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tween the Euxine and the Caspian seas. It appears' (conti. nues Mr. E.), 'thac there are in this district of country at leaft seven diftin&t nations, each speaking a separate language *, viz. 1. The Tartars. 2. The Abkhas. 3. The Circaffians. 4. The Oli, or Ofleti. 5. The Kifti. 6. The Lelguis. 7. The Georgians.'

As the Circassians of the Cabardas, properly so denominated, are held as principal among these nations, we will extract some few particulars respecting them for the information and entertainment of our Readers.

The Cabardian Circassians, though disunited from the reft of their countrymen, are still the most powerful people of the northern fide of Caucasus, and this fuperiority has introduced among their neighbours such a general imitation of their manners, that from a description of these we shall acquire a general idea of all the rest : belides which, the fingularity of many of their customs, and their resemblance to those of the most ancient inhabitants of these countries, renders them an object of particular curiosity.

The Circassians are divided into three classes: 1. The Princes. 2. The Nobles (called Usdens). And 3. The Vasals, or people. A certain number of the people is allotted to each princely family:-No Prince can be a landholder : he has no other property than his arms, his horses, his llaves, and the tribute he may be able to extort from the neighbouring nations. The person not only of the Chief, but of every prince, is sacred ; and this extraordinary privilege extends even to the princes of the Crimea. This is, however, the only distinction of birth when unaccompanied by personal merit. The greatest honour a prince can acquire is that of being the first of the nation to charge the enemy. The present poffeffor of this privilege is said to have acquired it by an action of strange temerity: he undertook, with three comrades, to cut his way through a Russian column, and succeeded : his companions lost their lives in this bril. liant but useless enterprize. The princes are not to be distinguished ia time of peace from the nobles, or even the peasants; their food and dress are the same, and their houses litcle better.

• The Usdens, or nobles, are chosen by the princes from the inferior class. They are the officers of the prince, and executors of the laws, and are employed in the general assemblies of the nation to gain the assent of the people to the measures proposed by the princes.

· The people, as well as the Usdens, are proprietors of lands. By an odd kind of contradiction, the princes claim, and sometimes attempt to exercise the right of seizing the whole property of their varfals; but, at the same time, the vassal has a right of transferring his allegiance to any other prince, whenever he thinks himself aggrieved: by this privilege the princes are compelled to gain the af. fections of their vassals, on whose readiness to follow them into the

* Rather dialects of one and the fame language. But this we hall briefy examine at the close of our article.

Held, all their hopes of greatness and wealth must absolutely depend.

• The Circassians have few manufactures. The points of their arrows are the only articles of iron which they work up themselves. They make, indeed, some very fine cloths, and felt for cloaks, which is uncommonly light and durable ; and to these we may add, a few articles of leather, embroidered housings for borses, &c. Their coate of mail, which are very beautiful, are brought from Perfia, and their fire-arms from Kubescha. Their agriculture produces barely what is fufficient for their own subsistence : sheep and horses are the principal articles of their commerce, particularly the latter, which fell at a very high price ; but notwithstanding this, the balance of trade would be considerably against them, were it not for the saves which they make in their predatory excursions. The art of conducting these expeditions is therefore the most valuable talent of a Circalian prince, and the great object of a long and painful education.

• At the birth of a prince, fome Usden, or sometimes a prince of another family, is chosen by the father as his future preceptor. At a year old he is presented, at the same time, with fome playthings and arms: if he appears to prefer the latter, the event is celebrated in the family by great rejoicings. At seven (or, according to others, at twelve) years of age he leaves his father's house for that of his preceptor. By him he is taught to ride, to use his arms, and to steal, and conceal his thefts. The word thief is a term of the utmost reproach among them, because it implies detection. He is afterwards led to more confiderable and dangerous robberies, and does not return to his father's house, until his cunning, his address, and his strength are supposed to be perfect. The preceptor is recompensed for his trouble by nine-tenths of the booty made by his pupil while under his cuítion. It is said that this mode of education is persevered in with a view to prevent the bad effects of paternal indulgence. The custom is, I believe, peculiar to the Circallians, but the object of education is the same among all the mountaineers of Caucasus, who universally subfift by robbery, for which reason the accounts of their ferocity appear to have been greatly exaggerated. Wars have been frequently undertaken with no other view but that of plunder, by nations who call themselves highly civilized, and such wars have not been considered as an impeachment of their humanity. In ana swer to the complaints of travellers, the princes of these little tribes might urge that the secrecy of their retreats is to them highly im, portant; that they have, in common with all sovereigns, a right to punish spies and enemies; that to pillage or enslave such merchants as travel through their country without their permiffion, is not more cruel than to condemn the contraband dealers to death or to the galleys; and while they receive with disinterested hospitality and kind. ness such as court their protection, they might declaim in their turn against the methodical extortions of European custom-houses.

• The Circaslian women participate in the general character of the nation; they take pride in the courage of their husbands, and reproach them severely when defeated, They polish and take care of che armour of the men. Widows tear their hair, and disfigure them. felves with scars, in testimony of their grief. The men had formerly



graphy of ancient words is frequently arbitrary, we mult, in determining on the analogy of languages, be directed principally, if not entirely, by found: Father, Tad, or Tader, Celt. Yada, Circa

Dada, Leg. God, Dhue, Cele.

Khoo, Circal.

Dieu, French. Day, Day, Sax.

Deh, Circa Earth, Ge, Greek.

Ch, Circaf Star, Stella, Latin. Stella, Circal: Name, Nom, French. Nom, Circal: Husband, Mari, Frencb. Kmary, Circal:

We observe that many of the Circaffian or Caucafian words are nearly the same as those of the uncivilized inhabitants of America. To point them out in a particular manner, and by a neceffáry deduction to account for the peopling of the weftern world, would lead us into a disquisition much too elaborate for our periodical pages, Such, bowever, is the fact; and they who incline to the opinion of Hornius, and others, who have maintained that America was originally peopled by colonies from Alia,--particularly from Scythia or Tartary,--have here an additional argument in their favour.

Art. IX. The Aggrandi sement and national Perfeftion of Great Bria

tain ; an humble Proposal, comprehending, under one simple and practical Undertaking, without laying additional Burdens on the Subject, the Means of paying off the Public Debt of Great Bri. tain, within the Space of 30 Years ; of perfecting the Police of the Kingdom ; of promoting public and private Happiness; of accomplishing the national Improvements ; of rendering Provisions plentiful ; of bringing forward the great mental Powers and moral Difpofition of Man, so as effectually to promote the public Wel. fare ; and secure the Stability of the Empire on a permanent, solid Balis. Including the practical Art of ameliorating Land, to the greatest Advantage." By George Edwards, Esq. M. D. 4to. 2 Vols. il. 5s. Boards. Debrett. 1787.

R. Edwards appears to be a person of a truly patriotic and


work before the Public, on the best of motives, -the promotion of the most valuable interests of the community to which he belongs. For his good intentions, therefore, he is juftly entitled to the thanks of his country: as every author is, who exerts bis abilities on public-spirited principles, rather than with a view, merely, to the private advantage which may accrue to himself, from the sale of a book.

With regard to the Doctor's merit as a writer, we are sorry to find ourselves obliged to be less liberal of our commendation. In justice to the Public we muft remark, that his mode of composition is singular, desultory, and tedious; and that he


frequently frequently embarrasses his readers, by feeming to contradi& him. felf, and even by retracting *, in one part of his work, what he had advanced in another : so that we are not always certain of being in poffeffion of his moft mature sentiments.' Yet if his candour sometimes manifests itself at the expence of his confifta ency, be, nevertheless, merits commendation for his honesty; and he has an old proverb in bis favour, that second thoughts are beft.

But, notwithstanding any instances of our Author's giving way to unsteadiness, or fluctuation in point of opinion, and notwithstanding a variety of seemingly wild starts of imagination to he throws out many important hints, and useful observations, moral, political, agricultural, &c. and had he contented himself with giving us his thoughts on the several subjects which his very extensive plan [if plan it may be called) embraces, in a moderate compass, like Greville's maxims I, without attempting a systematic arrangement, such a publication would, probably, have met with better acceptance, from the generality of readers, than the two quarto volumes before us seem likely to obtain, ia their present form.

We have hinted at some appearances of self-contradiction, or inconfiftency, in this writer ; and we fall here briefly notice one instance, of this kind, which, at firft reading, fruck us as a very remarkable one: the extract will likewise ferve as a speci. men of his manner of exprefsing his conceptions :

• France has, in the strongest manner, strengthened with Spain, by having granted this [that] nation, on the termination of the last war, the ampleft spoils of the poffeffions taken from the kingdom of Great Britain. It was intended Spain should have had a ftill greater booty:

• With respect to his ftri&tares on the present practice of the law, in this kingdom, he has, most unreservedly, retracted them, in his prefatory advertisement.

+ Such, for instance, as the following Antigallican fally : France, of late, has made John Bull roar not a little, by dispoflefling him of his Thirteen Colonies. He has therefore began to be afraid of his old enemy, not without good reason, for she has brought a great load of misery and debt upon him ; beside having robbed him the laft war, of an infinite number of pastures over sea, where he was wont to feed his cattle. He has at last entered into a commercial treaty with France, to prevent any future bickerings; and has agreed to buy her cambrics, wines, filks, and whatever she can spare, even her frogs; and in return to let her have any of the commodities of Britain, such as his best oak wood, nay, his favourite beef and beer.'-Surely, Sir! we have no occafion to purchase frogs of our neighbours: indeed, we have not heard of their being yet introduced, in this country, to the tables of ever the warmest admirers of French dishes, and foreiga cookery. See Review, vol. xiv. p. 488,


Jamaica, if it had fallen before the combined fleets in the West Indies, as well as Gibraltar, were to be ceded to Spain ; and they are Atill promised. Fortunately for this nation, neither of them were wrested from it; and perhaps Providence more particularly interfered to preferve Gibraltar, for the future safety of the empire.' Vol. i. p. 14.

What is precisely our Author's idea with respect to the futute safety of our empire, is not to us quite clear ; but the manner in which he has expressed himself, does not seem to correSpond, perfe&tly, with the following paffage, in another part of the same volume :

• We do not hear of any attempts made by Government, to prevent or diffolve the confederacy, that at this time actually exifts, or is certain in a short time to take place between France, Spain, the United Provinces of Holland, and the United States of America. They may be right to poftpone at this time fuch attempts; it may be wise and politic, not to interpose at present, until the ardours of their mutual regards, and friendhips, have somewhat abated. How. ever, the utility, and real necessity of weakening, or anihilating, so formidable a combination, must be admitted by all men ; and that a friendly connexion with any one of them, converted into a durable attachment, would be of the first importance to the kingdom.

• In my opinion, at a proper time, Spain should, before the others, be courted to form so desirable an alliance ; with Spain, a confederacy would be most advantageous to this country. The means of forming it, are fortunately in our hands; by Gibraltar being ours, which, on proper conditions, we should by all means cede to Spain, for this purpose. The main question to be agitated on this subject, is that of the utility of this fortress to Great Britain. I apprehend it is of no utility, that can stand in competition with that, which would ensue, from ceding it to Spain ; at least I cannot find (and I have enquired much) what the use of Gibraltar is to this nation, which ought in any degree to bar such cession. For the common oses afligned, I regard as too nugatory to mention. I think it a fortunate circumstance that Gibraltar is so unnecessary and coftly an appendage of the empire ; for, in my opinion, it should be relinquifhed almoft at any rate, to separate Spain from her confederacy with France; and put it out of the power of France to keep this kingdom so constantly embroiled in a succession of wars. While this impregnable fortress remains in our hands, Spain must be a perpetual inveterate enemy.'

In transcribing this passage, we think we have happily disa covered our Author's meaning in the first paragraph, where he Speaks of the importance of Gibraltar to this nation, and of the interpofition of Providence' in our favour, by preserving that fortress to us, for the future safety of the empire.'. He does not, now, to us, appear so plainly to have contradicted himself, if he only meant to intimate the importance of our retaining the polfeffion of Gibraltar, till a favourable opportunity should offer, of our relinquishing that place for a proper equivalent. Nor do


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