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fulness are conveyed to them : in like manner all our spiritual life together, with the exercise and increase of grace, depend on our union with, abiding in, and deriving what is necessary thereunto, from him. : (2.) It is also compared to the union there is between the head and members, as the apostle farther illustrates it, when he styles him the head, from which all the body, by joints and bands, having nourishment ministered, and knit together, increaseth with the increase of God, Col. ii. 19. which is a very beautiful similitude, whereby we are given to understand, that as the head is the fountain of life and motion to the whole body, as the nerves and animal spirits take their rise from thence, so that if the communication that there is between them and it, be stopped, the members would be useless, dead, and insignificant: so Christ is the fountain of spiritual life and motion, to all those who are united to him.

(3.) This union is farther illustrated, by a similitude taken from that union which there is between the foundation and the building; and accordingly Christ is styled, in scripture, the chief corner stone, Eph. ii. 20. and a sure foundation, Isa. xxviii. 16. And there is something peculiar in that phrase which the apostle uses, which is more than any similitude can express ; when he speaks of Christ as the living stone, or rock, on which the church is built ; and of believers, as lively stones, 1 Pet. ii. 4, 5. to denote, that they are not only supported and upheld by him, as the building is by the foundation, but enabled to put forth living actions, as those whose life is derived from this union with him.

(4.) There is another similitude taken from that nourishment which the body receives, by the use of food; and therefore our Saviour styles himself the bread of life, or the bread which cometh down from heaven, that a man may eat thereof, and not die; and proceeds to speak of his giving his flesh for the life of the world; and adds, he that eateth my fesh and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him, John vi. 48 56.

(5.) There is another similitude, by which our being united to Christ by faith, is more especially illustrated, taken from the union which there is between man and wife; accordingly this is generally styled, a conjugal union, between Christ and believers. Thus the prophet says, Thy Maker is thine Husband, the Lord of hosts is his name; and thy Redeemer, the holy One of Israel, Isa. liv. 5. And the apostle, speaking of a man's leaving his father and mother, and being joined unto his wife, and they two being one flesh, Eph. v. 31, 32. applies it, as was before observed, to the union that there is between Christ and the church; and adds, thai we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones, ver. 30. which expression, if not compared with other scriptures, would be very hard to be understood; but it may be explained by the like phraseology, used elsewhere. Thus, when God formed Eve at first, and brought her to Adam, and thereby joined them together in a conjugal relation: he says upon this occasion, This is now bone of my bone, and flesh of my flesh, Gen. ii. 23. And we find also, that other relations, which are more remote than this, are expressed by the same mode of speaking. Thus Laban says to Jacob, Surely thou art my bone and my Aesh, Gen. xxix. 14. And Abimelech pleading the relation he stood in to the men of Shechem, as a pretence of his right to reign over them, tells them, I am your bone and your flesh, Judges ix. 2. Therefore the apostle makes use of the same expression, agreeably to the common mode of speaking used in scripture, to set forth the conjugal relation which there is between Christ and believers.

The apostle, indeed, elsewhere alters the phrase, when he says, He that is joined to the Lord is one Spirit, 1 Cor. vi. 17. which is so difficult an expression, that some who treat on this subject, though concluding that there is in it something that denotes the intimacy and nearness of this union, and more than what is contained in the other phrase, of their being one flesh, nevertheless, reckon it among those expressions which are inexplicable; though I cannot but give into the sense in which some understand it; namely, that inasmuch as the same Spirit dwells in believers that dwelt in Christ, though with different views and designs, they are hereby wrought up, in their measure, to the same temper and disposition; or as it is expressed elsewhere, The same mind is in them that was in Christ, Phil. ii. 5. which is such an effect of this conjugal relation that there is between him and them, as is not always the result of the same relation amongst men. The reason why I call this our being united to Christ, by faith, is because it is founded in a mutual consent; as the Lord avouches them on the one hand, to be his people, so they, on the other hand, avouch him to be their God, Deut. xxvi. 17, 18. the latter of which is, properly speaking, an act of faith ; whereby they give up themselves to be his servants, to all intents and purposes, and that for ever,

It is farther observed in this answer. That union with Christ is a work of God's grace : this it must certainly be, since it is the spring and fountain from whence all acts of grace proceed; and indeed, from the nature of the thing, it cannot be otherwise : for if there be a wonderful instance of condescending grace in God's conferring those blessings that accompany salvation; this may much more be deemed so. If Christ be pleased to dwell with, and in his people, and to talk in them, 2

Cor. vi. 16. or as it is said elsewhere, to live in them, Gal. ii. 20. as a pledge and earnest of their being forever with him in heaven ; and if, as the result hereof, they be admitted to the greatest intimacy with him; we may from hence take occasion to apply what was spoken by one of Christ's disciples, to him, with becoming humility and admiration; how is it that thou wilt manifest- thyself unto us, and not unto the world? John xiv. 22. Is it not a great instance of grace, that the Son of God should make choice of so mean an habitation, as that of the souls of sinful men; and not only be present with, but united to them in those instances which have been before con. sidered?

2. It is farther observed in this answer, that we are united to Christ in effectual calling; which leads us to consider what is contained in the two following answers.

QUEST. LXVII. What is effectual calling?
Answ. Effectual calling is the work of God's almighty power

and grace; whereby, out of his free and special love to his elect, and from nothing in them moving him thereunto, he doth, in his accepted time, invite and draw them to Jesus Christ by his word and Spirit, savingly enlightening their minds, renewing, and powerfully deterinining their wills; so as they, although in themselves dead in sin, are hereby made willing and able, freely to answer his call, and to ac

cept and embrace the grace offered and conveyed therein. Quest. LXVIII. Are the elect effectually called? Answ. All the elect, and they only, are effectually called ; al

though others may be, and often are, outwardly called by the mninistry of the word, and have some common operations of the Spirit ; who, for their wilful neglect and contempt of the grace offered to them, being justly left in their unbelief, do never truly come to Jesus Christ.

E have, in these answers, an account of the first step

that God takes, in applying the redemption purchased by Christ; which is expressed, in general, by the word calling; whereby sinners are invited, commanded, encouraged, and enabled, to come to Christ, in order to their being made partakers of his benefits: the apostle styles it an high, holy, and heavenly calling. Phil. iii. 14. 2 Tim. 1. 9. Heb. iii. 1. and a being called zinto the fellowship of his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, 1 Cor. i.

Now it differs from moral virtue
Heathens have, in some things, excelled Christians

And yet were not sanctified
Practical inferences from Sanctification

161 163 ibid 165


Quest. LXXVI. Of Repentance unto life

Repentance what, a note
The subjects of it
It is the work of the Holy Spirit

How wrought by the word
It differs from a legal Repentance
Its various acts
Inferences from this doctrine

167 167 169 169 172 173 175

QUEST. LXXVII. Wherein Justification and Sanctification differ


QUEST. LXXVIII. Of the Imperfection of Sanctification in this life


The proof of this Imperfection
Why Sanctification not perfected at once
Wherein this Imperfection appears
The conflict of a renewed soul

Of an enlightened conscience
of the spirit against the flesh :-

How this is maintained
Consequences when sin prevails
Inferences from this Imperfection

179 182 183 186 184 187 188 190 192

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Quest. LXXIX. Of the saints Perseverance in Grace

194 This doctrine explained

197 Preferable to the contrary

195 The Father and the Son glorified by it

216 The saints kept by God's power

199 This doctrine proved * From God's unchangeable love

201 From the covenant of Grace

202 trom the promises

203 An objection answered

204 From the saints union to Christ

207 From Christ's intercession

209 From the Spirit's indwelling

210 From 2 Tim. ii. 19.


212 213 218 219

How the saints cannot sin
The principle of Grace ever abides
Shipwreck made of doctrines

Not of the Grace of faith
Objections answered, taken
From instances of apostacy

Solomon's case cleared
He was a true penitent

Therefore no apostate
From the apostacy of Judas

And of the Jewish church
From the parable of the debtor
From Ezek. xviii. 24.

Heb. X. 38.
Chap. vi. 4–6.
Chap. X. 29.
2 Pet. ii. 20-22.

1 Cor. ix. 27.
Inferences from the saints' Perseverance

220 221 222 224 225 226 238 227 229 232 334 237 240 241

QUEST. LXXX. Of Assurance of Salvation


What we are to understand by it

243 It is attainable in this life

245 Without extraordinary revelation

247 The Spirit promised, to give it

250 In an ordinary way

251 How it arises from his witness

266 This doctrine savours not of Enthusiasm

252 To whom assurance belongs

253 The means of attaining it

254 Self examination a duty

256 How to be performed

ibid Rule for trying marks of grace

259 Uncertain marks of grace

260 True marks of grace

262 What they must do who know not the time of their conversion 263

Quest. LXXXI. Some true believers destitute of Assurance


What Assurance essential to faith

And what not so
Texts relating to this explained
Assurance may be long waited for
Lost by manifold distempers

By sins and temptations

270 ibid 271 272 273 274

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