Grace Hopper: Admiral of the Cyber Sea
When grace Hooper retired as a rear admiral from the U.S. Navy in 1986, she was the first woman restricted line officer to reach flag rank and, at the age of seventy-nine, the oldest serving officer in the Navy. A mathematician by training who became a computer scientist, the eccentric and outspoken Hoper helped propel the Navy into the computer age. She also was a superb publicist for the Navy, appearing frequently on radio and television and quoted regularly in newspapers and magazines. Yet in spite of all the attention she received, until now "Amazing Grace," as she was called, has never been the subject of a full biography. Kathleen Broome Williams looks at Hooper's entire naval career, from the time she joined the Waves and was sent in 1943 to work on the Mark 1 computer at Harvard, where she became one of the country's first computer programmers. Thanks to this early Navy introduction to computing, the author explains, Hooper had a distinguished civilian career in commercial computing after the war, gaining fame for her part in the creation of COBOL. The admiral's Navy days were far from over, however, and Williams tells how Hopper--already past retirement age--was recalled to active duty at the Pentagon in 1967 to standardize computer-programming languages for Navy computers. Her temporary appointment lasted for nineteen years while she standardized COBOL for the entire department of defense. Based on extensive interviews with colleague and family and on archival material never before examined, this biography not only illuminates Hopper's pioneering accomplishments in a field that came to be dominated by men, but provides a fascinating overview of computing from its beginnings inWorld War II to the late 1980s.
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2 Youre in the Navy Now
3 Women Enter the World of Technology
4 A WAVE Ordnance Officer?
5 Im in the Reserve Retired and on Active Duty
6 The Navys Best Recruiter?
7 Amazing Grace
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according to Hopper active duty Admiral air force August automatic data processing Automation Betty Holberton Brendel Brewster Academy Bureau BuShips CBI Hopper Interview Center Charles Babbage Institute civilian COBOL College compiler Computation Lab Computation Project difﬁcult digital computer electronic engineering ENIAC ﬁeld ﬁgure ﬁnally ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁve FLOW-MATIC folder GAO folder Programming Langs FORTRAN Grace Hopper Grace Murray Hopper Hagley Hopper Interview Harvard Computation Hopper Collection Hopper Interview 1972 Hopper OFR Howard Aiken Ibid inﬂuence IVAC John Mauchly June later letter machine Mark mathematics Memo military Mina Rees MMW Interview Naval NAVDAC navy computing navy’s NHC/OA NMAH Hopper Interview NPLS NPRC/OMPF Ofﬁce operation personnel problems Programming Languages puter RBN Interview Remington Rand routines scientiﬁc SL Hopper Interview speciﬁc Spreen Standard COBOL subroutines tape tion UNIVAC Vassar Washington WNRC Wolfeboro women Yavinsky Papers York