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NEGRO E SLAVERY. Art. 18. The Act of Asembly of the Island of Jamaica, for the better

Order and Government of Slaves, &c. commonly called “ The Consolidated Act,”-exhibiting most of the essential Regulations of the Jamaica Code Noir ; passed by the Assembly, Dec. 19, 1787. Communicated to the Public by Stephen Fuller, Esq. Agent for Jamaica. 4to. 25. White, &c. 1788.

These laws and regulations are, as far as we can pretend to judge, every way consistent with the principles of sound policy, justice, and humanity. Could all our islands and plantations, in which Negroe Naves are employed, boast a Code Noir equally just and expedient, the charge of cruelty and oppression, fo frequently brought against the flave-holders, would be much lestened, if not totally removed.

TRADE, SC. Art. 19. A Review of the Laws and Regulations respecting the Dis.

tillery of Scotland, &c. 8vo. 15. 6d. Murray. 1788. A contest has long subfifted between the London and the Scotch diftillers, in which, as in all contests among manufacturers, for. particular immunities, each party has seemingly exerted itself to mislead the Legislature, with a view to obtain regulations tending to promote its own intereft. The respectable author of this pamphlet favours the Scottish distillers, and brings fome heavy charges (though with an appearance of candour and moderation) against the London dis. tillers. An appearance of moderation gives great weight to an argument; and it must be owned that our Author's charges against the London distillers, as having formed a settled plan of obtaining for themselves a monopoly of this important branch of bufiness, and of perlifting in it with very great obstinacy, seems to be supported by trong proof and circumstances. But where so much ingenuity may be exerted on both sides, it is not an easy matter to decide, without danger of error,

Nothing, however, can seem to be more equitable than this Au. thor's proposal, that the law respecting the distillery Mould be the same in all parts of the island * If then, on the present occafion,' says he, two different systems shall be proposed for taxing the dirtillery of Great Britain, one of them split out into distinctions founded on the vain attempt of eslimating with precision, and poising with perfect equality a variety of partial interelts, held forth as ob. jects of national importance, by persons who have every temptation to deceive, and, yei, on whose information alone they must be con. fidered; the other a plain and general system to operate uniformly, either by general licence or general excise, as the wisdom of the legidature fall determine ; by which the same fort of duties shall be levied in the same manner upon the same manufacture, whether in Eng, land or in Scotland. If two such different modes are proposed, upon what solid principle of policy, or of finance, can it be supposed the former will prevail ?'- Yet we know it did prevall. This seems to be an important question; and it deserves to be more deliberately

* And why not the same with respect to the foap manufacture?

examined,

examined, than it ever yet has been. We would therefore recom. mend the subject to the confideration of fome enlightened philofo, pher, who, altogether unconnected with either of the contending parties, fhould treat it as a speculative question. One circumstance, and that alone, seems to have led the Legislature of Great Britain into the seeming absurdity of adopting two different systems of police, in different parts of the country; viz. the smaller duty of excise paid on malt in Scotland than in England. Many reasons may be urged for this distinction ; but we suspect that more weighty arguments might be produced for its abolition: and should our brethren of Scot-' Jand be convinced of this, should they come forward with a candid Hiberality of conduct, and renounce it, nothing could oppose an extension of the same system of regulations to every part of the coun. try ; we question, however, if this will be easily brought about.

The pamphlet before us has been ascribed to Sir John Dalrymple ; but we have fatisfactory reasons for saying it is the production of ano. mer pen.

POLITICA L. Art, 20. Thoughts on the Disqualification of the Eldest Sons of the Peers

of Scotland, to elect, or to be elected from that Country to Parlia, ment. With an Appendix. By Alexander Lord Saltoun, Advocate and F.S.S. A. 8vo. 35. Boards. Cadell. 1788.

Lord Saltoun vindicates the rights of the eldest fons of the peers of Scotland with great energy and force of argument, and shews, by a train of reasoning that seems liable to no objection, that the resolutions of the Scottish parliament in 1685 and 1689 (by which the eldest fons of peers were first discharged from fitting in parliament) were only violent infringements of their natural and undoubted rights, obtained by a factious majority in troubled times; and that the reso. Jasion of the British parliament to the same purpose in 1708, founded on the former resolutions of the Scotch parliament, had been agreed to without due attention to the subject, or the more recent determination of the Scottish parliament on that question, Jan. 27, 1707, explaining the notion that parliament entertained on that head. The noble Author, considering that some persons in England may think the question of little importance to them, thus bespeaks their attention : - Let it not be imagined that the refusal of justice to one order of men, is, to those who are in the full enjoyment of all their rights, a matter of indifference. Example has a wonderful power of multiplication. Depart from the spirit of our conftitution in one in. fance, and you have a pretext for departing from it in another. Thus precedents, accumulated into laws, have, in different ages and countries, converted free into arbitrary governments. In proportion as ideas of disfranchising and opprefing any class of men become familiar, in that proportion are new avenues opened for the exercise of injuitice, faction, and tyranny. Every act of justice, on the other hand, but especially every reparation of injustice, is an homage paid to the genius of freedom, and adds fresh vigour to our political system. From an instance of reparation of a fimilar act of injustice by the Britith parliament, which lately rescinded the resolution of the House of Lords in 1711, by which the Scorch peers were declared to

he

be incapable of being created British peers, and of obtaining an he: reditary seat in the legislative assembly of the nation, --he augurs that a similar determination will take place,' whenever the question here agitated shall be properly brought under review in that auguť assembly.

Several other questions respecting the civil polity of Scotland, are incidentally mentioned in this patriotic performance, which deserve the serious attention of every well-wisher to that country.

His Lordship takes notice of a fingular inadvertence in the conduct of parliament on the late impeachment of Mr. Hastings, which may possibly furnish a handle for annulling the whole of their proceedings. He is impeached in the name of the Commons of England; but since the union, there is no such body of men existing. The lower House of Parliament since that time can be only denominated the Commons of Great Britain.

MEDICAL. Art. 21. Critical Introdution to the Study of Fevers. Read at the

College of Physicians for the Gulstonian Lectures. By Francis Ríollay, M.D. Fellow of the College. 8vo. 2 s. Cadell. 1788.

To display his own knowlege and abilities, rather than to instruct his audience, is too often the first intention of the lecturer. Although Dr. Riollay, by his excellent history of the different systems and opinions of fevers, that have been formed and defended by their different champions, from the time of Hippocrates to the present day, has given an undoubted proof of his intimate acquaintance, not only with the names but with the doctrines of ancient and modern medical writers; yet he hath, at the same time, fully discharged his duty as a lecturer, by the great quantity of real information which is contained in the three lečtures here offered to the public, especially in the historical part.

The Author's opinion of fevers is briefly as follows. Fever is no disease in i:self. In all cases it is fymptomatic of some affection, but never primary nor esențial. The fluids, folids, nerves, and the mind, are susceptible of various alterations that produce fever. We shall no otherwise animadvert on these opinions, than by saying, that the theory of physic was never more obscured or confused than by call. ing the causes of diseases, diseases, and by not properly distinguishing between diseases and their symptoms. M. Sauvages attempted to establish these distinctions on the plan proposed by Sydenham; he has been imitated by Linné, Vogel, Cullen, and others; much however yet remains for pofterity to effect. We can by no means acquiesce in Dr. Riollay's opinion, of this plan being 'open to many objections and exceptions,' until he hath shewn, more fully than in the present publication, what these objections and exceptions are. Art. 22. Bath Waters; a conjectural Idea of their Nature and Qua

lities. In three Letters. To which is added, Putridity and Infe&tion unjustly imputed to Fevers. By A. W. M.D. Reg. Coll. Med. Edin. Soc. 8vo. 25. Robinsons, &c. 1788.

As Dr. Wilson applies the word conjectural to the opinions which he'here advances, the necellity of a demonstration is obviated. His conje&ures are doubtless ingenious; but as they are not supported

by

by evident proofs, or convincing arguments, we cannot prelome to pronounce them true.

In the first letter, the Author describes the springs, and gives a short analysis of the water ; in the second he continues the subject, with a supposition concerning the cause of their heat; and in the third he enquires what qualities and virtues the waters may rationally be supposed to contract from the manner [this was also supposed) of their being heated.'

The reflections on fevers merit attention ; they are chiefly intended to shew that many fevers are thought putrid, and infectious, in which no signs of putrescence are vifible. Dr. Wilson adds some excellent rules for the management of fevers in general. Art. 23. A new experimental Enquiry into the Nature and Qualities of

the Cbeltenham Water; to which are now added, Observations on other Waters, &c.; with an Appendix on the Mephitic-alkaline Water, a new and approved Remedy against the Stone and Gra. vel. By A. Fothergill, M. D. F. R. S. Member of the Royal College of Physicians, and of the Medical Societes of London, Edinburgh, and Paris. The second Edition. 2 s. Bath printedand fold by Baldwin, London, 1788.

• The increafing reputation (says the Author in his preface) of the Cheltenham spa, has indeed long attracted public attention; but Surely its falubrious powers were never before exerted in fo noble a causé as that of the health of its SoverEIGN. An attempt, therefore, towards an improved Analysis of the waters will not, it is hoped, at this juncture, be thought unfeasonable.'

İn our account of the first edition of this essay (Rev. vol. Ixxiii.' p. 300.), we gave the results of the Doctor's experiments, shewing che quantities of the component parts in a gallon of the Cheltenham water. From this improved Analysis, we find the ingredients to be the same, and their quantities also the fame, except that the Author has now determined the quantity of phlogisticated air to be 8 ounces measures.

With respect to the additions, their utility is unquestionable, particularly in thewing the general method of analyzing water, and of determining its contents by re-agents, or precipitants. The mephitic-alkaline water, i. e. a solution of alkaline fale impregnated with water, is, from experience, recommended as a lithontriptic, and a receipt is added for making artificial Cheltenham water. Art. 24. Observations on the inefficacious Use of Irons in Cafes of Luxa

tions and Difortion of the Ancle Joint, and Children born with deformed and crooked Feet: A much more agreeable and effectual Mode of Treatment being pursued. Ilustrated with Cafes. By William Jackson, Member of the Corporation of Surgeons. 8vo. IS. Symonds. 1787.

Mr. Jackson is posteffed of a secret, viz. a method of effectually curing distortions without the use of confining-irons. We readily allow, that all cases of distortion are not remedied by the use of irons ; yet, when the instruments are properly adapted, we have often-very often, found them to succeed under the most un promising circumstances. We therefore think that the use of irons is justifiable,

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1788.

until Mr. Jackson has revealed his secret, which, for the benefit of
the public, and improvement of surgery, we hope he will not long
conceal.
Art. 25. An Esay on the Operation of Mercury in the Human Body; in

which the Manner how Salivation is produced by that Medicine,
is attempted to be explained. Interspersed with Observations on
the Treatment of the Venereal Disease. By Robert Maywood,
M. D. of the Ife of Wight. 8vo. 1 s. 6d. Symonds. 1787.

This essay is a translation of Dr. Maywood's inaugural thesis. The doctrine contained in it is built on the hypothefis, ' That the increased action of an animal fibre is followed by a relaxation or debility of the same.' Dr. M. thinks, that mercury acts as a stimulant, and consequently produces debility; and that the falivation proceeds from the general debility: but this requires demonstration. We are not told why salivation, rather than any other evacuation, fhould be caused by the general debility induced by mercury.

Dr. Maywood sometimes uses new technical terms, which he hath not defined, of which • Oftenfible qualities of mercury,' page 8, may serve as a specimen. Art. 26. Practical Observations on Herniæ ; illustrated with Cases.

By B. Wilmer, Surgeon in Coventry. 12mo. 15. 60. Longman.

This well-informed Writer begins with describing the hernia congenita; and, in order to give his readers clear ideas on the subject, he very properly inquires into the state of the testis in the fætus, and the changes which it undergoes, previous to, and soon after birth. The theory which Mr. Wilmer delivers, Mews his anatomical knowlege; and his practice seems to be the joint result of experience and reason. The cases which are produced not only illustrate and support the Author's opinions, but will prove highly acceptable to the practising surgeon, as they contain many judicious remarks, and point out a number of minutiæ, which, if unattended to, may fruftrate the surgeon's intentions, and be detrimental to the patient.

We recommend this work to the perusal of our medical readers, who will find in it ample directions for the proper treatment of all kinds of herniæ.

EDUCATION, &c.
Art. 27. The Friend of Youth ; being a Sequel to the Children's

Friend; and, like that Work, consisting of apt Stories, enter-
taining Dialogues, and moral Dramas, &c. Partly translated
from Mr. Berquin, and other French and German Writers, and
partly original, being written by the Editor himself, the Rev.
Mark Antony Meilan. Ia twelve Volumes. 12mo. 125. sewed.
Hookham.

If it be a juft observation of the wisest among the ancients, “ Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old be will not depart from it,” and if we are to credit the general assertion, that ac. cordir to the education of the child will be the conduct of the man, then we must allow, that every attempt to facilitate the arduous talk

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