; the centurion is certainly a Gentile.

(4) Here the healing words are spoken at Cana; there at Caper. (5) Here the malady is fever; there paralysis.


(6) The father wishes Jesus to come; the centurion begs Him not to come.

(7) Here Christ does not go; there apparently He does.

(8) The father has weak faith and is blamed (v. 48); the centurion has strong faith and is commended.

And what difficulty is there in supposing two somewhat similar miracles? Christ's miracles were signs;' they were vehicles for conveying the spiritual truths which Christ came to teach. If, as is almost certain, He often peated the same instructive sayings, may He not sometimes have repeated the same instructive acts? Here, therefore, as in the case of the cleansing of the Temple (ii. 13–17), it seems wisest to believe that S. John and the Synoptists record different events.


CHIEFLY JEWS. The Work now becomes a CONFLICT between Christ and the Jews;' for as Christ reveals Himself more fully, the opposition between Him and the ruling party becomes more intense; and the fuller revelation which excites the hatred of His opponents serves also to sift the disciples; some turn back, others are strengthened in their faith by what they see and hear. The Evangelist from time to time points out the opposite results of Christ's work: vi. 60—71, vii. 40–52, ix. 13–41, x. 19, 21, 39—42, xi. 45–57. Three miracles form crises in the conflict; the healing of the impotent man (v.), of the man born blind (ix.), and the raising of Lazarus (xi).

Thus far we have had the announcement of the Gospel to the world, and the reception it is destined to meet with, set forth in four typical instances; Nathanael, the guileless Israelite, truly religious according to the light allowed him; Nicodemus, the learned ecclesiastic, skilled in the Scriptures, but ignorant of the first elements of religion; the Samaritan woman, immoral in life and schismatical in religion, but simple in heart and readily convinced; and the royal official, weak in faith, but progressing gradually to a full conviction. But as yet there is little evidence of hostility to Christ, although the Evangelist prepares us for it (i. 11, ii. 18—20, iii. 18, 19, 26, iv. 44). Henceforth, however, hostility to Him is manifested in every chapter of this division. Two elements are placed in the sharpest contrast throughout; the Messiah's clearer manifestation of His Person and Work, and the growing animosity of the Jews' in consequence of it. The opposition is stronger in Judaea than elsewhere; strongest of all at Jerusalem. In Galilee they abandon Him, in Jerusalem they compass His death. Two miracles form the introduction to two great discourses: two miracles illustrate two dis

The healing at Bethesda and the feeding of the 5000 lead to discourses in which Christ is set forth as the Source and the Support of Life (v., vi.). Then He is set forth as the Source of Truth and Light ; and this is illustrated by His giving physical and spiritual sight to the blind (vii.-ix.). Finally He is set forth as Love under




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