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In the attempt to mark progress, it would be unpardonable to omit a very entertaining sketch of the change in the modes of living at Edinburgh, drawn for the Old Statistical by Provost Creech, the well-known bibliopole :
..... In 1763, people of quality and fashion lived in houses, which, in 1783, were inhabited by tradesmen, or by people in humble and ordinary life.
* In 1763, there were two stage-coaches, with three horses, a coachman, and a postillion to each coach, which went to the Port of Leith [a mile and a half distant) every hour, froin eight in the morning till eight at night, and consumed a full hour upon the road. There were no other stage-coaches in Scotland, except one, which set out once a month for London, and was from twelve to sixteen days upon the journey. In 1783 there were no less than sixty stage-coaches monthly, or fifteen every week, and they reached the capital in four days; and in 1786, two of these stage-coaches (which set out daily), reached London in sixty hours, by the same road which required twelve or sixteen days for the established coach in 1763.
'In 1783, several Presbyterian ministers in Edinburgh, and Professors in the University, kept their own carriages ; a circumstance which, in a circumscribed walk of life as to income, does honour to the literary abilities of many of them, and is unequalled in any former period of the Church, or of the University. In 1763, literary property, or authors acquiring money by their writings, was hardly known in Scotland. Hume and Robertson had indeed a few years before sold—the one, a part of the History of Britain, for 2001.; the other the History of Scotland, for 6001.;-each two volumes in quarto. In 1783, the value of literary property was carried higher by the Scots than ever was known among any people. Hume received 50001. for the remainder of his History of Britain; and Robertson, for his second work, 45001.
• In 1763, there was no such profession known as a Perfumer; Barbers and Wigmakers were numerous, and were in the order of decent burgesses : Hairdressers were few, and hardly permitted to dress hair on Sundays; and many of them voluntarily declined it. In 1783, Perfumers had splendid shops in every principal street : some of them advertised the keeping of bears, to kill occasionally for greasing ladies' and gentlemen's hair, as superior to any other animal fat. Hairdressers were more than tripled in number; and their busiest day was Sunday. There was a professor who advertised a Hair-dressing Academy, and gave lectures on that noble and useful art.
* In 1763, the wages to maid-servants were, generally, from 31. to 41. a.year. They dressed decently in blue or red cloaks, or in plaids, suitable to their stations. In 1783, the wages are nearly the same; but the maid-servants dress almost as fine as their mistresses did in 1763. Io 1763, few families had men-servants. The wages were from 61. to 101. per annum. In 1783, and 1791, almost every genteel family had a man-servant; wages from 101. to 201. a-year.
In 1783, a stranger might have been accommodated, not only comfortably, but most elegantly, at many public Hotels; and the person
VOL. LXXXII. NO, CLXIV.
who, in 1763, was obliged to put up with accommodation little better than that of a waggoner or carrier, may now be lodged like a prince, and command every luxury of life. His guinea, it must be acknowledged, will not go quite so far as it did in 1763.
In 1763, people of fashion dined at two o'clock, or a little after it; -business was attended to in the afternoon. It was a common practice to lock the shops at one o'clock, and to open them after dinner at two. In 1783, people of fashion, and of the middle rank, dined at four or five o'clock. No business was done in the afternoon, dinner of itself having become a very serious business. In 1763, wine was seldom seen, or, in a small quantity, at the tables of the middle rank of people. In 1791, every tradesman in decent circumstances presents wine after dinner; and many in plenty and variety.
'In 1763, it was the fashion for gentlemen to attend the drawingrooms of the ladies in the afternoons, to drink tea, and to mix in the society and conversation of the women. In 1783, the drawing-rooms were totally deserted; invitations to tea in the afternoon were given up; and the only opportunity gentlemen had of being in ladies' company, was when they happened to mess together at dinner or supper; and even then, an impatience was sometimes shown, till the ladies retired.
• In no respect were the manners of 1763 and 1783 more remarkable thạn in the decency, dignity, and delicacy of the one period, compared with the looseness, dissipation, and licentiousness of the other. Many people ceased to blush at what would formerly have been reckoned a crime. In 1763, there was one assembly-room. Minuets were danced by each set. Strict regularity with respect to dress and decorum, and great dignity of manners were observed. In 1786, there were three new elegant assembly-rooms, besides one at Leith ; but minuets were given up, and country-dances only used, which had often a nearer resemblance to a game at romps, than to elegant und graceful dancing. Dress, particularly by the men, was much neglected ; and many of them reeled from the tavern, flustered with wine, to an assembly of as elegant and beautiful women as any in Europe.--In 1763, the company at the public assemblies met at five in the afternoon, and the dancing began at six, and ended at eleven. In 1790 and 1791, the public assemblies were little frequented. Private balls were much in fashion, with elegant suppers after them; and the companies seldom parted till three, four, or five in the morning.'
A more remarkable instance of progress remains. Glasgow, , the little episcopal village of the thirteenth century-overcrowed by its neighbour, the King's burgh of Rutherglen, and at a later time struggling for its trading existence against the predominance of the other royal burghs of Dumbarton and Renfrewhad shot its arms out and become a place of some importance in the time of Tucker (1655), who describes it as 'a very neate burgh towne, lyeing upon the bankes of the river Cluyde, which, rising in Anandale, runnes by Glasgowe and Kirkpatrick, disburthening itselfe into the firth of Dumbarton.'
*This towne,' says he, seated in a pleasant and fruitfull soyle, and consisting of foure streets, handsomely built in forme of a crosse, is one of the most considerablest burghs of Scotland, as well for the structure as trade of it. The inhabitants (all but the students of the Colledge which is here) are traders and dealers : some for Ireland with small smiddy coales, in open boates from foure to ten tonnes, from whence they bring hoopes, ronges, barrell staves, meale, oates, and butter; some for France with pladding, coales, and herring (of which there is a greate fishing yearly in the Westerne Sea), for which they returne salt, paper, rosin, and prunes ; some to Norway for timber; and every one with theyr neighbours the Highlanders, who come hither from the isles and Westerne parts; in summer by the Mul of Cantyre, and in winter by the Tarbart to the head of the Loquh Fyn (which is a small neck of sandy land, over which they usually drawe theyr small boates into the Firth of Dunbarton), and soe passe up in the Cluyde with pladding, dry hides, goate, kid, and deere skyns, which they sell, and purcbase with theyr price such comodityes and provisions as they stand in neede of, from time to time. Here hath likewise beene some who have adventured as farre as the Barbadoes ; but the losse they have sustayned by reason of theyr goeing out and comeing home late every yeare, have made them discontinue goeing thither any more. The scituation of this towne in a plentifull land, and the mercantile genius of the people, are strong signes of her increase and groweth, were shee not checqued and kept under by the shallowness of her river, every day more and more increaseing and filling up, soe that noe vessells of any burden can come neerer up then within fourteene miles, where they must unlade, and send up theyr timber and Norway trade in rafts on floates, and all other comodityes by three or foure tonnes of goods at a time, in small cobbles or boates of three, foure, five, and none of above six tons a boate. The vessells belonging to this district are, viz. :
31 150 tonnes.
Irwin, 3 or 4, the biggest not exceeding 16 tonnes.'-pp. 38-40. We may suppose every reader to be acquainted with Smollett's lively and pleasing sketch of Glasgow, after the lapse of a century, in Humphry Clinker (1771). A few years later (1776) we find the city and its trade thus described by Mr. Loch :
"A large, handsome, and populous city, situated on the banks of the Clyde; carries on a very extensive trade, particularly to America and the West Indies. Its local situation affords the inhabitants many advantages in their several branches of trade, and the manufactures carried on here are very considerable.
2 c 2
• Messrs. Adam Grant and Company prosecute a large trade in the manufacture of carpets, for which they consume 2500 stones of wool annually. Their carpets are of an exceeding good clear colour, and the patterns well chosen and very distinct. Their demand is very great at home, and they receive large orders from the merchants, who export them to different parts abroad ; and I am credibly informed they have found no inconvenience from our American trade being stopped. Most of their wool is brought from Argyle and Dunbarton shires ; the
prices from seven shillings to fourteen shillings per stone. Mr. William Brown, who curries and prepares all sorts of skins, makes excellent chamois, and all other kinds of leather. He purchases most of the sheep and lamb skins that are killed in Glasgow and Greenock, and makes immense quantities of gloves for ladies and gentlemen, of the best colours, as well as buck and doe skin breeches. The extensiveness of his trade may be conceived, when you are told that he uses, at a medium, 40,000 skins annually. He sells above 2000 stones of wool at home, and sends to Kendal, in England, by commission from merchants there, about 1000 stones. For the wool brought from the Highlands that is tarred, he gets from five to eight shillings per stone, tron weight, and for the wool not tarred, fifteen shillings per stone. The merchants in Kendal buy the best kind, and carry it
in waggons. About two years ago, Mr. Brown employed fifteen servants, from distant parts, but is now enabled to carry on business with our own people only, and finds it turn out to much better account than when he employed strangers. This geutleman lived four years at Wooler, from 1758 to the year 1762. Before that period, almost the whole lamb-skins of this country were sent up to England to be manufactured; when they had undergone that operation, a part was returned hither. A short time after that, Mr. Brown used one hundred dozen a-week, for years together, and paid 45l. sterling of wages weekly.
'Mr. William Stirling of Glasgow has long prosecuted, and still continues to carry on here, a very extensive manufacture in printing and staining both linen and cotton. He has, by his industry, brought up a fine family, and acquired considerable wealth, to the extent, I am told, of about 25,0001. sterling. His two sons, whom he has bred in the same line of life, promise to be likewise eminent in their profession. They are truly public-spirited, and deserve the applause of their country. They employ a number of people in all the branches of their extensive operations. Their inarket is partly at home, and they have great demands from foreign parts; neither have they found any decrease in the trade of late. They do not seem inclined to discover the secret of their business, which has lately increased very much ; and making the spirit of vitriol themselves, has added to the profit of their manufactory. The rent for their houses and bleaching-fields must be considerable, which are situated on Leven-side, nigh Dumbarton, where there is fine, soft, clear water, that greatly contributes to give their cloth a good colour. The number of looms employed at present, in Glasgow and its environs, is about 4000, in all the different branches; besides, at Anderston, one mile down the Clyde, on the Dumbarton road, more than 500 looms are constantly in action. The number of
people in this city and suburbs is about 38,000. As population increases, the town is yearly enlarging with good regular buildings, and wide open streets, constituting, upon the whole, one of the neatest towns in Scotland. The breweries at Glasgow are large, extensive works, and consume many thousand bolls of barley annually for malt. The bottle-house here is well employed. The tanneries go on with spirit and success. The quantity of shoes manufactured here is very great. Tapes, inkles, and all other species of goods, are also much in demand. Iron-work of all kinds made to a considerable extent. The printed linens and cottons, manufactured last year, amounted to the full value of 150,0006. sterling, of which the duty paid was 10,0001. ; and the roperies in and about Glasgow are carried on to the extent of about 28,0001. annually.
"Mr. William Smith, of Glasgow, manufactures a considerable quantity of livery-laces, girth-webs for saddlers, and other articles of that kind; as also excellent herring-nets ;-in all which articles he supports the character of an experienced tradesman. William Risk, to the east of the Green of Glasgow, is eminent for making inkles, ferrets, kneegarters, with many other articles in that line, and is capital in his trade. At Glasgow, Marshall and Company's tannery is the greatest in Europe, except the one at Cologne in Germany. In short, as a proof of the increasing opulence of this place, we need only mention, that the duty paid for wheel-carriages is more than double what it was four years ago.'-Loch's Essays, vol. ii. p. 23.
The Glasgow merchant of the present day, trading to every part of the globe, and the Glasgow manufacturer, rivalling the finest fabrics of the looms of England and France, will hardly recognise in this picture of seventy years ago, their navigable Clyde, their harbour filled with ships of great burden, their busy Exchange, their streets and squares of almost palatial houses. The growth has indeed been marvellous. We have been much struck with a sketch of the change of manners and modes of living in that city, contributed to the New Statistical Account, by Mr. Dugald Bannatyne, having in his view undoubtedly Creech's similar picture of Edinburgh just noticed :
* At the commencement of the eighteenth century, and during the greater part of the first half of it, the habits and style of living of the citizens of Glasgow were of a moderate and frugal cast. The dwellinghouses of the highest class in general contained only one public room, a dining-room, and even that was used only when they had company,—the family at other times usually eating in a bed-room. The great-grandfathers and great-grandmothers of many of the present luxurious aristocracy of Glasgow, and who were themselves descendants of a preceding line of burgher patricians, lived in this simple manner. They had occasionally their relations dining with them, and gave them a few plain dishes, put on the table at once, holding in derision the attention which they said their neighbours, the English, bestowed on what they ate. After dinner the husband went to his place of business, and in the evening to a club in a public-house, where, with little expense,