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24. in antern Stüden (Stüd, detached part, piece; single article, item), in other points; cf. 73, 22, Stüd für Stüd, point by point.

25. hätte er’s gemerkt (cf. above, l. 20, n.), er würre.... According to the general rule for the inverted construction (Eve, 205, 196; Aue, $ 48) we should have so würde er... (cf. above, 20-21; 6,7-8, &c.). But de. viation from the rule, chiefly for the sake of emphasis and point, is common enough, cf. 25, 13; 26, 1-2; 48, 3-5, &c.-er würde es besser gemacht haben, he would have done better. So, 'I know better,' 'You ought to know better,' &c., will always be rendered by es besser wissen. es here represents as object (for its similar use as subject in 'impersonal' verbs, cf. 6, 19, n.; 11, 16, n.; 15, 13, n.; &c.) the undefined matter in question, or things generally, cf. 3, 12, n.; 91, 14, n., &c.

= (and ac- ti o in cented) in the protasis of a conditional sentence, generally serves to mark the realisation of the condition as more or less unlikely or exceptional. It may usually be rendered in Eng. by laying some emphasis on the finite verb; so here, and if he did speak to her....' Cf. 16, 21; 17, 29; 27,

29, &c.

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1. Hab' und Gut, estate, property, possessions generally. The German language has a special leaning towards combinations of more or less synonymous, often alliterative or rhyming words, to express more fully one idea ; cf. Haus und Hof, Handel und Wandel; 54, 29; 65, 26; 107, 29, &c., and the Eng. 'house and home,' &c.

2. Heranschleichen (schleichen, to slink, creep), 'creeping on, approaching.' The adv. and prefix her means hither, i.e. in the direction towards, hin, hence, i.e. in some direction away from, the speaker or person in question; cf. 53, 13, Geh blind hinein und (fomme) stumm heraus (the standpoint of the speaker being outside). So woher (38, 11) is 'whence,' i.e. from what or which point hither; wohin (38, 8),

whither,' i.e. to what or which point hence; heran (9, 2) or herbei (9, 5) is 'on' towards, or 'up' to the speaker or person concerned. Cf. also 15, 13, hinauf...geschidt, sent upstairs (away from the sender); 41, 11, hinantlomm, was climbing up (away from the narrator).- irgend, as adv., =‘at all,' in any way.—steuern as trans. = steer, pilot; with a dat., to check, repress, restrain.

3. Viel Unrechtes. Cf. as to ways of rendering the Germ. neut. adj. used substantively, 6, 10, des Unschidlichen genug, enough of what was, or, that was improper, improper things enough; 6, 11, n., tas Schidliche, pro

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priety; 24, 21, Schlimmes, evil; 48, 4, Unerhörteb, things unheard of; 103, 17, wie Großcs, what great things, &c.

4. Setem Einfall. &tw. fällt Em. ein, something occurs' to one ; hence Einfall, a chance idea, a fancy, whim, &c.

5. Jedem...gab er sich hin. hin (cf. above, l. 2, n.)='away,' 'up'; he surrendered himself, gave himself up to....

6. welche... zu vollführen... Noth war. In this construction the subst. "Tod's Noth, necessity, is used adjectively, =nöthig, necessary (and was in puse, M. H. G. compared, næter), and is often written with a small initial

letter, es ist sehr noth, daß... So also with haben,- Ich habe das nicht noth, do not need it; and with thun,-Was uns noth thut, what we need.Wenn es galt,... nachzusehen. nachsehen, used absolutely, = 'look after things.' gelten (related with Geld, money, and giltig, valid), to be worth; to be, or be allowed to pass as, valid, &c., has numerous idiomatic usages (cf. 12, 11, n.; 14, 29, n.; 29, 16, n.; 35, 2, n.; 64, 30, n.; 93, 8, n.). Es gilt...zu.., means, the matter in hand, the task or aim before one, the one thing imperative at the moment, is to..., cf. 65, 10. . When things wanted looking after in the weaving-rooms.'

8. Note that luft means both desire or inclination (so 13, 6; 88, 22), as in the phrase luft haben, etw. zu thun, and pleasure or delight (cf. 15, 12; 48, 13); often the two ideas lie in it more or less combined, and tend to run into each other, cf. 7, 26; 13, 15; 65, 11. Hence such compounds as rauflustig (22, 18), delighting in and eager for frays.

9. In auffißen, to mount (a horse), the intrans. Tißen receives through the idea of motion implied in auf, together with the context, the force of sich seßen.

12. bei,='at' (cf. 18, 21, n.), "among.'-Webstuhl or Weberstuhl, a loom. Stuhl here=framework, machine; cf. Dachstuhl, the rafters or frame-work of a roof, Glodenstuhl, belfry, &c.

13. dann schaute Meister Richwin wohl...ju. Under the old guild ['t regulations Meister was the recognised title of one who, after ending his

Lehrjahre, or apprenticeship, had worked as a Geselle, or journeyman, and after several Wanderjahre, or years spent in travelling, in order to become acquainted with his trade as practised in various places, had made his Meisterstüd, i.e. a specimen of his skill attesting his qualification for the rank of Meister, with the right of doing business for himself, and of employing Gesellen and taking Lehrlinge, or apprentices.—zuschauen, zusehen differ from the simple sehen, as zuhören differs from hören (4, 21, n.); schen, trans., to see; zusehen with dat., to look on at, be a voluntary spectator of, observe. —The force of wohl (43, 18, n.) in such sentences as the above (in which it marks what is said as probably and usually occurring under the given circumstances, without categorically stating that it always or on any given occasion actually did occur) may generally be rendered by the Eng. 'will,' would,' 'then Master R. would look through the window at....' So 13, 20; 32, 18.

14. sann, wie er... wolle, reflected or turned over in his mind how (i.e., tried to think of means by which) he could-or should... wolle is however used, not fönne or solle, as marking that what he is devising ways and means of carrying out is something he has first willed or resolved upon (cf. 49, 16). Richwin's reflections run thus: Du willst (or mußt) doch einmal..., and as immediately springing from or simultaneous with this, wie willst du...? The latter implicitly contains the former, and becomes in oblique oration (5, 25, n.),... wie er wolle. Perhaps wolle will here be best rendered by 'should.' doch, cf. 3, 5, n., esp. (8).

15. einmal (usually pronounced with the chief accent on the second syllable, einmál; the ei of the first syllable is often reduced to the sound of e in Knabe, e'nmál, or the first syllable disappears altogether, 'mal or mal), at some time or other, once, for once, in the pres., past, or fut., cf. 3, 5; 15, 8; 16, 22; 19, 19; 53, 9, &c. It is frequently used, esp. in com. bination with other advs., in cases where its force is slighter than would be conveyed by any Eng. expression by which it could be rendered, and often becomes a mere expletive, serving to give to the style a more familiar and conversational tone, cf. 20, 13; 57, 2; 58, 6; 88, 21, &c.wehren with a simple dat. =steuern, 1. 2 above, to resist, check, repress.vergaß aber darüber.... etw. über etw. (in the dat., cf. 84, 11; 116, 1) vergessen, to forget one thing 'over' another, i.e. in it (84, 11), while occupied with or absorbed in it. Here we might say, 'but forgot meanwhile....' -geraume Zeit: the adj. geraum, = geräumig (Raum, room, space), spa. cious, ample, is now current only as applied to time; seit geraumer Zeit, for a considerable time, &c.

17. und fuhr mit der Elle ins Zeug. fahren, now generally used, as a synonym of geben, for motion from place to place by some artificial mode of conveyance (zu Wagen fahren, mit der Eisenbahn fahren ; spazieren fahren, to take a drive, &c.), originally denoted in the most general sense, to move from place to place,=gehen, kommen, zichen, wandern, &c., usually however with the idea of greater speed and energy than gehen, &c. Hence its still current use=to sweep, dart, dash, start, &c.; cf. 14, 16; 18, 31;66, 11, n.; 96, 5, n., 17; 106, 20, n., &c. ...and brandished his yardwand over the stuff...'-al: wolle er...: wollen is not only 'to will, want, wish to'; it must often be rendered, according to the context, to 'mean

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to,''be about to, going to,'' attempt or try to,' &c. These various meanings, while never precisely synonymous, lie so near each other that they naturally often occur in indefinite combination, so that in many cases no Eng. rendering is comprehensive enough to reproduce fully the idea of the original, and we have to choose the aptest among more or less incomplete renderings. Exx., 8, 17, n.; 10, 6, n. ; 11, 15, n.; 22, 9; 37, ỹ, n.; 41, 2, nQ ; 88, 27; 9o, 6, n.; IOo, 35, n., &c. 19. Geschäftsfreund, a business connection, customer; so 7, 4, &c.

gar zu säumig. The original meaning of gar as an adv. (gar as adj. orig.= finished, ready for use, now only='done,' cooked enough), completely, quite,' is still seen in ganz und gar, completely, gar nicht, not at all, &c.; so in gar zu..., ' quite too...,' in order to express an excessive, or only a very high degree, cf. 39, 27, gar zu gerne, only too gladly, gar zu schön, so very pretty; so 92, 16.—grob : note that grob (cf. Hof, 10, 25, n.) is one of those words which have the vowel short in the uninflected form, but long in the forms lengthened by inflection; so, ein gröber Kerl, comparative (1. 23 below) gröber (ö long as in größer), &c.

21. rich (dat.) etw. hinter's Ohr schreiben (cf. 8, 9, n., and note the acc. with the prep. after schreiben; so, Er schrieb ein paar Worte auf eine : Bogen Papier) is a familiar phrase for, to take due note of, bear in mind, lay to heart, &c.—noch um einen Grad, or um noch einen Grad (um, 4, 7, n.), a degree more....

25. Vöre Zungen meinten...: meinen, to mean (41, 9), means both to be of opinion, to think (27, 19; 54, 31), and to express an opinion or surmise, to observe, remark' (15, 18; 23, 14). Often it is uncertain whether the latter or only the former is meant, cf. 27, 19; 68, 9.wenn das so fortgehe, dann werde...: subjunctive of oblique oration (oratio obliqua), which is regularly used (both in principal and in subordinate clauses, 51, 16; 68, 10) when the speaker or writer is simply reporting, or referring to, the utterances or thoughts, the wishes, perceptions, arguments, &c., of others (or even his own, if he is regarding them objectively, is merely referring to them, without any present purpose of asserting them, cf. 19, 1, n.). A clause in oblique oration is usually dependent upon some verb of a more or less affirmatory character; or it may stand in apposition to a subst., 10, 19, n.; 59, 16. It may either be introduced by daß (14, 8; 19, 1), wie (15, 5; 100, 7), &c., the verb going to the end, or the direct order may be used without any introductory conjunction or adverb (10, 17; 13, 24; 17, 19; 23, 10, 12, 14; 25, 29; &c.): in both cases it is the mood of the verb that shows the oblique character of the clause. The direct order is almost always used where the oblique oration is carried through a number of clauses, in which the repetition of daß would be awkward (27, 19 ff. ; 29, 7, ff.; 37, 15, ff.; 83, 27, ff.). Very often only the first or the first few of these clauses are directly dependent on an expressed verb (glauben, meinen, erflären and the like); the rest may be regarded as depending upon it more remotely and loosely, i.e. as depending on it in a modified form, or on some verb of cognate meaning understood (probably not present to the mind of the speaker, and required only for the logical explar

of the con struction), cf. 24, 26, Doch bat er, man möge..., er (sagte, or ließ sagen, er) mache...; 28, 13, 17; 56, 25 ff. (see note on l. 27); 65, 20, ff. Indeed the oblique oration being so distinctly marked by the mood, it is often used (with the direct order) in clauses standing entirely by themselves, the verbal idea upon which they logically depend being altogether unexpressed ; the mood together with the context sufficiently marks that the utterances or sentiments of a third person (or the speaker's own, objectively regarded) are being reported, cf. 105, 27, n.

27. ohnedies, without or apart from this, 'as it was,' 'in any case,' 'anyhow' (=so wie so), cf. 112, 19, n. It may be noted that ohnedies, überdies (7, 12), vordem (12, 26), ohnehin (71, 31), &c., belong to a rather large class of compound words that are accented on the first or the second element, according to the stress of the meaning, and the accentuation of the words with which they stand in immediate connection. The dictionaries for the most part give only one accentuation for these words, and differ considerably from each other.-&m. vorleuchten, to bear a light before anyone, to · light' him onward ; hence, to give a brilliant example, be a shining light. So again voranleuchten, 19, II.

28. modesüchtig. Mode, fr. the Fr. mode, fashion. Sucht (formerly= Krankheit, cf. fiechen, to be sick, to pine, Fallsucht, the falling sickness, epilepsy, &c.) always denotes a morbid or inordinate desire or propensity, cf. Habsucht, Habsüchtig, avarice, avaricious, &c. So modesüchtig, fond of fashion, fashion-loving.

29. durch reiches Kleid. Kleid here= Kleider or Kleitung, Anzug, 'dress.' The sing. Kleid is now in ordinary use only for a single garment, and properly speaking one that comprises the covering of the whole person, hence chiefly a woman's or child's dress.—Tracht (fr. tragen, to wear), costume, garb.—im Prunfroc (Prunk, splendour, state, display, cf. Prunfs or Staatszimmer, a sumptuous apartment, &c.): cf. l. 31, below, in den ... Hosen, 6, 1, die...Kugelmüße. The def. art. is very commonly used in Germ. in its representative or generalising sense, indicating merely the class of thing named by the subst., often the well-known thing so desig. R. N.

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