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ries (Pl. V, A, rooms 36–55) contain a room (49) equipped for all sorts of general chemical work and several (40, 45, 47, 50) for special work, a laboratory (46) for physical chemistry, with apparatus for testing freezing point (Beckmann und Friedenthal), conductivity, viscosity, etc., a well-equipped balance room (41), a room (45) for culture chambers, a gas-analysis laboratory (51) with large mercury

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Fig. 1. - Hard lead cut-off valve as used in large lead pipes in Naples circulating system.

pump (Pflüger), a mercury pump (Bohr) for blood gases, gas burettes (Hempel), a eudiometer, Pettersson's and Haldanes apparatus, and other equipment for gas analysis in sea water, a laboratory for nitrogen determination (Kjeldahl), one for organic analysis and one equipped with thermostats, stirring apparatus, agitators, electromotors, and apparatus for research in metabolism, and a dark room for spectroscopic and polarization apparatus.

The physiological department has among its more important features the following apparatus: In the dark rooms (Pl. III, A, rooms 34, 35, 36) on the first floor is equipment for work in electro-physiology, including a Thomson's and a Hermann-Wiedemann's galvanometer, both with suspension after Julius, a small and a large string galvanometer (Einthoven) after Edelmann, with equipment for photographic registration.

For the graphic registration of motion a room (Pl. IV, A, 60) is equipped with an Englemann's pantokymographion, a Straub's electromotor kymographion, and a Hering's kymographion with electric power.

The apparatus available for use in the different physiological investigators' laboratories includes various kymographs, writing levers, electro-magnetic signals, a Jacquet's clock, tuning forks, accumulators, induction apparatus, platinum electrodes, nonpolarizable electrodes, keyboards, switches, metronomes, tuning-fork interrupter, Abblender, resistance coils, double-stringed rheochord, registering telephone, apparatus for the determination of freezing point, equipment for the determination of the electric conductivity of solutions, spectrophotometer, microspectrophotometer, Röntgen apparatus, heliostat, arc lamps, electromotors, hand and turbine centrifuges, photographic apparatus, etc.

The library of the Naples station is one of its choicest treasures. It contains over 13,000 bound volumes, among which are about 25,000 separate articles or reprints bound up in volumes of related subjects. Over 250 periodicals are currently received and the library possesses in addition about 100 others which have lapsed or been discontinued. It contains practically all of the important literature of modern zoological research and a large number of botanical and physiological periodicals and special literature pertaining to work in those lines at a marine laboratory.

The widespread custom among biologists of sending reprints of their articles to Doctor Dohrn or to the library of the station has immensely enhanced its usefulness and completeness and deserves to be even more widely followed. Each investigator is allowed to withdraw for use in his laboratory not more than 24 bound volumes.

The completeness of the library and the freedom of access to the shelves and to current literature granted to all investigators render the Naples station exceptionally attractive among the biological institutions of the world for manuscript work where access to the literature is essential. An up-to-date card catalogue and a simple system of shelving the books greatly facilitate the independent utilization of the library

The field equipment of the Naples station consists of the small steamer Johannes Müller, the gift of the Berlin Academy of Sciences,

a wooden boat 17 m. long, with beam of 3 m., draft of 1.5 m., engine of perhaps 10 horsepower, and a small steam winch for dredging. There is also the Frank Balfour, an open boat of 9 m. length, 1.75 m. beam, draft of 0.9 m., an engine of about 5 horsepower, and a flotilla of small boats used by the fishermen and collectors.

The station depends more upon the skill and experience of its collectors and the richness and accessibility of its fauna than upon an elaborate field outfit for collecting. It has, however, all the necessary dredges, trawls, and fishing traps, gear and tackle of the Neapolitan fisherman, so that its supply of shore and bottom material is never failing. The outfit for pelagic work inherited in part from the Krupp expeditions includes tow nets of silk and stramine, nets of the Hensen and Apstein models, the Apstein, Giesbrecht and Chun-Petersen closing nets, and a large closing net of new model made at the Krupp works.

The station possesses a scaphander for exploration of the shore and bottom and submarine grottoes.

The environmental conditions about the Bay of Naples are exceedingly varied and form the basis for the great variety of life available in so small an area. Essentially volcanic in origin, the shores present a great variety of materials and configuration, basalt and tufa, sandy beaches, mud flats, caves and grottoes, and submerged quays, walls, and ruins of the Roman civilization.

The Bay of Naples itself presents an exceedingly uneven bottom deepening to 200 m. at a distance of 12 km., and 500 at 24 km., while the south slope of the isle of Capri rises quite abruptly from depths of 1,000 m. and the central basin of the Tyrrhenian Sea exceeds 3,000 m. in depth.

Surface temperatures in summer rise to 26°-27.8° C. in August and fall to 13.2°-14° in January, rarely after strong north winds to 10.5° near shore. Below 400 m. the temperature is constant at 13°. The specific gravity is slightly above that of oceanic waters. No systematic hydrographic work has been undertaken by the Naples station.

The waters of the Bay of Naples receive the sewage of a great city and are more or less contaminated with bacteria. The ill effects of this are obviated at the station to a large extent by prolonged sedimentation of the water and by filtration of that used in the morphological and experimental laboratories. The purification is assisted by the higher temperatures of a southern latitude. A small supplementary laboratory has been erected on Ischia for the use of the director and staff of the station, where by special arrangement work requiring water of exceptional purity may be undertaken.

The fauna available for reseach at Naples may be determined in part in the early work of Carus, “Prodromus Faunæ Mediterranea, and in the intensive monographs of the “Fauna and flora.” It is

well represented in the sale lists of species furnished by the biological supply department. There are about 1,000 species in this list, including 37 sponges, 108 cælenterates, 60 echinoderms, 145 vermes, and 198 fishes. Amphioxus, Balanoglossus, and tunicates of great variety are obtainable in abundance, a list unparalleled among the biological stations of the world for its wealth and variety. Further information regarding the material available and the seasons at which it occurs is always to be had from the authorities of the station by correspondence. Extensive accounts of the seasonal occurrence and breeding seasons of animals of the local fauna will be found in the papers of Signor Lo Bianco (1888, 1898, 1906), the last indicating the results of the eruption of Vesuvius of 1906. The algæ are treated in the paper of Berthold (1882).

Literature: Anson (1906), Bachmann (1905), Baglioni (1907), Berthold (1882), Bottazzi (1906), Burnside (1904), Caullery (1906), Dean (1894), Dohrn (1871, 1871a, 1872, 1872a, 1872b, 1872c, 1872d, 1873, 1874, 1874a, 1875, 1876, 1876a, 1877, 1878, 1879, 1881, 1881a, 1882, 1885, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1893a, 1897, 1897a), Eisig (1875), Emery (1883), Francotte (1907), Giercke (1884), Giesbrecht (1907), Gregory (1903), Hensen (1876), Houssay (1893), Leon (1894), Lo Bianco (1888, 1890, 1898, 1899, 1901, 1903, 1903a, 1904, 1906), MacLeod (1882), Mazzarelli (1908), Meek (1897), Morgan (1896), Nansen (1887), Noll (1875), Sand (1897), Schmidtlein (1879), Swingle (1897), Todaro (1897), Van den Broeck (1882), Vogt (1884), Went (1889), Ziegler (1899).


Director, Prof. Luigi Palazzo, Officio Centrale di Meteorologia e di Geodinamica al Collègio Romano. Via del Caravita N. 7, Roma. Biologist, Prof. Decio Vinciguerra, Zoological Laboratory, University of Rome.

Following the example of the lake surveys in Hungary and elsewhere the Italian Geographical Society in 1901 established a commission, consisting of Messrs. Novarese, Sella, Vinciguerra, and Palazzo, to organize a survey of some Italian lake. The commission selected for the purpose the Lago di Bolsena, lying 80 km. northwest of Rome. The field-station laboratory is located in a house on the lake shore about one-half km. from the little harbor of Bolsena.

The station is at present engaged mainly in limnological work and is equipped with meteorological instruments, the Sarasin limnograph and other instruments for hydrographical and physical investigations upon the lake. There is also an equipment for pelagic and bottom collecting and a small laboratory for biological work.

It is purely a research enterprise without immediate affiliations to educational or economic interests.

Literature: Palazzo (1904, 1905).

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