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but to promote, as far as poslible, that harmony which ať present
unites them in the fame good work.' Such liberality of sentiment
cannot fail of recommending these performances to all, in general,
who are concerned in the education of children; and to those in
particular who wish to promote the important inftitution of Sunday
schools.

POLITICA L.
Art. 39. Two Pair of Portraits, presented to all the unbiassed

Electors of Great Britain ; and especially to the Electors of Weft-
minster. By John Horne Tooke, an Elector of Westminster. 8vo.
is. Johnson. 1788.

In the first pair of portraits here exhibited (in contrast, not as companions, or by way of parallel), we are presented with the late Lords Holland and Chatham ; who had each been Paymaster of the forces, but with very different effect to themselves. The one-' refusing all perquisites, and retiring voluntarily, no richer than he entered ;-in the settlement of his accounts neither delay, nor distrust, nor dir. pute, nor arrear. The other, making every possible emolument, and reluctantly removed, immensely rich, -his accounts not to this moment fettled,' &c. This is a small specimen of the manner in which the principles and practices of the ORIGINALS are here set in opposition.-We need not anticipate the political spectator in his remarks on these performances.

In the second pair of portraits, we view the two sons of the abovenamed pair of Lords, Mr. Fox, and Mr. Pitt; and here the contrast is equally strong and remarkable. The drawing seems to be very accurate, and the characters and colouring are well fupported by our recollection of facts which are fresh in every one's memory; and to which the artist has taken effectual care to refer us. But when we remind our readers that Mr. Horne Tooke is the painter~(he who ro lately, and so strenuously, distinguished himself in the Westminster election, and in the interelt of Lord Hood) need we say more? Yes we will copy the witty conclufion.

After having fufficiently engaged us in the contemplation of the two SATANS, Senior and Junior, and in the comparison of them with IWO ANGELS OF LIGHT,--the following questions are fairly put:

• The Author now begs leave to propose two [every thing here is in pairs] questions to his readers; which all men, he conceives, will, in their closets, answer in the same words : you have here been presented with four portraits (merely an affem blage of known indisputable facts). Queft. 1. Which two of them will you chuse to hang up in your cabinets--the Pitts, or the Foxes ? Queft. 2. Where, on your consciences, should the other two be hanged? Art. 40. A Letter to the Right Hon. William Pitt, Chancellor of the

Exchequer, on the Reform of the internal Government of the Royal Boroughs of Scotland. By Robert Graham, Esq. President of the Delegates from the Burgesses, &c. With an Appendix. 8vo. Is. 60. Murray. 1788.

Published by appointment of the London Committee for conducing an application to Parliament, in order to procure a reform of the internal government of the royal boroughs of Scot

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land; for which measure there appears to be a great and urgent neceffity. The Letter is well written, and strongly enforces the plan for restoring to the burgesses their ancient liberty and privilege of choosing their own magistrates, common council, &c. for the management of the property, revenues, and affairs, and to superintend and direct the police, of the boroughs. This right, it appears, has been long usurped ; and a new system of borough government has taken place; the old councils being permitted to chule their successors; and thus a power of self-election is universally exercised, to the great injury of the burgesses, whose right of appointing their own officers, and power of control over their management, have been annihilated. Hence, as was natural to expect, the police of the boroughs has been neglected; their revenues have been misapplied ; enormous and unnecessary debts contracted; the public property profusely squandered, or alienated to the self-created counsellors, their friends and connexions; and what is still worle, che spirits of the injured town's-people, affected with the languor and dejection which naturally accompany a deprivation of freedom, were, for a long time, incapable of any vigorous exertions of industry, or commercial enterprise." It is, surely, high time that such abuses should be corsected; and therefore, from our well-known regard to the rights and liberties of our countrymen, whether situated north or south of the Tweed, we cordially with success to the burgesses of Scotland, in their laudable endeavours to recover their violated privileges. Art. 41. The Guardian of Public Credit. Containing important Ob.

servations on the Nature of our public Debt; and a Proof of the Certainty of its Liquidation, &c. &c. 8vo. 2s. 6d. Debrett. 1788.

• It was not,' says the Author in his Preface, originally my intention to have troubled the Public with this work, I had therefore submitted it to the opinion of gentlemen in office, hoping they would have been much pleased with the appearance of an opportunity of having it in their power, to relieve a suffering, though loyal people.In this however I was mistaken, there not having been the leaft notice taken of my applications.'

As Ministry did not take the least nocice of the Author's commu. nications, he addresses the Public, and proposes a plan for the difcharge of the national debt. He shews that an annuity of one million sterling, in the 4 per Cents, at 75, will, in 48 years, amount to 299,288,7751. gs. 7d.; but the difficulty confiits in raising the annual million. He proposes a reduction of the present stock to sterling, and to pay interest at 4 per Cent. The annual interest of the debt would then be 6,619,2491. 145.0 d. which, substracted from 8,073,2657. 195. 11d. our present expenditure in intereft, leaves 1,454,0161. 55. uid. for the annual saving. This annuity will, in 43 years, at 4 per Cont. amount to 2,662,80zl. os. id. more than the national debt.

This is all very plausible; but, ift. The Author calculates the amount of annuitics different from any computation that we have before seen, making the intereit payable half-yearly, and the annuity yearly; and in this calculation, he makes the intereft for half a year half of the interest for a whole year, which is not allowable in compound interest. 20, There is a great uncertainty in the time required, on account of the Auctuation of the stocks, which can never be prevented in a commercial country.

After this plan for discharging the national debt (which is in fact no more than consolidating ibe funds, and reducing the rate of interest 10 4 per Cent.), the Author offers several observations on lotteries, taxes, our gold coin, and falt; he also passes some frictures on the mode of conducting the funds. The letters which the Author wrote to the Ministers are interspersed through the work. Art. 42. , A Short Statement of the Services of those Naval Officers who

were overlooked in the lasi Promotion of Admirals : with Observations on the Question agitated in Parliament regarding that Measure.

With an Appendix, containing the Speeches of Mr. Bastard, Mr. Pitt, Sir George Howard, Mr. Fox, Sir Peter Parker, Mr. Dundas, Sir John Miller, Mr. Loveden, Sir Richard Hill, Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Edwards, Capt. Macbride, Mr. Powis, Sir Edmund Ameck, &c. 8vo. 2s. 6d. Stockdale. 1788. The parliamentary arguments urged on both sides, in the course of this very delicate discussion, which could scarcely be conducted without severely wounding the feelings of individuals, and injuring, instead of aiding, the naval service; have already been sufficiently circulated, and had better be forgotten. Since the rule of promotion by seniority, is disavowed by both parties, the only points to be settled are, how discretion is to be exercised, and where it is to be placed? These are points that will be explained away; the contending parties will grow tired of the subject; they will catch up something fresh,--and leave the flags as they found them.

NAV AL. Art. 43. An Elay on Signals. By an Officer of the British Navy.

12mo. 6s. Boards. Hooper. 1788. The Author of this Essay informs his readers, that he has, ' in the course of many years service, had frequent opportunities of remarking the egregious mistakes and dangerous disappointments that reSulted from the imperfection of fignals. He was therefore induced to attempt making improvements on the general method. To affift him in the undertaking, he profeftes to have carefully examined and compared all that the industry and ingenuity of others have furnished; and after the most diligent application he at length formed the system here offered to the Public.'

It is impossible to give a description of the method here recommended, as it chiefly depends on the different arrangement of two, three, or more flags of different colours, in different order. It seems to poffefs three very necessary and important advantages, viz. fimplicity, clearness, and variety; the last article indeed is, if we may use the expression, almost infinite, and at the same time fo regular that the signals can be changed with the greatest ease, and without the least confusion.

To landmen, this book will be an entertaining curiosity. To seamen, especially those belonging to the navy-royal, it may be not only curious, but very

useful. Rev. Aug. 1788.

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MEDICAL.

MEDIC A L. Art. 44. An extraordinary Case of lacerated Vagina, at the full Period

of Geftation, &c. By. William Goldson, Member of the Corporation of Surgeons. 8vo. Is. 6d. Murray. 1787.

The case which Mr. Goldson here relates, was a laceration of the vagina early in parturition. The circumstances attending it were clearly marked during the few days which the patient survived the accident, and were confirmed by dissection after her death.

The author's judicious remarks on the case, throw new light on this part of midwifry, and tend to thew, that many cases deemed irremediable, from being considered as ruptares of the uterus, were only lacerations of the vagina, and capable of effe&ual alistance from art. Art. 45. An Enquiry into the Nature, Caufes, and Cure, of the ConJumption of the Lungs; with some Observations on a late Publication on the fatte Subject. By Michael Ryan, M. D. Member of the Antiquarian Society at Edinburgh. 8vo. 35. 6d, fewed. Elliot.. 1787;

Dr. Ryan first defcribes the disease, then investigates its causes, and, lastly, treats of the method of cure. In the descriptive part, nothing extraordinary occurs. The author thinks that the hectic fever is produced by the absorption of the purulent matter, and not by irritation. He adds some remarks on the methods of distinguish. ing pus and mucus.

The causes of the phthifis employ much of the Author's attention; he enumerates the opinions of many preceding writers on the subject ; refuting some of them, and approving others. He seems * to think that no phthisis can exist without an ulcer in the lungs, but that the ulceration may be brought on by a variety of causes.

The method of cure is adapted to the opinion that the disease is owing to ulcers, or, at least, to abscesses. In those species of phthifeôs which proceed from tubercles, or from obstructions, which is the case, we believe, in at least nineteen out of cwenty consumptions, Dr. Ryan thinks the most eligible method would be the removal of the cubercles and obstructions, by remedies endued with a deobftruent power ;' as, however, we are not possessed of medicines powerful enough to answer this purpose, little can be expected from following that indication. The principal intentions of the physician, our Author says, in this case, Thould be, to prevent the inflammation, and consequent suppuration, of the tubercles ; to correct the cachexy which frequently accompanies this species of tumor, and obviate, by a suitable diet, the effects of the hectic fever. In the case of a mere topical inflammation, and a simple purulent ulcer, he directs the practitioner's attention to the local disorder, and recommends, first, to abate the inflammation, which always {upports the fever and the purulent discharge; and, next, to guard against the emaciation of the body, by a well-conducted regimen. Such is the outline of Dr. Ryan's pra&ice. Without entering into a

* We say seems, because the Author is, sometimes, a little obscure,

detail of the particular means which he uses for attaining these purposes, we, refer our medical readers to the book itself; which contains much good advice, and passes many just censures on erroneous practice.

An Appendix, confilling of about 50 pages, is employed in refuting some of the opinions advanced by Dr. Reid, of whose works an account was given in Rev, vol. Ixviii. p. 331. Art. 46. A short Description of Pyrmont, with Observations on the

Use of its Wacers. Abridged from the German of Dr. Marcard, and revised by the Author, 8vo. Is. 6d. Johnson. 1988.

This pamphlet contains a sort description of the celebrated spring, and its environs. For 'an account of the analysis of the water, the reader is referred to the large work of Dr. Marcard. The Editor gives fome general directions for drinking the waters with advantage : and he enumerates the diseases in which it is found beneficial. The most material information which the reader will col. lect from a perusal of these pages, is the manner of living at the wells, the expences of board and lodging, &c. An account is added of the different roads from England to Pyrmont.-We have been agreeably amused in the perusal of the descriptive part of this tract. Art. 47. Remarks upon the Causes which produce Diseases among new

raised Troops upon long Voyages, &c. &c. 8vo. Is. 6d. Egerton, 1788.

Many books have been written on the diseases to which Europeans are subject in warm climates, and several modes have been suggested for preserving the health of seamen and transports in long voyages : there treatises, the Author of the present performance chinks, are entirely adapted to medical practice, and theoretical reasonings about the methods of cure after the diseases have appeared ; and are calculated more for the surgeon than the officer: he therefore points out the errors which arise from the present mode of transporting our troops to warm climates -- from their clothing their food their duty while on board, and the attention which their officers few them. The Author treats separately on each of these heads, and with judgment shews the truth of his opinions.

As a proof of the consequence of preserving the health of the transports, the Author states, at the end of his pamphlet, the expence which government is at for a private soldier (who is raised to Terve in India), before he arrives at his destination, to be 861. 118. Moderate as the estimate seems to be, it is doubtless incumbent on the state (independent of moral obligations) to adopt any measures which seem likely to preserve the lives of our soldiers employed in this service. Art. 48. An Elay on the Treatment of Consumptions ; in which the

Causes and Symptoms are confidered, and a new Mode of Treatment proposed. By Rd. Charles, Surgeon at Winchester. 8vo.

Herdsfield. 1787. Mr. Charles considers consumptions as arising' from obstructions in the small vessels and glands, either in the lungs, which are the

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