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On the 12th of November the Oroolong failed for China. Abba Thulle accompanied them until they were near the reef, when he took his last farewell of his son, and a most tender and affecting one of Captain W. and his people. But what was this to the parting with their first, their fait, and constant friend Raa Kook! who would ftay on board until he saw them fase over the reef; and when that was passed, he remained silent and pensive for some time, so that the vessel had got a considerable way before he could prevail on himself to leave them. And when, at length, he was obliged to do it, he was unable to speak, but pointed to his heart, as much as to say, bere it is I feel the pain of bidding you farewell. He addreffed his nephew, Lee Boo, by name, and spoke a few words to him, but being unable to proceed, he haftened into the boat wbich waited along side for him, and, as it dropped a-ftern, gave them a last and moft affectionate look.

This excellent man appeared to be turned of forty years of age, was of a middling stature, rather inclined to be lusty. His countenance was expressive of much sensibility and good nature. He was firm and determined, yet full of humanity. Steady and per levering in whatever he undertook; he gave his orders with great mildness, but would be ol eyed; and the people appeared to ferve him with ardour and affection. He was not of so serious a cast as the King; nor had he that turn for bumour and mimicry which his brother Arra Kooker had. He pofleffed an eager spirit of enquiry, and an ardent desire to examine the causes and seasons of every effect which he saw produced; he had a mind strong and active; was wonderfully quick in comprehending whatever was described to him, and possessed so nice a sense of honour, that he was always much hurt when the natives, by any of their little thefts, bad violated, as he thought, the laws of hospitality, which he held facred, and was impatient until he had made them restore what they had taken away. He beheld all duplicity with indignation ; and publicly treated the Malay with contempt, notwithstanding he was a great favourite of the King, because he thought he had been guilty of it. Such is the character of this great and good man; both of which he muft have been, in a very high degree, if a just regard was paid to truth by those who drew it.

On the 25th they passed the Bachee ilands, and on the 30th arrived fafe at Macao, without any occurrence happening, worthy of notice.

The book concludes with a general idea of the Pelew islands, their extent and progress, the manners and customs of the inhabitants, particularly their mode of living, their religion, marriages, funerals, &c. &c. but having given so long a narrative, as we have done, of this well-written and entertaining publication,


we muft refer our Readers to the work itself for farther information, and doubt not but they will find themselves highly gratified by the perusal of it. It is decorated by a number of maps, charts, views, portraits of the natives, and figures of weapons, implements, furniture, and ornaments, from drawings taken on the spot, or from the things themselves which were brought home by Capt. Wilson.

We are rather apprehensive that some people will blame the Captain for entering fo readily into the quarrels of the natives. Indeed we think, ourselves, that it ought to have been avoided, if it could have been done with safety, and without occafioning quarrels between the natives and the English. Of this, however, we are by no means proper judges : those only are such who were on the spot; because many little circumstances may have been seen, and felt likewise, by them at the time, which would bave great weight then, but which do not strike us in the narrative. Many others must undoubtedly have elcaped their memory when the transactions of the voyage were to be recorded; and many, important at the time when they happened, may afterward bave appeared too minute and trifting to be handed to the Public: and if there were any substantial grounds for fuppofing that a refusal would have brought on a quarrel between the natives and the English, we must confess that we, for our part, think Capt. Wilson perfectly juftified in acting as he did. For befide the greater risk of having more of his own men killed in the latter case than in the former, and an almost total certainty of their being all cut off if they were overcome, the havock which must have been made among the natives before either party could have been mastered, would, most probably, have been prodigiously greater than that which was occafioned by their afIfting the natives of Pelew against those of Artingall. On the other hand, those who adopt the ideas which are entertained of the natives of the Pelew Islands by the writer of the narrative, will not be easily persuaded that there was any cause for appre. henfions of this kind; but will be ready to attribute the easiness with which this allistance was obtained, to that horrid difpofition with which Dr. Forster and some others (we sincerely hope, without cause) have endeavoured to stigmatize seamen, viz. the taking a pleasure in dipping their hands in the blood of their fellow creacures. On this account, and this only, we fincerely regret that Capt. Willon ever consented to aid the King of Pelew against his enemies ; for we are so far from thinking that the aflít. ance of the English occasioned more blood to be spilt, that we question whether it might not lessen the carnage, by shortening the conteft between the iwo nations. Nor are we unwilling to acknowlege that the argument which may be drawn from the character of the natives of the Pelew Illes againft Capt. W.


as it stands in his own publication, does not weigh fo much with us as might be expected; because, granting the juftnefs of that character in its fulleft extent, the Captain could not be so thoroughly apprized of it at the tiine when he granted the affiftance, as he was when the narrative was drawn up; and he might think that he had cause for suspicion then, which he has fince found to be groundless. Befide, there is nothing uncharitable in fupposing that the behaviour of these people may have risen in bis estimation fince he left them, from bis reasoning on the events as they turned out: and, possibly too, the portraiture of the Pelew islanders has not suffered by the pencil of Mr. Keate. Not enly the general character of that gentleman, which is philanthropy itself, but the very face of the publication, seems to intimate a partiality for the subject. And who, that is capable of making the observation, does not see, daily, in what various points of view the dispositions of different relators will place the same transactions, without entertaining the leaft design of misreprefenting it; nay, even the fluctuating temper of the same man, at different times, will cause him to put constructions on the same action, or the same words, as oppofite as can well be imagined. Mr. Keate's own narrative informs us that several of the people faw the actions of the natives, at the time, in a very different light from that in which he has exhibited them; and we know that some bad not altered their opinions of them, even after they arrived in England, notwithstanding the favourable termination of the bufiness, but were inclined to attribute more to the great care and circumspection of the English, than to the good intentions of the natives. It is, moreover, obvious, that with the beft ingentions, it is almoft impossible for one man to convey precisely the ideas of another; and for this reason we would rather peruse a mere common journal (provided it was written daily, as the transactions occurred, and on the spot, by an intelJigent person) than the most elegant compofition, drawn up by one who was not present at the transactions which he records. Who, now, looks on the narrative of Lord Anson's Voyage, as drawn up by Robins (under the name of Walter), otherwise than as a moft elegantly written romance, in which the leading circumstances only are to be depended on ? And it is well known that Capt. Cook was greatly dissatisfied with the account of his first voyage as drawn up by Dr. Hawkesworth; and that he constantly declared that many of the transactions in which he was concerned, were incorrealy ftated: and yet we are far from fuppofing that either of these compilers was guilty of wilful misrepresentation; but we fear they were more attentive to the introduction of fine thoughts, and elegant language, than to express the ideas of their authors with correctness and precision.


Let it not be imagined that the foregoing general observation on works of this kind is intended to glance, in the smallest de. gree, toward Mr. Keate's execution of the task of preparing Capt. W.'s papers for the press. We have 'not the imallett doubt of his fidelity, or his judgment. We respect his abilities as a writer, and bis character as a man; and we think his readers are truly obliged to him for the intormation and entertainment afforded them, by a work, highly interesting in its subject, and pleasing, with respect to the form and dress in which it is presented to the Public.

ART. II. Tbe Tranfa&tions of the Royal Irish Academy, for 1787. 410.

16 s. Boards. Elmsley. 1788. CAD we no other proofs of the advancing state of science

and literature in Europe, the numerous inftitutions for, the promotion of univerfal knowlege, that have been formed within this century, clearly shew that almost all its civilized nations are inspired with a de fire of cultivating the arts, and diffusing a general tafte for police literature,

From the short Preface which is given with this volume we learn, that as early as the year 1683, a society was formed in Dublin, similar to the Royal Society in London. Of this inAitution much might have been expected, had the diftracted Itace of the kingdom, at that time, been propitious to the culcivation of philolophy, and the pursuits of the learned.

About phe beginning of the present century, the plan being resumed, the Eail of Pembroke, then Lord Lieutenant, presided in a philosophical society established in Dublin Coll ge. In the year 1740, a Phyfico-Hiftorical Society was instituted, of which iwo volumes of minutes are ftill extant; and under the patronage of this society, the ingenious Mr. Smith published his histories of Waterford and Cork * That gentleman was engaged to write the history of other counties in Ireland; but this Society foon declined, and Mr. Smith publithed his Hiftory of Kerry in 1756 t, after they had discontinued their meetings. I. 1772, the ancient state of Ireland re-attracted the actention of the Dublin Society, who appointed a Committee for the express purpose of investigating Irish Antiquities. The meetings of this Committee, however, ceased in about two years; but the zeal of a few of its members has since produced fome valuable works. About the year 1782, another Society was established, consisting of an indefinite number of gentlemen, most of them belonging to the University; who, at weekly meetings, read essays in turn, Anxious to make their labours See Rev. vol, v. p. 257. 265, + See Rev. vol. xvii. p. 505.


redound to the honour and advantage of their country, they formed a more exteofive plan, and, admitting such aditional names only as might add dignity to their new inttitution, they became the founders of the Royal Irish ACADEMY : an Inftitution in which the advancement of science is united with the history of mankind, and of polite literature; and which, by embracing all objects of rational enquiry, makes provifion for the capricious variations of literary pursuits.

The present volume is divided into three parts, comprehending SCIENCE, POLITE LITERATURE, and ANTIQUITIES.

The SCIENTIFIC PAPERS, in tbis the Society's first publication, are, 1. Account of the Observatory belonging to Trinity College, Dublin,

By the Rev. H. Ussher, D.D. M.R.I.A.* and F.R.S.

'The late Dr. Francis Andrews, Provost of the College, bequeathed a confiderable sum of money toward building an obfervatory, and furnishing it with proper instruments; this fum was to arise from an accumulation of a part of his properiy, to commence on a contingency in his family : as soon as this happened, the College, with a distinguished liberality, and a true zeal for the promotion of science, determined not to lose time by waiting for the accumulation; but, in order to haften the execution of the plan, advanced, from their own funds, a greater sum than the original bequeft. They elected Dr. Ussher, Profeffor, and committed to him the superintendence of the building, with the choice and arrangement of the instruments.

The present memoir contains a minute description of this Observatory, with its ground-plan and elevation; but the most valuable parts of it are those in which the learned Professor delivers his reasons for the peculiar structure and situation of the building. Stability, and a convenient disposition of the instruments, form, in buildings appropriated to aftronomical observations, the archite&t's great object; and in these respects, the Ob. servatory here described, though by no means deficient in orna. ment and architectural elegance, is greatly superior to many others in Europe. As any description would be imperfect with out the plan, we shall only abridge the account of its situation. It stands on a high ground, about four miles N. W. of Dublin. The foundation is a solid lime-stone rock, of several miles extent, which, near the Observatory, rises to within fix inches of the surface, and so hard as to require blafting with gunpowder for the ordinary uses of the farmer. The soil is composed of loam, and a species of calcareous gravel, that is highly abforbent. The horizon is remarkably extensive, without the smallest interruption on any fide, except on the south, where * We suppose, Member of the Royal Irish Academy,


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