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oủk épwr. Ask no question (v. 19), or Make no petition (see on xiv. 16). The former is better. When they are illuminated by the Spirit there will be no room for such questions as What is this little while ? How can we know the way? Whither goest Thou? How is it that Thou wilt manifest Thyself unto us and not unto the world?' His going to the Father will gain for them (1) perfect knowledge. Althonte must mean 'pray,' not question. Note that the answer (according to the better reading), as well as the prayer (xiv. 13, xv. 16), is in Christ's name; and all such prayers will be answered. His return to the Father will gain for them (2) perfect response to prayer.

24. alteite. Go on asking (present imperative; v. 14, (viii. 11,] xx. 17: contrast Matt. vii. 7; Mark vi. 22) that your joy may be fulfilled, may become complete and remain so (see on iii. 29). His return to the Father will gain for them (3) perfect joy.

25-33. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION OF THESE DISCOURSES. 25. Tauta. As in v, 1 there is some uncertainty as to how much is included. Some refer these things' to vv. 19—24; others to xv. 1–xvi. 24. Perhaps even the latter is too narrow; the words can apply to all Christ's teaching, of which there was much which the multitudes were not allowed (Matt. xiii. 11) and the Apostles were not able (ii. 22) to understand at the time. For itapovulaus see on x. 6, and for tappnola on vii. 13. 'Atayyedw, the better reading, looks to the maker of the announcement, åvayyelw to the recipients of it.

26. With the perfect knowledge just promised they will discern what may be asked in His name (see on xiv. 13): cognitio parit orationem. The oú Néyw does not mean “I need not say, for of course I shall do so;' which does not harmonize with v. 27. The meaning, rather is, that so long as through the power of the Advocate they have direct communion with the Father in Christ's name, there is no need to speak of Christ's intercession. But this communion may be interrupted by sin, and then Christ becomes their Advocate (1 John ii. 1; Rom. viii. 34). Note the emphatic éyú. On épwrâv see xiv. 6.

27. aútós. Without My intercession; vi. 6. We might have expected åyarâ for pilei here (see on xi. 5): but it is a Father's love, flowing spontaneously from a natural relationship as distinct from discriminating friendship. It is their love for the Son which wins the Father's love (xiv. 21, 23). The two pronouns, uueîs čué, are in emphatic contact. The two perfects signify what has been and still continues. No argument can be drawn from the order of the verbs as to love preceding faith: πεφιλήκατε naturally comes first on account of φιλεί just preceding. 'Love begets love'is true both between man and man and between God and man. • Faith begets faith' cannot have any meaning between God and man. For it. Ocoû we should probably read 7. T. matpós (xv. 26). It was because they recognised Him as the Son sent from the Father, and not merely as a man sent from God (i. 6), that they won the Father's love.

on

came

28. Note the change from mapa T. 17. to K T. TT. In v. 27 'I forth from' refers to the temporal mission of Christ from the Father (xvii. 8); here 'I came out from’ includes the Eternal Generation of the Son (viii. 42). This verse would almost form a creed. The Son, of one Substance with the Father, was born into the world, suffered, and returned to the Father.

29. Se vûv év tap. See on i. 29 and vii. 4, 13. 30. oldapev otı oldas. We know that Thou knowest (comp. 2 Cor. xii. 2, 3, where the A.V. is similarly capricious). Christ had spoken in the future tense (v. 25): they speak in the present. They feel that His gracious promise is already coming true. He had shewn them that He had read their hearts (v. 19); like Nathanael (i. 50) and the Samaritan woman (iv. 29, 39), and S. Thomas (xx, 28), they conclude that He knows all.

év toutw. Herein: see on iv. 37. His all-embracing knowledge is that in which their faith has root. The őrı is probably 'that, not because,' as the context and S. John's usage shew: xiii. 35; 1 John ii. 3, 5, iii. 19, 24, v. 2. The disciples đò Đeos implies a less intimate union between the Father and Jesus than either mapà, T: . (v. 27) or ék T. T. (v. 28). Their views of Christ are still very imperfect.

31. äpti TTLOTEVETE; The words are only half a question: comp. i. 51, xx. 29. The belief of which they are conscious is no illusion, but it is far more defective than they in their momentary enthusiasm suppose. "Apti means at this stage of your course:' contrast vûv (vv. 29, 30) and see on ii. 10.

32. (va okop. See on v. 2. This part of the allegory of the sheepfold will be illustrated even in the shepherds themselves (x. 12). Comp. Πατάξω τ. ποιμένα, και διασκορπισθήσονται τ. πρόβατα (Μatt. xxvi. 31). With els T. iSua comp. i. 11, xix. 27 : 'to his own home, property, or pursuits.' 'Afîte depends upon iva; may be scattered and may leave : all this is part of the Divine plan. They must be taught their weakness, and this foretelling of it is, as it were, pardon granted by anticipation.

kal oủk elul. And yet I am not. The 'yet' is implied, as so often in S. John, in the collocation of the sentences: i. 10, 11, iii. 19, 32, vi. 70, vii. 4, 26, viii. 20, ix. 20. As a rule it is best to leave S. John's simple conjunctions to tell their own meaning.

ó Tatrp Het'ệuoù. The Divine background (as it seems to us) of Christ's life was to Him a Presence of which He was always conscious (viii. 29), with the awful exception of Matt. xxvii. 46.

33. elpívny. The purpose of all these farewell discourses (Taūta) is that they may have peace. His ministry ends, as His life began, with this message : étè gộs eipívn (Luke ii. 14).

Oitu éxete. Ye have anguish: not shall have;' the anguish. (v. 21) has already begun.

éyú. With great emphasis. At the very moment when He is face to face with treachery, and disgrace, and death, Christ triumphantly claims the victory. Comp. 1 John ii. 13, 14, v. 4. In His victory His followers conquer also.

CHAPTER XVII.

16.

1. επάρας for επηρε. Οmit και before είπεν and before ο υιός, and omit σου after ο υιός.

3. γινώσκουσιν (ADGLYΔA) for γινώσκωσι: but γινώσκωσιν (NBC) is probably right.

4. τελειώσας (NABCL) for ετελείωσα (D). 11, 12. Q for oüs : oís in v. 12 caused the omission of kal before εφύλαξα, & colon being placed at σου.

oủk elul before ek T. K. (XABCD). The converse arrangement (E) is an imitation of the preceding clause. 19. ώσιν before και αυτοί: comp. υ. 16.

πιστευόντων (NABCD) for πιστευσόντων (alteration to what seemed more in harmony with facts).

21. After èv ruiv omit év (an insertion from the first clause: comp. vv. 11, 22). Confusion between the clauses makes several patristic quotations ambiguous; but the insertion is strongly supported.

22. Omit èo uev at the end of the verse with XBDL against ANS. 24. Πατήρ, ό for Πάτερ, ούς (an obvious correction).

20.

THE PRAYER OF THE GREAT HIGH PRIEST. The prayer which follows the last discourse is unique in the Gospels. The other Evangelists, especially S. Luke, mention the fact of Christ praying (Matt. xiv. 23; Mark i. 35; Luke iii. 21, v. 16, vi. 12, ix. 18, &c.), and give some words of His prayer at Gethsemane; but here the substance of a long act of devotion is preserved. S. John never mentions the fact of Christ praying, but in xii. 27 he perhaps gives us a few words of prayer, and in xi. 41 a thanksgiving which implies previous prayer. There is an approach to the first portion of this prayer in the thanksgiving in Matt. xi. 25, 26.

This ORATIO SUMMI SACERDOTIS falls naturally into three portions; 1. for Himself (145); 2. for the disciples (6-19); 3. for the whole Church (20—26), the last two verses forming a summary, in which the relations of Christ to the Father and to His own, and of His own to both Father and Son are gathered up. The leading thought throughout is the glory of God in the work of Christ and in those who con. tinue it.

All

The prayer was spoken aloud (v. 1), and thus was not only a prayer, but a source of comfort to those who heard it (v. 13), and by its preservation a means of faith and life to all (xx. 31). He had taught by action (xiii.) and by discourse (xiv.—xvi.); now He teaches by prayer. No doubt it was spoken in Aramaic, and we have here also, as in the discourses, no means of determining how far the Greek version preserves the very words, how far only the substance, of what was spoken. We must take it reverently as it has been given to us, and we shall find abundant reason for believing that on the one hand it quite transcends even the beloved disciple's powers of invention; on the other that there is nothing in it to make us doubt that this report of it is from his pen. “It is urged that the triumphant elevation of this prayer is inconsistent with the Synoptic account of the Agony. But the liability to fluctuations of feeling and emotion is inherent in humanity, and was assumed with His manhood by Him Who was perfect man” (Sanday). human experience bears witness in common life to the naturalness of abrupt transitions from joy to sadness in the contemplation of a supreme trial. The absolute insight and foresight of Christ makes such an alteration even more intelligible. He could see, as man cannot do, both the completeness of His triumph and the suffering through which it was to be gained” (Westcott). The three characteristics of the Gospel, simplicity, subtlety, and sublimity, reach a climax here. Bengel calls this chapter the simplest in language, the profoundest in meaning, in the whole Bible. All is natural, for it is a son speaking to a father; all is supernatural, for the Son is the Lord from heaven.

The place where these words were spoken is not stated. If the view taken above (xiv. 31) is correct, they were spoken in the upper room, after the company had risen from supper, in the pause before starting for the Mount of Olives (xviii. 1). Westcott thinks that “the upper chamber was certainly left after xiv. 31," and that as “it is inconceivable that chap. xvii. should have been spoken anywhere except under circumstances suited to its unapproachable solemnity,” these would best be found in the Temple Courts. Here was the great Golden Vine, to suggest the allegory of the Vine (xvi. 1-11), and “nowhere could the outlines of the future spiritual Church be more fitly drawn than in the sanctuary of the old Church.” It is perhaps slightly against this attractive suggestion, that surroundings so rich in meaning would probably have been pointed out by a writer so full of feeling for dramatic contrasts and harmonies as the writer of this Divine Epic (comp. iii. 2, iv. 6, xx. 22, xiii. 30, xviii. 1, 3, 5, 28, 40, xix. 23—27, 31–42).

1-5. THE PRAYER FOR HIMSELF,

The Son was sent to give to men eternal life, which consists in the knowledge of God. This work the Son has completed to the glory of the Father, and therefore prays to be glorified by the Father.

1. égápas. As before the raising of Lazarus (xi. 41), Jesus looks heavenwards in calm confidence as to the issue (xvi. 33). The attitude is in marked contrast to His falling on His face in the garden (Matt. xxvi. 39). Els t. oúp. does not prove that He was in the open air: comp. Acts vii. 55; Luke xviii. 13.

Trátep. This is His claim to be heard: the prayer throughout is the prayer of a son. Comp. 'Abba, Father' in Mark xiv. 36, and see Lightfoot on Gal. iv. 6. For şi üpa see on ii. 4 and xii. 23. S. John loves to mark each great crisis in Christ's life: this is the last.

Só£acov. By His return to glory (v. 5); so that His human nature might share the Divine attributes, and thus glorify the Father by continuing with higher powers in heaven the work which He has completed on earth. Comp. Phil. ii. 9–11. The tone from the first is one of triumph.

2. kaows twkas. Even as thou gavest (iii. 35) Him authority (i. 12) over all flesh. The authority was given once for all (v. 27), and is the reason for the petition in v. 1. IIâoa cápß is a Hebraism not used elsewhere in this Gospel. Comp. Matt. xxiv. 22; Luke iii. 6; Acts ii. 17; Rom. ii. 20, &c. Fallen man, man in his frailty, is specially meant; but the Second Adam has dominion also over all sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field, the fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea.' Ps. viii. 7, 8. In the following texts all flesh’includes the brute creation; Gen. vi. 19, vii. 15, 16, 21, viii, 17, ix. 11, 15, 16, 17; Ps. cxxxvi. 25; Jer. xxxii. 27, xlv. 5. Once more, therefore, Jewish exclusiveness is condemned. The Messiah is King of 'all flesh,' not of the Jews only. For the casus pendens comp. vi. 39, vii. 38, xv. 2. Note the change from neut. sing. to masc. plur. in what follows: in order that all that Thou hast given Him, He should give to them eternal life. Believers are given to Christ as a united whole; they earn eternal life as individuals: comp. v. 24, i. 11, vi. 37.

3. aütn Sé. But the life eternal (just mentioned) is this : 'is' not will be' (see on iii. 36, v. 24, vi. 47, 54); and 'is this' means “this is what it consists in' (iii. 19, xv. 12). The truth of man's religion depends on his conception of God. For iva after oŮtos comp. vi. 29, 39, 49, 50, xv. 12; 1 John iii. 11, 23, v. 3; 2 John 6.

{va yuváokovoiv. The present indicative after iva is surprising, but not very rare in late Greek: comp. 1 Cor. iv. 6; Gal. iv. 17: Winer, p. 362. The future is comparatively common; Gal. ii. 4. There is no need to give iva a local as distinct from a final meaning in such constructions; 'where' or 'in which case' instead of 'in order that.' The meaning is rather that ye may continue to recognise, as you do now.' But ywúo kovoLv, though adopted by Tischendorf and Tregelles, is rejected by Westcott and Hort, who retain yıÁo Kwol with Alford and the Revisers. (Westcott and Hort adopt dável for dúon in v. 2.) It is the appropriation of the knowledge that is emphasized: hence givÁo KELV, not eidéval. Comp. Wisd. xv. 3. For adnovov see on i. 9, iv. 23 : "the only true God' is directed against the many false, spurious gods of the heathen. This portion of the truth the Gentiles signally failed to recognise.

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