## Chemoton Theory: Theory of Living SystemsDr. Gànti has introduced Chemoton Theory to explain the origin of life. Theoretical Foundations of Fluid Machineries is a discussion of the theoretical foundations of fluid automata. It introduces quantitative methods - cycle stoichiometry and stoichiokinetics - in order to describe fluid automata with the methods of algebra, as well as their construction, starting from elementary chemical reactions up to the complex, program-directed, proliferating fluid automata, the chemotons. Chemoton Theory outlines the development of a theoretical biology, based on exact quantitative considerations and the consequences of its application on biotechnology and on the artificial synthesis of living systems. |

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### Contents

Introduction | xvii |

Constructional Elements of Fluid Machines | xxv |

Coupling of chemical reactions | 11 |

Branchings | 16 |

ORtype branchings | 19 |

The Chemical Cycle | 20 |

Cycle stoichiometry | 23 |

Examples for the application of the rules | 25 |

Chemotons | 142 |

Chemoton coupling | 145 |

Stoichiometry | 147 |

Qualitative survey of operation | 148 |

Kinetics | 150 |

Computer study of operation | 153 |

Chemoton variants | 157 |

Outlines of SelfOrganizing Fluid Computers | 161 |

Generalization of cycle stoichiometry | 28 |

Kinetics of cycles | 29 |

An example for chemical cycles | 30 |

The catalytic nature of chemical cycles | 33 |

Enzyme reactions | 37 |

General considerations | 39 |

SelfReproducing Chemical Cycles | 41 |

Simple selfreproducing cycle | 42 |

Kinetics of selfreproducing cycles | 51 |

Selfconsuming cycles | 54 |

Template processes | 55 |

Example for calculating template polymerization | 59 |

Kinetics of template polymerization | 61 |

General remarks | 65 |

Compartmentalization | 66 |

Stoichiometry | 67 |

Formal kinetics of membrane growth | 68 |

Design of Simple Fluid Machines | 71 |

Coupling of cycles with one another | 74 |

Secondgeneration cycles | 82 |

Industrial applications | 89 |

Coupling of SelfReproducing Constituents | 95 |

The coupling of a selfreproducing cycle with a reaction chain | 99 |

Oscillating reaction systems | 101 |

fluid program control | 107 |

Industrial applications | 112 |

Proliferating Fluid Automata | 119 |

Definitions | 120 |

Examples | 122 |

Proliferating Microspheres | 125 |

Coupling Stoichiometry | 126 |

growth and division | 128 |

Kinetics | 132 |

Proliferating Fluid Clockworks | 135 |

Microsphere with an oscillating chemical system | 137 |

Proliferating fluid clockworks | 139 |

Constituents of Fluid Computers | 163 |

The Iswitch | 168 |

The Fswitch | 174 |

The Cswitch | 175 |

A possible way to realize the Cswitch | 178 |

Chemotons of limited proliferation | 181 |

The Basic Network | 186 |

Operation of the basic network | 189 |

Energy supply of the basic network | 191 |

Shape recognition by light sensitivity | 192 |

Shape recognition by touching | 196 |

Coupling of the basic network to other sensors | 197 |

General remarks | 199 |

Cogitator Networks | 200 |

Networks consisting of C and Gelements | 201 |

Basic cogitator network | 204 |

Secondary wiring | 205 |

Associative network | 207 |

The dream of the associative network | 208 |

Design of Cogitators | 210 |

Decoder subunit | 212 |

Simple cogitator | 216 |

The problem solving ability of the cogitator | 218 |

Cogitators with Time Coder | 220 |

Simple fluid clockwork | 223 |

Complex fluid clockwork | 225 |

Cogitator with clockwork | 226 |

Activity Sleeping and Death | 227 |

Selective control of operation | 228 |

Sleeping and dreaming | 231 |

Toward Fluid Robots | 235 |

Fluid robots | 237 |

References | 239 |

243 | |