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that toch is etymologically the same with the Eng. though; cf. the colloquial use of the latter, 'You surely won't do that.' 'I shall though.') (6) It may thus often be rendered by (or where it is not to be rendered, its force may be apprehended under the form of) a simple adversative, as • but,' yet, still, cf. 4, 30; 7, 1, 4; 16, 18; 19, 17, n.; 22, 30; 24, 25; 55, 13; 59, 13, &c. (c) It is often employed in strengthening union with another adversative word, as aber, allein, so above and in 22, 21; 34, 5; 88, 18; &c. (d) Many cases of the use of doch may be made clear by supplying the omitted or indistinctly conceived first or concessive member of the implied antithesis, cf. e.g. 7, 1, n.; 20, 23, n.; 25, 30, n.; 56, 25, n.; 60, 26, n.; 73, 5, n.; 80, 7, n. (e) Where the idea of contrast or contrariety is clear and emphatic, doch of course becomes more or less strongly accented, as above, where its force might be rendered, 'It did however once happen...,'cf. 20, 23, n.; 28, 18, n.; 56, 13, n.; 74, 25, n.; 75, 31; 80, 7, n.; 84, 8; 88, 12. (f) Where on the other hand it is faint and unimportant, doch becomes merely a strengthening and enforcing expletive, uttered without accent, though its adversative character seldom or never becomes altogether unrecognisable. (g) Its force may sometimes be conveyed by the corresponding Eng. expletive 'really,' cf. 5, 14, 20; 13, 28; 15, 25; 25, 30, n., &c. (k) Often it may be indicated, if not rendered, by 'surely, that you'll allow, presumably, probably, I suppose, &c.,' on the one hand expressing insistance upon what is asserted, and on the other hand modestly or courteously leaving room for a possible difference of opinion or will on the part of those addressed, the one or the other aspect being the stronger, according to circumstances, cf. 4, 6; 20, 10;23, 16; 31, 13; 41, 24; 74, 21; 107, 8, &c. (2) In this last usage doch is often almost synonymous with wohl (48, 18, n.) similarly used, the general difference being that toch has in view rather the possibility that something to the contrary may be urged or thought, while wohl rather assumes that this will not be the case, and takes assent for granted. Du gehst doch nicht hin? You surely are not going? Da gehst wohl nicht hin[?] I suppose you are not going [?]-einmal, see 5, 15, n.-sieben Jahre lang: cf. eine Zeit lang, 'for a time' (not, a long time); tagelang, for days; zwei Stunden lang, &c.

6. wenn auch (cf. 34, 10, n.), even if, .although,'so 7, 3; 80, 14, &c.— Stimme, ' voice,' hence 'vote,' cf. the humorous word-play, 20, 22.

8. also, strengthened form (all (o) of the now commoner, more conversational fo, .so, thus'; cf. 4, 4; 52, 10. The commonest use of also is as a conjunction, =therefore, accordingly, then, so, cf. 8, 29; 70, 23; 107, 12.

It is never to be translated by the Eng. 'also.'

9. Wetzlar is an ancient little town on the river Lahn, which flows into the Rhine near Coblenz. In the 12th century it became an imperial free town, but was at a later period brought under the protectorate or overlordship first of Nassau and later of Hessen Darmstadt. In his. tory it is noted chiefly as having been the seat of the Reichskammergericht, from 1609 until the dissolution of the Empire in 1806. Goethe studied law in Wetzlar for some months of 1772, and wrote shortly afterwards his famous novel Werther, which was founded in part upon some incidents in his own life here. Since the rearrangements of territory which took place in 1815 Wetzlar has belonged to Prussia.

11. Dafür feierte nun...: dafür, lit., ‘for this,' in stead or requital of, as a set-off against this, is often used simply to point a contrast, and may either be rendered by an adversative expression suited to the context,

- on the other hand,'' but then,' 'however,' all the more,' &c., or (47, 8) left untranslated. — feiern (fr. Feier, -L. Lat. feria,-holiday, rest from labour; cf. Ferien, fr. Lat. feriae, holidays), to keep holiday, rest from work, be idle.—vergeudete. The original meaning of the inseparable prefix ver (Eng. for in forbid, verbieten, in forego, &c.) seems to have been 'away, off,' which in various modifications (cf. 4, 23, n. ; 13, 17, n.) will serve to explain many of its current usages, cf. verjagen, 19, 9, and rertreiben, 29, 30, to drive away, expel, &c.; vergehen, 29, 1, and verlaufen, 63, 17, to pass away; verschenken, 56, 28, to give away; verbannen, 115, 13, to banish, &c. vergeuden (from geuden, obsolete, to make a display, live extravagantly), to squander 'away,' is generally accompanied by an expressed accus. object.

wenn er's...so fort trieb, so war...geworden. trieb and war geworten for getrieben hätte and wäre geworden. Both in the protasis and the apodosis of a conditional sentence (see Eve's Germ. Gr., Syntax, 261), the indicative is sometimes used in place of the subjunctive, as giving more vividness to the supposed realisation of the indicated possibility.treiben, to drive, fig. to pursue, carry on, practise, cf. 8, 22, trieb... allerlei neuen Unfug, perpetrated all sorts of fresh mischief; 73, 11, Wucher treiben, to practise usury; 74, 16, der Fürst mag treiben, was er will, may 'do'what he will ; &c. Hence generally, es (cf. 4, 25, n.) so oder so treiben, to act thus or thus, to 'go on.'—fort, forth, on, in loose or close composition with verbs, expresses the 'going on' doing a thing. "...and if he went on in the same course another ten years...'-bis dahin, by that time. Note that bis means both 'until,' 'up to,' cf. 13, 14, &c., and as here, by'; thus, Ich bleibe bis Morgen hier, until to-morrow; Sie sollen es bis Morgen haben, by to-morrow. Almost all the dictionaries overlook this latter usage. hin (cf. 5, 2, n.) marks the direction away' from us of the movement of time, towards the point indicated by da, then; cf. the corresponding bis hierher, until now, 80, 17.

12.

13. vermuthlich (vermuthen, to suppose, conjecture), presumably, probably; cf. befanntlich, 46, 5 (befannt, known), as is known, as we know; hoffentlich, 59, 5, n., &c.—aul A. wird B., lit., out of A., B. grows or comes to be,=A, wird B., A. becomes B., cf. 34, 18.

14. lahngasse, Lahn Street, just as in many Rhine towns there is a Rheinstraße. Gasse (older Eng. gate, a way, as still seen in the names of certain streets in many old towns) is the original Germ. word for street; in modern usage it is generally distinguished from Straße (Lat. strata, Eng. street) as a small narrow street, a lane. The original application of the word is however still seen in many surviving names and expressions.-hochgiebelig. The meaning of many compounds not to be found in the smaller dictionaries will easily be ascertained by looking out their elements; hoch, high, Giebel, a gable, hence giebelig, gabled. So with such words as Erfindungsgeist, 9, 19 (Erfindung, invention, Geist, spirit), ausprügeln, 14, 23 (prügeln, to beat, aus, out); stadtfundig, zornglühend, &c.

16. erst (8, 23, n.) vor zehn Jahren, only ten years before.—von Grund aus (Grund, bottom, lowest part, foundation, 92, 8), from the very foundation. Hence also, as in 6, 23, thoroughly, entirely.

17. bezeugen, to bear witness to, attest (cf. Zeuge, a witness, Zeugniß, testimony), should be clearly distinguished from bezeigen, to show (Alch. tung, respect, Gefälligfeit, &c.), with which it is sometimes confused by German writers.

19. Handeln mit..., to deal in.—mehr noch: note that the accent lies on mehr, just as it would if noch preceded it.

20. Kaufmannsgilde... Zunft. The words Gilde, Zunft, Innung, &c., all expressing a kind of guild or corporation, have differed in usage at different times and in various parts of Germany. Here the Kaufmannsgilde is a corporation of merchants, i. e. capitalists engaged in traffic with other than home-made wares, Zunft, a guild embodying the organization of a special handicraft, cf. 45, 17, Schmiedezunft, the smiths' guild, where Gilde would not be used. Though ranking only among the chief of th: Zünftler, Richwin was more a merchant than a handicraftsman.-zählen zu..., to count among, either trans., as in 23, 4, or intrans., as here; would have had a place in...'

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So aber... (accent on so), but as it was, as things really stood; so again, 36, 21.—pornehm (nehmen, to take, vor, before or in preference to; hence primarily, distinguished by superior worth), distinguished in rank, quality or bearing, aristocratic, cf. 17, 24; 79, 7, vornehm gekleidet, dressed like a gentleman, &c.

3. Zunftgenosse (Genoß or Genosse, companion, associate; etymologically and originally, ein Mitgenießenter, one who shares with us the enjoyment of anything), member of a guild. Cf. Bundesgenosse, 45, 4 (Bund, alliance), an ally, &c.

6. es dünfte ihm. The original and proper forms of this verb are, inf. dünfen (Eng. think as in methinks, A. S. thyncan, to seem), imperf. däuchte (5, 11), perf. part. ged&ucht (13, 29). But it is now quite as often conjugated as a weak verb (17, 19), and along with the pres. dünft a new pres. Dåucht (formed fr. the imperf. däuchte) is still used, as also sometimes a new inf. däuchten. dünten is now used almost equally with the dat. and the acc.; the latter, at one time alone in use, is regarded by many grammarians as the correcter form. bedünfen is properly transitive and used only with the acc.—boch, cf. 3, 5, n. (k).

7. um einen Kopf. um='by,' denoting the amount of difference; it is commonly used, esp. with comparative adjs., where in Eng. it is more often left unexpressed, cf. below, l. 27, um so mehr, so much the more, all the more; 8, 28, um so långer, &c.-tie Zünfte überhaupt, the guilds altogether, all the guilds. Haupt, head, also in the sense, 'head' of cattle, &c. ; M. H. G. (Middle High German) über houbet=without taking count of number, or difference between one and another; taken in the gross, altogether, all of them. Hence the very common use of überhaupt (often hardly to be rendered), to express a thing 'in general,' removed from the limitations and conditions of a particular case or circumstance. For exx., cf. 15, 19, n., and passages there quoted.

8. auf ein Haar is most commonly identical in meaning with auf's Haar (29, 31; 45, 24), 'to a hair,' precisely, exactly; the former phrase however is also sometimes used in the sense (=bei einem Haare, um ein Haar), within a hair['s breadth], very nearly. So alle bis auf den legten may mean either: all, up to, i.e. including, the last, or: all up to, but not going on to include, i.e. 'except,' the last. In which of the two senses mentioned the phrase auf ein Haar is to be taken in the present passage,—whether "every whit,' or 'all but'-, is one of those nice questions which hardly admit of being positively decided, as the context may fairly be looked at in such a way as to favour the one or the other. The balance of usage inclines decidedly in favour of the first.-Patrizier, see Introduction.

Bube as a familiar word = Snabe, Junge, is chiefly South German; it now more generally means a low, rascally fellow, cf. Spigbube,

II.

rogue, &c.

12. raufen, to pull, pluck out, as hair, &c. Hence Einen raufen, to pull one by the hair ; to handle roughly, fight with; more common is sich [mit Em.] raufen, to scuffle, fight [with]. raufen as intrans. is not as generally used, but it is regarded by some as a more select expression. Here perhaps it is used for the sake of co-ordination with the preceding spielen.—Es waren ... They were..., see Aue's Germ. Gr. $ 201, note i. Eve, 13. Cf. l. 28 below ; 81, 22; 98, 22, &c.

13. Einem ('dat. of interest,' cf. 8, 9, n.) das Leben sauer (cf. 97, 15, n.) machen, to embitter one's life; to make one's life a burden, &c. ... were the plague of their mother's life.'

15. Zucht (fr. ziehen, to train, 10, 19, n.), discipline.—bei (18, 21, n.), 'among.'-Range, wild, ill-mannered boy, young scapegrace.

16. jede Unart. Art, kind, species; hence, characteristic quality, manner or way (18, 18; 21, 1); cf. gutartig, 7, 27, of good disposition, good-tempered ; lebensart, manners, &c. Unart thus expresses wrong or bad natural quality (cf. Unzeit, 112, 25, wrong or unseasonable time, &c.), naughtiness, ill-behaviour, naughty trick, &c.; so 5, 14; 9, 20.

20. Slagte die arme Frau... In the protasis, or 'if' clause of con. ditional sentences, the conj. wenn is very often omitted; the clause then begins with the finite verb, standing immediately before the subject, cf. below, line 25, hätte er's gemerkt, =wenn er's gemerkt hatte (so in Eng., had he observed it, =if he had observed it); so again, 5, 12; 7, 28; 8, 16; 13, 12, &c., &c. So also in a clause beginning with als, cf. 8, 17.-bem=ihrem, cf. 8, 9, n. (end of note).- Note that Flagen is com. monly used as a trans. verb only with a dat. of the person to whom the complaint is made. Otherwise, to complain of a thing is über etw. Flagen, or sich über etw. beklagen.

21. hören, to hear; zuhören (with dat., or absolutely), to listen (to).

23. eine verkehrte (i.e. Antwort). The prefix ver, 'away' (cf. 3, 11, n.), often conveys the notion of contrary, false or untoward direction; cf. verführen, 15, 18, to lead astray, mislead; 6, 11, n.; 6, 22, n.; 64,

So verfehren, to turn out of the right into a false direction or position, to turn upside down; hence verkehrt as adj., inverted, upside down; fig., perverted, twisted, absurd (58, 25), wrong.

31, n.

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