Page images
PDF
EPUB

NEGROE SLAVERY.

Art. 18. The A&t of Affembly of the Island of Jamaica, for the better Order and Government of Slaves, &c. commonly called "The Confolidated A&,"-exhibiting moft of the effential Regulations of the Jamaica Code Noir; paffed by the Affembly, Dec. 19, 1787. Communicated to the Public by Stephen Fuller, Efq. Agent for Jamaica. 4to. 25. White, &c. 1788.

These laws and regulations are, as far as we can pretend to judge, every way confiftent with the principles of found policy, juftice, and humanity. Could all our iflands and plantations, in which Negroe flaves are employed, boaft a Code Noir equally juft and expedient, the charge of cruelty and oppreffion, fo frequently brought against the flave-holders, would be much leffened, if not totally removed.

TRADE, &c.

Art. 19. A Review of the Laws and Regulations refpecting the Dif tillery of Scotland, &c. 8vo. 1 s. 6d. Murray. 1788.

A contest has long fubfifted between the London and the Scotch diftillers, in which, as in all contests among manufacturers, for par ticular immunities, each party has feemingly exerted itself to mislead the Legislature, with a view to obtain regulations tending to promote its own intereft. The refpectable author of this pamphlet favours the Scottish diftillers, and brings fome heavy charges [though with an appearance of candour and moderation] against the London dif tillers. An appearance of moderation gives great weight to an argument; and it must be owned that our Author's charges against the London diftillers, as having formed a fettled plan of obtaining for themselves a monopoly of this important branch of business, and of perfifting in it with very great obftinacy, feems to be supported by ftrong proof and circumstances. But where fo much ingenuity may be exerted on both fides, it is not an easy matter to decide, without danger of error.

Nothing, however, can seem to be more equitable than this Author's propofal, that the law refpecting the diftillery fhould be the fame in all parts of the island. If then, on the present occafion,' fays he, two different fyftems fhall be propofed for taxing the diftillery of Great Britain, one of them fplit out into diftinctions founded on the vain attempt of ellimating with precifion, and poifing with perfect equality a variety of partial interefts, held forth as objects of national importance, by perfons who have every temptation to deceive, and, yet, on whofe information alone they must be confidered; the other a plain and general fyftem to operate uniformly, either by general licence or general excife, as the wisdom of the legislature fhall determine; by which the fame fort of duties fhall be levied in the fame manner upon the fame manufacture, whether in England or in Scotland. If two fuch different modes are propofed, upon what folid principle of policy, or of finance, can it be fuppofed the former will prevail ?'-Yet we know it did prevail.-This feems to be an important question; and it deferves to be more deliberately.

And why not the fame with respect to the soap manufacture ? examined

examined, than it ever yet has been. We would therefore recommend the fubject to the confideration of fome enlightened philofopher, who, altogether unconnected with either of the contending parties, fhould treat it as a fpeculative queftion. One circumstance, and that alone, feems to have led the Legislature of Great Britain into the feeming abfurdity of adopting two different fyftems of police, in different parts of the country; viz. the smaller duty of excife paid on malt in Scotland than in England. Many reafons may be urged for this diftinction; but we fufpect that more weighty arguments might be produced for its abolition: and should our brethren of Scot-' Jand be convinced of this, fhould they come forward with a candid Aberality of conduct, and renounce it, nothing could oppofe an extenfion of the fame fyftem of regulations to every part of the country; we queftion, however, if this will be eafily brought about.

The pamphlet before us has been afcribed to Sir John Dalrymple; but we have fatisfactory reasons for faying it is the production of another pen.

POLITICA L.

Art. 20. Thoughts on the Difqualification of the Eldeft Sons of the Peers of Scotland, to elect, or to be elected from that Country to Parlia ment. With an Appendix. By Alexander Lord Saltoun, Advocate and F. S. S. A. 8vo. 3s. Boards. Cadell. 1788.

Lord Saltoun vindicates the rights of the eldeft fons of the peers of Scotland with great energy and force of argument, and fhews, by a train of reafoning that feems liable to no objection, that the refolutions of the Scottish parliament in 1685 and 1689 (by which the eldest fons of peers were first discharged from fitting in parliament) were only violent infringements of their natural and undoubted rights, obtained by a factious majority in troubled times; and that the refolation of the British parliament to the fame purpose in 1708, founded on the former refolutions of the Scotch parliament, had been agreed to without due attention to the fubject, or the more recent determination of the Scottish parliament on that queftion, Jan. 27, 1707, explaining the notion that parliament entertained on that head. The noble Author, confidering that fome perfons in England may think the question of little importance to them, thus befpeaks their attention: Let it not be imagined that the refufal of juftice to one order of men, is, to thofe who are in the full enjoyment of all their rights, a matter of indifference. Example has a wonderful power of multiplication. Depart from the fpirit of our conftitution in one inftance, and you have a pretext for departing from it in another. Thus precedents, accumulated into laws, have, in different ages and countries, converted free into arbitrary governments. In proportion as ideas of disfranchifing and oppreffing any clafs of men become familiar, in that proportion are new avenues opened for the exercise of injustice, faction, and tyranny. Every act of juftice, on the other hand, but efpecially every reparation of injuftice, is an homage paid to the genius of freedom, and adds fresh vigour to our political fyftem. From an inftance of reparation of a fimilar act of injustice by the British parliament, which lately refcinded the refolution of the House of Lords in 1711, by which the Scotch peers were declared to

<

be

be incapable of being created British peers, and of obtaining an he reditary feat in the legislative affembly of the nation, he augurs that a fimilar determination will take place, whenever the queftion here agitated fhall be properly brought under review in that august affembly.

Several other questions refpecting the civil polity of Scotland, are incidentally mentioned in this patriotic performance, which deferve the ferious attention of every well-wisher to that country.

His Lordship takes notice of a fingular inadvertence in the conduct of parliament on the late impeachment of Mr. Haftings, which may possibly furnish a handle for annulling the whole of their proceedings. He is impeached in the name of the Commons of England; but fince the union, there is no fuch body of men exifting. The lower House of Parliament fince that time can be only denominated the Commons of Great Britain.

MEDICA L.

Art. 21. Critical Introduction to the Study of Fevers. Read at the College of Phyficians for the Gulftonian Lectures. By Francis Riollay, M. D. Fellow of the College. 8vo. 2s. Cadell. 1788. To difplay his own knowlege and abilities, rather than to inftruct his audience, is too often the firft intention of the lecturer. Although Dr. Riollay, by his excellent hiftory of the different fyftems and opinions of fevers, that have been formed and defended by their different champions, from the time of Hippocrates to the prefent day, has given an undoubted proof of his intimate acquaintance, not only with the names but with the doctrines of ancient and modern medical writers; yet he hath, at the fame time, fully discharged his duty as a lecturer, by the great quantity of real information which is contained in the three lectures here offered to the public, especially in the hiftorical part.

The Author's opinion of fevers is briefly as follows. Fever is no difeafe in i:felf. In all cafes it is fymptomatic of fome affection, but never primary nor effential. The fluids, folids, nerves, and the mind, are fufceptible of various alterations that produce fever. We fhall no otherwife animadvert on these opinions, than by faying, that the theory of phyfic was never more obfcured or confufed than by calling the causes of difeafes, difeafes, and by not properly diftinguishing between difeafes and their fymptoms. M. Sauvages attempted to establish thefe diftinctions on the plan propofed by Sydenham; he has been imitated by Linné, Vogel, Cullen, and others; much however yet remains for pofterity to effect. We can by no means acquiefce in Dr. Riollay's opinion, of this plan being open to many objections and exceptions,' until he hath fhewn, more fully than in the prefent publication, what these objections and exceptions are.

6

Art. 22. Bath Waters; a conjectural Idea of their Nature and Qualities. In three Letters. To which is added, Putridity and Infection unjustly imputed to Fevers. By A. W. M. D. Reg. Coll. Med. Edin. Soc. 8vo. 2s. Robinsons, &c. 1788.

As Dr. Wilfon applies the word conjectural to the opinions which he here advances, the neceffity of a demonftration is obviated. His conjectures are doubtlefs ingenious; but as they are not fupported

by

by evident proofs, or convincing arguments, we cannot prefame té pronounce them true.

In the first letter, the Author defcribes the fprings, and gives a fhort analysis of the water; in the fecond he continues the fubject, with a fuppofition concerning the caufe of their heat; and in the third he enquires what qualities and virtues the waters may rationally be fuppofed to contract from the manner [this was also fuppofed] of their being heated.'

The reflections on fevers merit attention; they are chiefly intended to fhew that many fevers are thought putrid, and infectious, in which no figns of putrefcence are visible. Dr. Wilfon adds fome excellent rules for the management of fevers in general.

Art. 23. A new experimental Enquiry into the Nature and Qualities of the Cheltenham Water; to which are now added, Obfervations on other Waters, &c.; with an Appendix on the Mephitic-alkaline Water, a new and approved Remedy against the Stone and Gravel. By A. Fothergill, M. D. F. R. S. Member of the Royal College of Phyficians, and of the Medical Societes of London, Edinburgh, and Paris. The fecond Edition. 2 s. Bath printedand fold by Baldwin, London. 1788.

The increafing reputation (fays the Author in his preface) of the Cheltenham spa, has indeed long attracted public attention; but furely its falubrious powers were never before exerted in fo noble a caufe as that of the health of its SOVEREIGN. An attempt, therefore, towards an improved Analysis of the waters will not, it is hoped, at this juncture, be thought unfeasonable.'

In our account of the first edition of this effay (Rev. vol. Ixxiii. p. 300.), we gave the results of the Doctor's experiments, fhewing the quantities of the component parts in a gallon of the Cheltenham water. From this improved Analyfis, we find the ingredients to be the fame, and their quantities alfo the fame, except that the Author has now determined the quantity of phlogifticated air to be 8 ounces measures.

With refpect to the additions, their utility is unquestionable, particularly in fhewing the general method of analyzing water, and of determining its contents by re-agents, or precipitants. The mephitic-alkaline water, i. e. a folution of alkaline falt impregnated with water, is, from experience, recommended as a lithon triptic, and a receipt is added for making artificial Cheltenham water.

Art. 24. Obfervations on the inefficacious Ufe of Irons in Cafes of Luxations and Distortion of the Ancle Joint, and Children born with deformed and crooked Feet: A much more agreeable and effectual Mode of Treatment being purfued. Illuftrated with Cafes. By William Jackson, Member of the Corporation of Surgeons. 8vo. Is. Symonds. 1787.

Mr. Jackfon is poffeffed of a fecret, viz. a method of effectually curing diftortions without the ufe of confining-irons. We readily allow, that all cafes of diftortion are not remedied by the use of irons; yet, when the inftruments are properly adapted, we have often-very often, found them to fucceed under the most unpromifing circumstances. We therefore think that the use of irons is juftifiable,

until

until Mr. Jackson has revealed his fecret, which, for the benefit of the public, and improvement of surgery, we hope he will not long conceal.

Art. 25. An Effay on the Operation of Mercury in the Human Body; in which the Manner how Salivation is produced by that Medicine, is attempted to be explained. Interfperfed with Obfervations on the Treatment of the Venereal Difeafe. By Robert Maywood, M. D. of the Isle of Wight. 8vo. 1s. 6d. Symonds. 1787. This effay is a tranflation of Dr. Maywood's inaugural thefis. The doctrine contained in it is built on the hypothefis, That the increased action of an animal fibre is followed by a relaxation or debility of the fame.' Dr. M. thinks, that mercury acts as a ftimulant, and confequently produces debility; and that the falivation proceeds from the general debility: but this requires demonstration. We are not told why falivation, rather than any other evacuation, fhould be caufed by the general debility induced by mercury.

Dr. Maywood fometimes ufes new technical terms, which he hath not defined, of which Oftenfible qualities of mercury,' page 8, may ferve as a fpecimen.

6

Art. 26. Practical Obfervations on Hernia; illuftrated with Cafes. By B. Wilmer, Surgeon in Coventry. 12mo. 1s. 6d. Longman. 1788.

This well-informed Writer begins with defcribing the hernia con genita; and, in order to give his readers clear ideas on the subject, he very properly inquires into the ftate of the teftis in the foetus, and the changes which it undergoes, previous to, and foon after birth. The theory which Mr. Wilmer delivers, fhews his anatomical knowlege; and his practice feems to be the joint refult of experience and reafon. The cafes which are produced not only illuftrate and fupport the Author's opinions, but will prove highly acceptable to the practifing furgeon, as they contain many judicious remarks, and point out a number of minutia, which, if unattended to, may fruftrate the furgeon's intentions, and be detrimental to the patient.

We recommend this work to the perufal of our medical readers, who will find in it ample directions for the proper treatment of all kinds of herniæ.

EDUCATION, &c.

Art. 27. The Friend of Youth; being a Sequel to the Children's Friend; and, like that Work, confifting of apt Stories, entertaining Dialogues, and moral Dramas, &c. Partly tranflated from Mr. Berquin, and other French and German Writers, and partly original, being written by the Editor himself, the Rev. Mark Antony Meilan. In twelve Volumes. 12mo. 12s. fewed. Hookham.

If it be a juft obfervation of the wifeft among the ancients, “Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it," and if we are to credit the general affertion, that according to the education of the child will be the conduct of the man, then we must allow, that every attempt to facilitate the arduous task

of

« PreviousContinue »