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tain Words in the Language of the Sandwich and Friendly Ifles in the Pacific Ocean with the Hebrew. Dr. Glafs offers at prefent only one inftance to prove the refemblance. He is of opinion that the word taboo, fo common in all the iflands of the Pacific Ocean, and occurring fo frequently in the journals of circumnavigators, is poffibly of Hebrew original. Thus much, fays he, is certain, that the word in Taooba, from yn has the fame precife fignification with the word Taboo in the above mentioned places. The Hebrew word fignifies to loathe, abominate, &c. But we can only just mention the inftance, and farther add Dr. Glass's perfuafion, that refearches of this kind will terminate in fome new difcoveries of the connection between the language of every kingdom on earth with that prefumed to have been spoken by Adam and Noah.
Two of the three articles next in order relate, to the Ikineld Street; and the other, to the Roman Portway. Mr. Richard Willis, late of Andover, has beftowed great attention on thefe fubjects, but it would take more room than we can allow, to furnish our Readers with a clear idea of them. Mr. Willis claims the merit of difcovering the road from Southampton by Winchefter to Gloucefter to be the great Ikineld Street, beginning at the mouth of the river Ichin; and alfo of the further discovery of a road from Silchefter to Andover, and thence to Old Sarum, known through Hants and Wilts by the name of Portway, being part of a Roman road from Norwich to Exeter. Among other particulars in the courfe of the fe differtations, we observe the account of a teffelated pavement, which was found in the year 1736, in the park of Littlecott, by Mr. George, fteward to the Popham family. The pavement, which has been fince deftroyed, was curious in itself, but is rendered more remarkable by a beautiful carpet in needle-work, made by the widow of Mr. George, from an exact draught which he had taken of it on several sheets of paper on this carpet, all the parts and figures were expreffed in their proper colours;-it was afterward prefented to Mr. Popham.
Mr. Willis furnishes another article, An Account of the Battles between Edmund Ironfide and Canute. Some of our hiftorians are doubtful as to the fpot on which these battles were fought. This gentleman determines, with probable evidence, concerning two of them: for one he fixes on Sarftan Fields, not far from Andover; and for the other, on the valley between Old Sarum and Figbury Ring, which laft he fuppofes to have been Canute's camp, and for which he seems to have greater reafon than Dr. Stukely had for terming it Campus Chlori, from Conftantius Chlorus, father of Conftantine the Great.
Captain Grofe's Obfervations on ancient Spurs offer fome amufing particulars. He properly remarks that goads or fpurs
of fome kind must be nearly coeval with the art of riding on horfeback. That the Romans ufed them cannot be doubted. We have here, among other sketches, a copy of one as delineated by Terence. The rouelle, or wheel fpur, is thought to have been worn here about the time of the Conqueft. Some which are mentioned seem to have been merely calculated for walking in folemn proceffions, or being carried on fuch occafions.
Difcoveries in digging a Sewer in Lombard Street and Birchin Lane, 1786, conftitute the 14th and 15th Numbers. The laft is communicated by Dr. Combe, from Mr. Jackson of Clement's Lane. We have here a relation of pavements and walls, of coins, and of utenfils, chiefly earthen ware, and in fragments, which were found in digging the new fewer in the places above mentioned. What rather furprifes and difappoints us is, that though there are a number of drawings, we do not meet with any remarks that tend to explain the ufes for which the utenfils may be supposed to have been defigned. Befide pavements, there were some remains of painted walls of plaifter; and befide the earthen ware, pieces of glass urns, bottles, &c. with keys, horns and bones of animals, together with coins of gold, filver, and copper, of Claudius, Nero, Galba, and other emperors, down to Conftantine. The earthen wares are of different colours, fome highly polished and ornamented, among which is a beautiful red bafon, but not without fractures. From all circumstances, it appears that there was a row of houfes here in the time of the Romans. They are fuppofed to have been built of wood, and deftroyed by fire.
The fixteenth articlec ontains Obfervations on a Picture by Zuccaro, from Lord Falkland's Collection; by the Hon. Daines Barrington. This picture reprefents Lord Burleigh playing at cards with three other perfons of diftinétion: the game is fuppofed to be Primero, which prevailed much in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, `having been probably brought from Spain by Philip II. This naturally introduces three other effays on the Antiquity of Cardplaying by Mr. Barrington, Mr. Bowle, and Mr. Gough. The fe gentlemen, although in fome particulars they may diffent from each other, all feem to agree that the Spaniards have the best pretenfions to be confidered as the original inventors of this amufement. The time of their first appearance in this country is uncertain. A paffage is produced from the Wardrobe Rolls in the fixth year of Edward the Firft, which mentions the grant of viii s. vd. to the King for playing ad quatuor reges; but whether thefe four kings have any relation to cards, or refer to fome other diverfion, it feems not poffible at this diftance of time to determine: the latter is, perhaps, on the whole more probable. It is very reafonably fuppofed that they might have their origin in the days of chivalry: the firft certain notice of their having been
known in England is from a record in the time of Edward IV. 1465, by which we learn that the importation of them was prohibited, and this', fays Mr. Gough, is about fifty years after their probable invention. He obferves that the ufe of cards among the Chinese is evident, not only from a Chinese painting where their ladies are reprefented playing at a game with something much thicker in fubftance than cards, yet shaped and numbered like them, but alfo from a pack of Chinese cards in his poffeffion, made of the fame materials as the European. However, the devices on these cards are very different from those known in this part of the world.
Obfervations on our ancient churches, by the Rev. Mr. Ledwich, form a more learned and laborious article, and furnish some useful and agreeable information. The Britons, befide their wattled and wooden churches, had, even more lately, only fome poor flone fabrics, so that we are not to look among them for any thing curious in the arts of mafonry or architecture; nor did the Anglo Saxons greatly excel them: it is certain, fays this writer, that what are called the Saxon ornaments, and the Saxon style, have not the most diftant relation to that people, as inventors; it was truly the Roman ftyle; and for all the fculptures which adorn our capitals and arches we are indebted to foreigners. After the demolition of the monuments of ancient architecture in the time of Conftantine, a new ftyle of building and ornament commenced, which was a corrupt imitation of Eaftern, Grecian, and Roman models. Hence the origin of what this gentleman terms the Saxon feuillage; the most perfect inftance of this ftyle, we are told, is the capitals of the French church at Canterbury; which, from the account here given, we conclude to be the fame with the crypt or fubftructure of the cathedral in that city, and which is of very ancient date. It prefents a number of these capitals, confifting chiefly of Egyptian hieroglyphical figures, of which here is a lift taken from the Antiquarian Repertory. All this occafions fome pertinent and ingenious remarks on the fuperftitions which prevailed about the ninth century, when the decay of learning and the corruption of religion reduced Christianity almoft to femi-paganifm.' In the clofe of this paper, Mr. Ledwich adds fome ftrictures on what is commonly called the Gothic arch; but he tells us fufficient evidence remains to evince that the pointed arch was known and ufed many centuries before the Gothic power was eftablished, or the romantic expeditions to the Holy Land commenced.
We fhall finish our prefent account by taking notice. of the 20th Number of this collection, which is, A circumftantial Detail of the battle of Lincoln, A. D. 1217, 1 Henry III. This was the battle which put an end to the pretenfions of Lewis the Dauphin of France, who was compelled, after fome other loffes and dif
appointments, to leave the kingdom in that year. Mr. Pegge compiles, from our ancient hiftorians, a detail of what paffed at Lincoln on this memorable occafion. Matthew Paris, he regards, with reason, as the most authentic teftimony, by whom therefore he corrects other writers. He confiders Rapin as having had a just and clear idea of the business; and accordingly inferts the general and concife reprefentation of the conflict as given by that judicious and impartial hiftorian, and then adds farther illuftrations on the fubject, fuitable to fuch a memoir. The gallant defence of the caftle (for the King) by the Lady Nicholaa de Hara, widow of Lord Camvile, renders this hiftorical event yet more remarkable. This lady was three times Sheriffefs of Lincolnshire. The city, which had fided with the Barons against the King, was abandoned, after the battle, to a general plunder; the foldiers found an ineftimable booty, and therefore called it Lincoln Fair.
[To be concluded in our next. ]
ART. III. Principles of Anatomy and Phyfiology. By John Aitken, M. D. Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, &c. &c. 8vo. 2 Vols. 12s. Boards. Murray. 1786.
OTWITHSTANDING the many valuable works on anatomy and phyfiology which are already in the hands of the Public, Dr. Aitken thinks that a book, exhibiting, in a concife and perfpicuous manner, and in a portable form, the principles or rudiments of the fcience, is ftill wanting. Allowing this, it is the part of a critic to determine how far the prefent performance is calculated to fupply the defect.
The Ofteology (which part of anatomy every fyftematic writer has judiciously placed first in order) is briefly comprehended in 70 pages, not of the clofeft print. It is not however too short: the bones being accurately, though not minutely described. As this part of anatomy is chiefly fubfervient to furgery, it has been ufual with ofteologifts, when defcribing a bone, to give an account alfo of the difeafes and accidents to which it is liable. They have even gone farther, and have detailed the method of cure in fuch cafes. Thus three diftinct branches of medicine, Anatomy, Nofology, and Therapeuticè, are blended together, to the no fmall embarraffment of the ftudent. Dr. Aitken has in fome measure, though not altogether, avoided this inconvenience, for he feldom introduces practical remarks, while he is engaged in describing the parts.
Myology follows Ofteology. This arrangement is perfectly natural. The order which our Author purfues is not that in which the muscles appear on diffections. He begins with the face and head, proceeds to the trunk, and thence to the extremities. This me
thod is, in our opinion, better than any other; because the mufcles belonging to any particular part come into one view; whereas, in other methods, part of the mufcles of the abdomen is firft confidered; the other being left till the end of the diffection. With respect to the particular description of each muscle, Dr. Aitken has judiciously followed the example of our best anatomifts, and divided each article into three parts, fhewing the origin, infertion and use of the muscle described.
Angiology is next confidered. After defcribing the heart and pericardium, the Author follows the ramifications of the blood veffels through the whole body. In this part he is very concife; especially with refpect to the venous fyftem. We should have thought he might have enlarged his account of the lymphatic fyftem, which is placed at the end of the Angiology, like an appendix, and is comprized in lefs than three pages, though Mr. Cruikshanks (See Review for June laft, p. 500.) could write a quarto volume on the subject.
The Neurology forms the first part of the fecond volume. Here we difcover nothing new. The defcriptions are short, but accurate, and eafily comprehended.
Splanchnology, the most important part of anatomy, is largely and judiciously treated. Dr. Aitken appears to have carefully avoided entering on any controverted points, his bufinefs being to describe the parts, and not to perplex the ftudent with opinions concerning their uses, except fuch as are evident, and easily discoverable.
Having finished the anatomy of the human body, Dr. Aitken fubjoins a fhort and comprehenfive fummary of the principles of Phyfiology. He has made much ufe of Dr. REID's Inquiry into the Human Mind, in defcribing the fenfes, and endeavouring to account for the mode by which external objects affect the fenforium; we fay endeavouring to account for, because no explanation, however plaufible, hath fatisfactorily accounted for the action of external objects on the nerves of sense, nor fhewn how these nerves convey to the mind the ideas excited by the impreffions received. The great difficulty refts on this queftion; How do the body and foul act reciprocally on each other? The one we know to be material, the other, we are taught, is immaterial. The anatomist and phyfiologift muft confine his thoughts to the former; when he comments on the latter, he is generally bewildered. Dr. Aitken judiciously leaves all farther enquiries on this dark fubject, to the metaphyfician.
Before we conclude our account of this ufeful performance, we must not omit mentioning the great number of explanatory plates, which, though not very elegantly engraved, are good reprefentations of the feveral parts of the human body;