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the Wicklow mountains, diftant about 15 miles, rise nearly a degree and a half. From E. to S. E. the sea is visible, at the distance of about 12 miles, a circumstance that in some particu. lar cases is not without its use; and the light-house, which is five miles from the land, will afford excellent opportunities for making observations on the terrestrial refractions both by day and night ;-a subje&t hitherto little inveftigated, but which we hope, from the manner in which Dr. Ussher mentions this circumstance, will be minutely attended to by him. In particular states of the atmosphere, especially on the approach of severe weather, the Welsh mountains are diftin&ly visible, particularly that ridge of hills which runs S. W. to point Braich-y-pwll, and bounds Caernarvon Bay in that direction.

The principal instrumenis are, a tranfit one, of 4 feet axis, and 6 feet focal length, having an aperture of 41 inches, with three different magnifying powers, up to 600.-An entire Circle of 10 feet diameter, on a vertical axis, for meaturing meridional altitudes.-An Equatorial, the circles of which are five feet diameter. -An achromatic telescope on a polar axis, and carried by an heliostatic movement; with others of less note, for occasional observations,

In an Observatory so well fituated, built with every necessary convenience, and furnished with such excellent inftruments, Dr. Usher cannot fail of improving that cience for the advancement of which he appears to be well qualified. Account of Parhelia feen at Cookstown, Sept. 24, 1783. By the

Rev. James A. Hamilton, D. D. M. R. I. A. As Ds. Hamilton was preparing to observe the passage of the Sun over the meridian, before the first limb touched the centre wire, he found it to be obscured by a dark cloud about 10 deg. in diameter. Going to the door of the Transit room, to see if it was likely to pass off the Sun's disk, he observed the following phenomena. From the western edge of the cloud flued a luminous arc, parallel to the horizon, perfectly well defined, and extending exactly to the northern meridian; it was about 30 minutes broad, white, and with a blunted termination, On ic were two parhelia. That nearest to the sun, 26 degrees diftant, displayed the prismatic colours; the remote one, at go degrees distance from the true Sun, was white; they were both ill defined. While Dr. H. was measuring the distances of thele parhelia, he observed a prismatic circle to surround the Sun immediately within the prifmatic parhelion, and another coloured parhelion appeared on the east of the Sun, at the same distance, the luminous almicantar ftill remaining perfect. In about 10 or 12 minutes, some whitish clouds came on, and obscured these uncommon phenomena. The wind was a light breeze as S.S.W. 18


Bar. 29.6, rising. Therm. 55". A drawing of the hemisphere is subjoined to the account. Observations on the Lunar Eclipse, March 18, 1783. By the

Rev. H. Ussher, D.D. Beside accounts of observations on the eclipse, Dr. Ussher, in this Paper, determines the longitude of his Oblervatory, which is ok 24 57".. west of Greenwich. This we think is a typographical error, and that it should be 57.6 instead of 57 9; for Dr. Ussher says, the longitude, determined by one of Mr. Arnold's time-keepers,' was of 24 58".2 differing only fix tenths of a second from what I made it by observation.' A Synthetical Demonstration of the Rule for the Quadrature of simple

Curves, in the Analysis per Equationes terminorum numero infinitas. By the Rev. M. Young, D.D.

This demonftration of Newton's first rule for the quadrature of fimple curves, is founded on the principles of prime and ultimate ratios. Description of a new portable Barometer. By the Rev. Arthur

M'Guire. This is an ingenious contrivance, but the machine is not a little complicated. Experience muft determine whether it is more convenient or more accurate than those now in use. Observations on Pemphigus. By Stephen Dickson, M.D. Fellow of the College of Phyficians, and one of the King's Professors of Phyfic in the City of Dublin, M.R.I.A. &c.

The disease here described does no: frequently occur, and Dr. Dickson, who has given a journal of a case with great minuteDefs, appears to have formed a just notion of its nature, and the method of cure. On the Extraction of the Cubic and other Roots. By

This is merely an application of Newton's binomial theorem, by which any root may be approximated, The History of an Ovarium, wherein were found Teeth, Hair, and

Bones. By James Cleghorn, M. B. The case here recorded is not without parallels, which, indeed, Dr. Cleghorn has recited. He then proceeds to describe the particulars observable on diffection, which being merely anatomical, and fimi ar to others recorded by former writers, can afford little instruction or information.

The Papers on Polite Literature and Antiquities shall be the subjects of future articles.


ART. IIJ. Berington's History of the Lives of Abeillard and Heloisa,

concluded : See our last Month's Review. N the character of a general historian, whatever applause we


him the merit of impartiality : for we are of opinion, that his attachment to the Roman See bas, in several instances, milled his judgment. The manner in which he has glosted over the character and conduct of one of the most haughty and ambitious tyrants that ever wore the triple mitre, fully juftifies this censure :

* Hildebrand, the famous Gregory the Seventh, then wore the triple crown. He had been educated at Cluni, a French monastery of high renown, in the severity of monatlic discipline; had then risen to the first dignities in the church; and during the pontificates of five successive Popes, had been honoured with their confidence in the discbarge of the most arduous business. It is well known what a torrent of vice had then spread itself over the face of Christendom: to ftem this, in vain had every effort been made, which honest virtue and Christian zeal could suggest. Hildebrand, with the keen tenfibility of a virtuous mind, had long viewed the fallen state of religion, and he ascended the Papal throne, with the unanimous approbation of all orders of the Roman church, big with valt designs of reformation. “ We chuse Hildebrand for the true vicar of Chrift, (they are the words used at his election,) a man of much learning, of great piety, of prudence, justice, fortitude, and religion. He is modest, abitemious, and chaste ; regular in the discipline of his family, hospitable to the poor, and from his tender years nursed in the bosom of our holy church : to him we give those powers of supremacy, which Peter once received from the mouth of God."

The source of the evils, he lamented, lay, it was evident, in the general corruption of manners, in the unbounded fway of paflion, and in the abuse of power, With an intrepidity of soul, that pera haps was never equalled, he dared singly to oppose chis multitudinous enemy, and he called the sovereigns of Europe to his tribunal. The motives which led him on, and the habits of ftern virtue, which had steeled his character, excluded almost the possibility of suspicioa, that he himself perhaps was arrogating a power, which belonged not to him, and from the abuse of which even greater evils might ensue, than those he aimed to suppress. Minds of the widest comprehenfion may be sometimes so engrossed by a single obje:1, as to be insenfible to the most obvious deductions, which reason in vain holds up before them. But the misconceptions of Gregory were those of a great man, and his errors were, in part, the errors of the age.

To effectuate more completely the schemes he had in view, he conceived the bold design of making himself sole monarch of the earth. The concerns of Europe, whether ecclesiastical or civil, would then be brought within his own cognizance; he should distribute favours, as inerit might seem to call for them; and he would dispose of crowns, which, coo often, he observed, feil upon


the heads of the unworthy, or of men who knew not the proper use of power.

Enthroned in the chair of the humble fifherman, Gregory put his hand to the work. The fimoniacal difposal of church livings was a crying fin, which called aloud for redress, and he hesitated not to aim the first blow at the very root of the disorder, though it lay in the rapacious breast of power, and in the courts of Princes.'

Mr. Berington proceeds to enumerate the moft remarkable inftances of the domination which Gregory assumed over the potentates of Europe, and particularly relates the extraordinary occurrences which passed between him and the Emperor Henry IV. and thus concludes:

• Such was Gregory the Seventh. It has been his lot, as it has been that of all great men, to be admired by some, and to be censured by others. These reflect not that he lived in the eleventh cen tury, when the manners of the age, and the ideas of men, were so different from those of the present day. We generally measure the conduct of others at a very unfair standard. - The notions of Gregory were, some of them, I confess, even then novel ; but they were principally grounded on a newly.discovered collection of decrees, to which the weak criticism of the times gave great authenticity. The high powers he exercised were not disputed in their priociple; he was even urged to the use of them, as contending factions judged they might be serviceable to their views.

• If we contemplate Gregory with the same eyes, with which we look on an Alexander or on a Cæsar, I think, we may be disposed to raise him far above the level of those mighty conquerors. With them be aimed at universal empire, but with views far more merito. rious than theirs. His great ambition was to extirpate vice from the earth, and over its surface to extend the benign influence of that religion, which himself practised and revered. Before a mind, swelling with this noble project, was it not natural, that Princes and fceptred Kings should sink into insignificancy? He would treat them as impediments, which lay in the way of his designs. Gregory, at the head of armies, would have called after him the admiration of posterity: we view him in another light, because habicuated to ap. preciate what are called great qualities, by the conquest of kingdoms and the overthrow of armies, we have not eyes for other talents, or for atchievements formed in another order of things.'

This artful attempt to apologize for that insolent ambition, which aspired at universal despotism, boh civil and ecclefiaftical, is a sufficient procf chat Mr. B. is not the new character in the republic of letters which he wilhes to be thought-'a Roman Catholic writer, artached to his religion, but unshackled in his thoughts, and free in bis expressions.

He discovers no common share of credulity, in the following , marvellous relation :

• The ordeal trials, by boiling water, or red - hot iron, were now in great use. In vain had councils by their canons, and Popes by their decrees, attempted to suppress them. The fuperftitious obftinacy of



the age could not be controuled. Yet, if we can at all rely on accounts, which come down to us with all the air of authenticity, it must be owned that the event of these trials was sometimes truly wonderful. In 1967, were great dissensions in Florence between the Bishop and the people. They accused him of having obtained their fee by fimo. niacal practices.' The Monks of a neighbouring convent supported the accusarion. The Bishop denied the charge. In this state of indecision, which no ordinary process could then terminate, the Monks offered to verify their acculation by the trial of fire. The bold challenge was applauded by the people, and they assembled round the convent. Two piles of wood were raised, ten feet long, five feet wide, and, four feet high. A space of fix feet separated the piles, which was also covered with combustible materials. A young Monk, named Peters came forward. He had been chosen for the awful ceremony, and he was habited in his priestly vestments. By order of his Abbot he then advanced to the altar, and began the service of the day. The people, silent and in dread expectation, waited round the altar. Towards the close of the sacrifice, four Monks came down to fet fire to the piles. They carried in their hands twelve lighted torches. In an instant the piles were in a blaze. Peter, having finished the service, advanced towards the fires, bearing a cross in his hand, and singing with the choir as he advanced. Silence being made, the conditions of the crial were read to the people. They applauded with loud acclamations, "and called on heaven to support its own cause.

* By this time the piles were nearly reduced to glowing embers; when Peter, standing at a small distance, pronounced, with a firm voice, the following prayer : “ Lord Jesus,” said he, “ if Peter of Pavia has usurped by simony the fee of Florence, succour me, I beseech thee, in this tremendous trial, and save me from this fire, as thou didft preserve the three children in the burning furnace." So saying, he embraced his brethren; and the people were asked, how long they chofe he should remain in the fire? Let him but pass flowly through it, said they.-He fixed his eyes on the cross, and with a gay countenance, flowly entered the burning passage. His feet were bare. For a time he was invisible in the smoke; but he soon appeared on the other side, safe and uninjured. The fame seemed gently to move his hair, and his linen garments floated lightly on the current : but not even the hairs on his legs were finged. The people crowded round him ; fell at his feet, and called him their deliverer and the friend of heaven.-The Bishop confessed his guilt, and was deposed.

The account is abridged from the letter which the clergy and people of Florence wrote to the Pope on the occasion ; and its truth is attested by the historians of the age. Peter was afterwards made a Cardinal and Bifhop of Albano. He acquired the name of Igneus.

• I could mention many similar events, but none fo fplendid as this. Our philosophers, versed in the chymistry of nature, will ac count for the phenomenon. To me it seems, that heaven, propi. tious to the good intentions and fimplicity of the age, might fometimes perhaps thus visibly announce itself, to excite a juft horror of crimes, which by their frequency had ceased to be regarded. I can. Rev. Sept. 1788. P


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