The Climate Near the Ground

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Rowman & Littlefield, 2003 - Social Science - 584 pages
This revised and updated edition of Rudolf Geiger's classic text provides a clear and vivid description of the surface microclimate, its physical basis, and its interactions with the biosphere. The book explains the principles of microclimatology and illustrates how they apply to a wide array of subfields. Those new to the field will find it especially valuable as a guide to understanding and quantifying the vast and ever-increasing literature on the subject. This edition has been revised to keep abreast of current research in microclimatology, to provide more examples of work from North America, and to more clearly illustrate how surface energy fluxes are linked to the nature of the surface environment. The authors have added discussions dealing with the speed of sound, the use of vegetative barriers to reduce sound, and physiological control of energy and moisture exchanges. They have also expanded the discussion of microclimatic effects on animal and human behavior and dwellings. Designed as an introductory text for students in environmental science, this book will also be an essential reference for scientists seeking a clear understanding of the nature and physical basis of the climate near the ground, and its interactions with the biosphere.
 

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Contents

INTRODUCTION
1
CHAPTER I EARTHS SURFACE ENERGY BUDGET
5
3 Components of the Energy Balance and Their Importance
8
4 Radiation Balance of Earths Surface
10
5 Longwave Radiation at Night
19
6 The Laws of Energy Transport in the Ground
27
7 Transport of Energy in the Atmosphere Eddy Diffusion
34
8 Mixing Due to Friction and Convection
36
31 The Microclimate of Meadows and Grain Fields
248
32 The Microclimate of Gardens and Vineyards
259
FOREST CLIMATOLOGY
263
34 Metabolism Energy Storage and Wind in a Forest
276
35 Air Temperature and Humidity in a Forest
288
36 Dew Rain and Snow in a Forest
296
37 Microclimate at the Stand Edges
309
38 The Climate of Forest Clearings
319

9 Temperature Instability Dissemination of Seeds Dispersion of Air Pollutants and Effective Stack Height as Problems of Eddy Diffusion
39
THE AIR LAYER OVER LEVEL GROUND WITHOUT VEGETATION
51
11 Temperature in the Lowest 100 m of the Atmosphere
61
12 The Unstable Sublayer and the Inversion Sublayer
67
13 Daytime Temperature of the Air Layer near the Ground
71
14 Nighttime Temperature of the Air Layer near the Ground
78
15 Distribution of Water Vapor above the Ground
85
16 The Wind Field and the Influence of Wind near the Ground
91
17 Distribution of Particulates and Trace Gases
101
18 Optical Phenomena and Acoustics near the Ground
111
INFLUENCE OF THE UNDERLYING SURFACE ON THE ADJACENT AIR LAYER
121
20 Ground Color Surface Temperature Ground Cover Mulching and Greenhouses
128
21 Soil Moisture and Ground Frost
138
22 The Air Layer above Small Water Surfaces
157
23 The Air Layer near the Water Surface of Lakes Seas and Rivers
165
24 Snow and Ice Properties and Interaction with the Environment
173
FURTHER ANALYSIS OF THE ENERGY BALANCE
193
26 Results of Previous Energy Balance Measurements
199
27 Advective Influences and Transitional Climates
207
28 Remarks on Evaporation
212
THE EFFECT OF LOW PLANT COVER ON THE SURFACE AIR LAYER
225
29 Energy Balance and Temperature of Plant Components
226
30 Radiation Eddy Diffusion and Evaporation in a Low Plant Cover
239
39 Climatic Influences of the Forest
329
THE INFLUENCE OF TOPOGRAPHY ON THE MICROCLIMATE
339
41 The Effect of Differing Amounts of Sunshine on the Microenvironment
350
42 SmallScale Topographic Influences at Night Cold Air Currents Frost Hollows
359
43 Local Winds in Hilly and Mountainous Terrain
366
44 The Climate of Various Slopes Exposure Climate
384
45 The Thermal Belt
395
46 Microclimate in the High Mountains
406
47 The Microclimate of Caves
418
INTERRELATIONS OF ANIMALS AND HUMANS TO THE MICROCLIMATE
425
48 Animal Behavior
426
49 Animal Dwellings
433
50 Bioclimatology
439
51 Urban Climate
447
52 Artificial Protection against Wind
461
53 Artificial Protection Against Low Temperatures
481
REFERENCES
493
SYMBOLS
547
Conversion Table
551
AUTHOR INDEX
553
SUBJECT INDEX
567
Copyright

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Page 494 - AJ: Evaluation of Empirical Expressions for the Estimation of Hourly and Daily Totals of Atmospheric Longwave Emission Under all Sky Conditions. Quart. JR Met. Soc. 105, 1041-1052 (1979).
Page 545 - M. and Prileszky, Gy., The effect of cold on development of bacterial canker in apricot trees infected by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Physiol. Plant Pathol. , 24, 237, 1984. 30. Proebsting, EL, Jr. and Gross, DC, Field evaluations of frost injury to deciduous fruit trees as influenced by ice nucleation-active Pseudomonas syringae, J. Am. Hortic. Sci., 113, 498, 1988. 31. Garrett, CME, Influence of rootstock on the susceptibility of sweet cherry scions to bacterial canker, caused by Pseudomonas...
Page 545 - Chapter 3.2 in Modification of the Aerial Environment of Plants. BJ Barfield and JF Gerber, eds.
Page 527 - Some effects of deforestation on nocturnal drainage flow and local climate — A numerical study.

About the author (2003)

The late Rudolf Geiger was a noted German microclimatologist. Robert H. Aron is professor in the Department of Geography at Central Michigan University. Paul Todhunter is chair of the Department of Geography at the University of North Dakota.

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