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the former volumes were written; but gives his fancy a ftill freer scope, when he finds himself on the fairy ground of types and emblems. He speaks of it as probable, that the Grecians borrowed their style of architecture from the Hebrew model. The variegated cieling of the holy place he understands to have been a representation of the impenetrable recesses of the eternal mind; the quadrangular figure of the altar, and the equality of its fides, an emblem of the impartial extension of divine goodness to the four quarters of the world; and its materials of Shittim wood and pure gold, a figure of the twofold nature of Christ.

These pretiy fancies might, for aught we know, have had a powerful effect in preaching; but we very much question whether, in read. ing, they will have any other effect than to raise a smile. There is a point of condescension to vulgar conceptions, below which no writer of real ability should ever suffer himself to pass. Art. 61. Six Chapters of the Gospel according to St. Luke, from the

1och to the 15th inclusive; with the long Words divided into Syllables, at the Head of each Chapter, after the Method of Mr. Brown's Family Testament: with a Morning and Evening Prayer, taken from Dr. Adams's Pastoral Advice before Confirmation. 12mo. 2d. or is. 6d. per. Dozen. Johnson. 1788.

Useful for Sunday schools. Art. 62. Two Elays on Juftification, and the Influence of the Holy

Spirit. By W. Ludlam, B. D. Rector of Cockfield, Suffolk, and formerly Fellow of St. John's, Cambridge. 8vo. 1s. 6d. Davies. 1788. For an account of some theological essays *, formerly published by this worthy writer, we refer to our Review for January 1786, p. 15. Mr. Ludlam, both in that tract, 'and in the present publication, juftly reprehends the mistaken and injurious use, which has been made, by some writers and teachers, of the metaphorical language of scripture; and he also opposes the explications and pretensions of those who lay claim to the teaching of the spirit, or a kind of divine inspiration. He still appears, as in his former publications, to be a man of genuine piety and good sense; and while he pleads for the use of our understanding, in religious inquiries, he reasons like a firm friend to Christianity and virtue.. We are sorry to add, that the learned world was deprived of this excellent man, soon after the publication of the present tract, a few months ago --He was eminent as a philosopher, mathematician, mechanic; and, to crown all, a candid and rational divine to Art. 63. The Young Christian's Introduction to the Knowledge of his

God and Saviour Jesus Christ. By J. Hodson, M.D. 12mo. 6d. Deighton, &c. 1788.

The Author undertakes to explain the doctrine of the Trinity • in an easy and familiar manner,' for the use of Sunday schools.

* On-scripture metaphors, &c.

+ We have heard that in his very advanced age, he shewed fome partiality toward the Methodists; but we question the cruth of the report.


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If the children can comprehend his notions, they will have the ad. vantage of those who are of riper years. Art. 64. Sermons on Public Occasions, and Traits on Religious Subjeets. , By R. Watson, D. D. F. R. S. Lord Bishop of Landaff, and

Reg. Prof. of Divinity at Cambridge. 8vo. 6s. Boards. Elmsley. 1788. The articles in this Volume are :

1. A fermon preached at Cambridge affizes, March 9. 1769; for an account of which, see Review, vol. xl. p. 352.

II. A fermon preached before the Governors of Addenbrook's Hospital, Cambridge, July 1, 1774. This sermon hath not before appeared in print. The text is Gal. vi. 10. As we have therefore an opportunity, let us do good unto all; from which words the persuasive preacher almost compels his hearers to contribute their mite for the relief of their

poor fick brethren. III. The Principles of the Revolution vindicated; a fermon preached before the University of Cambridge, May 29, 1776. This admirable discourse met with our fullest approbation on its first appearance in print (see Review, vol. lv. p. 80.), and was the cause of a controverfy, in which the adherents to the Stuart fimily made a despicable attempt to overturn the arguments of the worthy preacher. See Re. view, vol. Iv. p. 317. two articles; and p. 478. : IV. A sermon preached before the Universuy of Cambridge, on the anniversary of his Majesty's Accession to tbe Tbrone, O&tober 25, 1776. For an account of his excellent constitutional discourse, see Review, vol. lvi. p. 8o.

V. A sermon preached before the University of Cambridge, on the day appointed for a General Faft, Feb. 4, 1780. Of this first-rate pulpit production, see our account, with large extracts, Review, vol.

VI. A jermon preacbed before the Lords, Jan. 30, 1784. We have already bestowed, in our 7och vol. p. 166. a just tribute of praise on this discourse, which is indeed worthy the philosopher and politician,

VII. A fermon preacbed in the parish church of St. Bride's, London, before the Lord Mayor, &c. on Monday in Eafter week, 1786. This fermon, which is now frit published, is unlike the generality of discourses on charitable inititutions, being void of those common-place ideas, and worn-out expressions, which commonly fill the Ealter Monday city sermons. The text is John, xiii. 35.

VIII. A discourse delivered to the Archdeaconry of Ely, May 1780. This learned charge was noticed in our Review, vol. Ixiii. p. 371. It is now reprinted with considerable additions.

IX. An apology for Christianity, in a series of letters addressed to Edward Gibbon, Ejq. see Review, vol. lv. p. 453.

X. A letter to his grace the Archbishop of Canterbury ; fee Review, vol. Ixviii. p. 431.

In August 1786, the Bishop received a letter, figned by two clergymen, together with a printed one, giving an account of an intended meeting of the curates in Lancashire, to consider of some mode of applying for a relief of their distresses, requesting his affiftance in fupporting their caule. The worthy prclate's answer to this letter 5


jxii. p. 329

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closes the present volume. He politely excuses himself from interfering in ihe affairs of the curates of the county of Lancaster, and gives very sufficient and satisfactory reasons for his conduct on chat occasion. In his letter to the Archbishop, he declared, that the matters contained in it should never be brought forward by him, unless a general approbation of the proposed plans should in some degree in fare their establishment. His with was, that the attempt to relieve the inferior clergy, might originate from another body of men.

His Lordship is aware that the political principles contained in this volume of tra&ts, may not be acceptable to all parties. Many of them, he says, ' were not originally written, nor are they now republished, with a view of pleasing or displeasing any party, but from a conviction, that they are wholly consonant to that system of civil government, which it would be the interest of freemen every where to submit to; and intirely repugnant to that, which it is the un. happiness of slaves, in many countries, to endure.'

This character of the Bishop's volume of tracts so entirely agrees
with our own opinion of its merit, that we have adopted it as the
best general account which we could give of his Lordship’s col-
Art. 65. A Short Account of the Doctrines and Practices of the Church of

Rome, divested of all Controversy, and humbly recommended to the
Perusal.of all good Catholics as well as Protestants. 8vo. p. 74.
Dublin, printed for Watson. 1788.

This is a brief, familiar, and, in all probability, a just representation of the distinguishing tenets of the church of Rome; at least

, the Author, in his introduction, and in several other parts of his performance, appeals to Mr. O'Leary for the truth of what he writes. If in any particular I am miftaken, I doubt not, but Mr. O'Leary, a gentleman of great learning and known moderation, will set me right.'

If, as we have been credibly informed, this is the performance of a clergyman of eighty-eight years of age *, it may be confidered as a rare exertion of a vigorous understanding, at a time of life when few of the sons of men who attain such an advanced age, possess either mental or bodily powers, capable of much exertion.

* The Reverend Daniel Beaufort.

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I. Preached before the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, in the Abbey

Church of Westminster, on Wednesday, January 30, 1788, being
the Anniversary of King Charles's Martyrdom. By Samuel, Lord
Bishop of Gloucester. 4to. 15. Cadell. 1788.

Those political prejudices and passions, which the religious ob. servance of the 30th of January was designed to perpetuate, are now so much erased from the minds of the people, that multitudes, and among these some of the firmeit friends of our national establishment, begin to be offended with what formerly gave no offence, but rather pleasure, viz. hearing passages of Scripture, which can only refer to the immaculate Saviour of the world, applied to an earthly

prince, prince, whom his warmest advocates cannot pronounce faultlefs, and of whom his own son, Charles II. on being reproved for swearing, did bear this teftimony: “ Your martyr swore more than ever I did.” The members of the House of Commons did certainly express the sense of the majority of their constituents, by passing this day over unobserved; but the Lords fpiritual and temporal, for reafons we will not attempt to investigate, did not choose to let the royal martyr go without his accustomed honours. Nor can we repine at their observance of the day, since it has given birth to a very elegant and well composed discourse. But the sentiments it contains will not justify the conduct of Charles, nor prove his death a martyrdom. Our learned Bishop, from the words, Let every foul be subje&t to the higher powers, does not undertake to maintain, as fome have formerly done, that it is the duty of the subject to submit to the will of the sovereign in all cases whatsoever; nor on the phrase, the ordinance of God, does he attempt to set up superstitious ideas of the regal character; but very candidly confeffes, that cases may happen, in which the powers usurped by the magistrate may be so exorbitant, so contrary to the trust reposed in him by the people, and, if submitted to, so ruinous to all their dearest rights and privileges, that the bond of civil society may by this means become not barely loosened, but diffolved. Such a case, we all know, happened to ourselves, now near a century ago; which occasioned that memorable æra of our history we call the Revolution. The avowed de. figns of the king were in direct contradiction to the established laws, and abhorrent from the spirit and principles of our constitution : the antiquated claim to a dispenfing power, which had hung like the rosty armour in some trophy'd hall, as an harmless enlign of former glory, was taken down and furbished again for use; and that prerogative, which some of his ancestors had principally employed for an ornament of speech, or as the decoration of an harangue, he was preparing to exert in sober sadness against his people : the yoke that was meant to be thrown upon our necks was popery and arbitrary power: and hy the signal goodness of Providence, a remedy was at hand, and within our reach, to which we could, and to which we did, with success, thank God! apply, to remove the calamities which then oppressed us. When we labour again under the like malady, the like methods may again be lawfully used for our recovery.'

The Sermon opens in a manner which may induce the reader to expect a different doctrine ; and we think Dr. Hallifax has not so fully explained the Apostle's argument, as to set in a clear light the conclusion, though a true one, which he draws from it, that it was altogether befides the Apoitle's intention to state and ascertain what are the bounds and limits of civil authority, on the one hand, or of civil subjection, on the other.' For a more complete discussion of this subject, we refer our readers to Mr. Paley's Moral and Political Philosophy, b. 6. c. 4. which treats expressly of the Duties of civil Obedience, as fared in the Christian Scriptures.

After taking a review of the causes and consequences which pre. ceded and followed the event of the day, our Right Reverend Author deduces from it the following instructions: ift, The folly of


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refining too much, and endeavouring to attain an imaginary prefection in any human institution, whether of government or religion. 2dly, The necessity of an establishment. 3dly, The use and equity of a teft-law, by way of security to the church established * 4thly, The proneness of human nature to run into extremes of doctrine. And, lastly, that the history of the day should teach us to watch, with a jealous eye, the unruly workings of that spirit (improperly called the spirit of reformation), which, under pretence of preventing and correcting abuses in our religious polity, and, never satisfied with things fettled, would, too probably, were the vifionary schemes proposed attempted to be realized, be followed with the most ruinous effects.

Objections might be made to several things advanced under these heads of instruction ; but few will be disposed to controvert the observations with which the Sermon concludes :

• Liberty itself cannot be supported without authority ; nor can authority be maintained without subjection to law. Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to defolation t: it is either overturned at once by the invasion of a neighbouring power, ever on the watch to take advantage of its confufions; or else, after long languishing under public want and private luxury, dies away, like rivers that are loft in the sands. The knowledge of such events, held out to our contemplation in the faithful monuments of paft ages, should stimulate us, as we value the blessings of our free constitution, to cultivate in ourselves and others, that duty and assedion to our Sovereign, that reverence and respect for magistracy, that fobriety of deportment, and above all that virtuous fimplicity of manners, which distinguished the manly character of our forefathers. And then the civil and religious distractions, which have formerly weakened us at home, and rendered us contemptible abroad, will return no more ; and amity and concord being at length restored, and our angry passions subdued by the correcting influence of religion, we may aspire, with well-grounded affiance, to the continued protection of that Almighty Being, in whose hand all events, whether natural or civil, become proper instruments of reward or punishment to his rational subjects, who with one nod controuls and pacifies the tumults both of the physical and moral world, and filleth, with equal ease, the raging of the sea, and the madness of the people 1.' II. The Advantages of Knowledge, illustrated and recommended, April

30, 1788, at the Meeting-house in the Old Jewry-to the Supporters of a New Academical Institution among Proteftant Dillent

By A. Rees, D. D. F. R. S. 8vo. is. Cadell. No one can be better qualified for illustrating and recommending the advantage of knowlege than Dr. Rees, who fas Johnson would

* A hint this to the Diflenters, that they must look up to other Lords, for the repeal of the test-act, than the Lords Spiritual. But they, perhaps, will say, even allowing the necessity of a test (for which there is no more reason here than in Ireland or Scotland), ought this test to be the facrament? ought this to be forced on every Deift? ought this to be made (as one expresses it) a picklock to a place? + Matth, xii. 25.

1 Psalm lxv. 7.


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