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according acres agrarian agricultural alienation Allmend ancient arable land Aristotle association belonging Brehon Laws cantons cattle century chief civil clan collective property common lands common pasture common property condition cultivation custom distribution districts divided eminent domain England enjoyment entitled equality established existence fact family communities feudal forest France German Germanic mark granted hectares hereditary heredium Hernisse increase India individual property inhabitants institutions Java jugera jurists labour landed property latifundia lease liberty live lord mark middle ages nations occupied organization origin owner ownership parcels pasturage patrimony peasants periodic partition persons perty population portion possession present day preserved primitive primitive community principle private property produce proprietors provinces regulated remain rent right of property Roman Roman law Rome Russia says serfs share shews social society soil Southern Slavs Switzerland Tacitus Taluqdars tenant tenure territory tion tribe village communities waste lands zadruga Zemindars
Page 282 - Neque quisquam agri modum certum aut fines habet proprios; sed magistratus ac principes in annos singulos gentibus cognationibusque hominum, qui una coierunt, quantum et quo loco visum est agri attribuunt atque anno post alio transire cogunt.
Page 329 - ... who are not landowners have no right at all to its surface. Hence, such can exist on the earth by sufferance only. They are all trespassers. Save by the permission of the lords of the soil, they can have no room for the soles of their feet. Nay, should the others think fit to deny them a resting-place, these landless men might equitably be expelled from the earth altogether. If, then, the assumption that land can be held as property, involves that the whole globe may become the private domain...
Page 329 - Equity, therefore, does not permit property in land. For if one portion of the earth's surface may justly become the possession of an individual, and may be held by him for his sole use and benefit, as a thing to which he has an exclusive right, then oilier portions of the earth may be so held ; and eventually the whole of the earth's surface may be so held ; and our planet may thus lapse altogether into private hands.
Page 141 - Ante lovem nulli subigebant arva coloni; 125 ne signare quidem aut partiri limite campum fas erat: in medium quaerebant, ipsaque tellus omnia liberius nullo poscente ferebat.
Page 308 - That the value of the produce or the productive powers of the land have been increased otherwise than by the agency or at the expense of the ryot.
Page 329 - ... then each of them is free to use the earth for the satisfaction of his wants, provided he allows all others the same liberty. And conversely, it is manifest that no one, or part of them, may use the earth in such a way as to prevent the rest from similarly using it; seeing that to do this is to assume greater freedom than the rest, and consequently to break the law.
Page 254 - For look in what parts of the realm doth grow the finest, and therefore dearest wool, there noblemen and gentlemen : yea, and certain Abbots, holy men, no doubt, not contenting themselves with the yearly revenues and profits that were wont to grow to their forefathers and predecessors of their lands...
Page 329 - Given a race of beings having like claims to pursue the objects of their desires — given a world adapted to the gratification of those desires — a world into which such beings are similarly born, and it unavoidably follows that they have equal rights to the use of this world. For tf each of them " has freedom to do all that he wills provided he infringes not the equal freedom of any other...
Page 75 - Take therefore the talent from him, and give it to him that hath ten talents. For to him that hath shall be given, and he shall have more abundantly ; but from him that hath not, shall be taken away even that which he hath.
Page 243 - While the bleakest, worst-soiled, and most distant lands of the township, were left in their native wild state ; for timber and fuel ; and for a common pasture, or suit of pastures, for the more ordinary stock of the township ; whether horses, rearing cattle, sheep, or swine ; without any other stint, or restriction, than what the arable and meadow lands indirectly gave ; every joint-tenant, or occupier of the township, having the nominal privilege of keeping as much live-stock on these common pastures,...