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tain Words in the Language of the Sandwich and Friendly Isles in the Pacific Ocean with the Hebrew. Dr. Glass offers at prefent only one instance to prove the resemblance. He is of opinion that the word taboo, so common in all the islands of the Pacific Ocean, and occurring so frequently in the journals of circumnavigators, is possibly of Hebrew original. Thus much, says he, is certain, that the word vin Tacoba, from yn has the same precise fignification with the word Taboo in the above mentioned places. The Hebrew word signifies to loathe, abominate, &c. But we can only just mention the instance, and farther add Dr. Glass's persuasion, that researches of this kind will terminate in some new discoveries of the connection between the language of every kingdom on earth with that presumed to have been spoken by Adam and Noah.
Two of the three articles next in order relate, to the Ikineld Street; and the other, to the Roman Portway. Mr. Richard Willis, late of Andover, has bestowed great attention on these subjects, but it would take more room than we can allow, to furnish our Readers with a clear idea of them. Mr. Willis claims the merie of discovering the road from Southampton by Winchester to Gloucester to be the great Ikineld Street, beginning at the mouth of the river Ichin; and also of the further discovery of a road from Silchester to Andover, and thence to Old Sarum, known through Hants and Wilts by the name of Portu'ay, being part of a Roman road from Norwich to Exeter. Among other particulars in the course of these differtations, we observe the account of a tefjelated pavement, which was found in the year 1736, in the park of Littlecott, by Mr. George, fteward to the Popham family. The pavement, which has been fince destroyed, was curious in itself, but is rendered more remarkable by a beauriful carpet in needle-work, made by the widow of Mr. George, from an exact draught which he had taken of it on several theets of paper : on this carpet, all the parts and figures were expreffed in their proper colours ;--it was afterward presented to Mr. Popham.
Mr. Willis furnishes another article, An Account of the Battles between Edmund Ironside and Canute. Some of our historians are doubtful as to the spot on which these battles were fought. This gentleman determines, with probable evidence, concerning two of them : for one he fixes on Sarstan Fields, not far from Andover ; and for the or her, on the valley between Old Sarum and Figbury Ring, which last he supposes to have been Canute's camp, and for which he seems to have greater reason than Dr. Stukely had for terming it Campus Chlori, from Conftantius Chlorus, father of Constantine the Great.
Captain Grose's Observations on ancient Spurs offer some amuning particulars. lle properly remarks that goads or spurs.
of some kind must be nearly coeval with the art of riding on horseback. That the Romans used them cannot be doubted. We have here, among other sketches, a copy of one as delineated by Terence. The rouelle, or wheel spur, is thought to have been worn here about the time of the Conquest. Some which are mentioned seem to have been merely calculated for walking in folemn processions, or being carried on such occafions.
Discoveries in digging a Sewer in Lombard Street and Birchin Lane, 1786, conftitute the 14th and 15th Numbers. The last is communicated by Dr. Combe, from Mr. Jackson of Clement's Lane. We have here a relation of pavements and walls, of coins, and of utensils, chiefly earthen ware, and in fragments, which were found in digging the new sewer in the places above mentioned. What rather surprises and disappoints us is, that though there are a number of drawings, we do not meet with any remarks that tend to explain the uses for which the utensils may be supposed to bave been designed. Befide pavements, there were some remains of painted walls of plaifter; and beside the earthen ware, pieces of glass urns, bottles, &c. with keys, horns and bones of animals, together with coins of gold, filver, and copper, of Claudius, Nero, Galba, and other emperors, down to Constantine. The earthen wares are of different colours, some highly polished and ornamented, among which is a beautiful red bafon, but not without fractures, From all circumstances, it appears that there was a row of houses here in the time of the Roc mans. They are supposed to have been built of wood, and dea ftroyed by fire.
The fixteenth articlecontains Observations on a Picture by Zuccaro, from Lord Falkland's Collection; by tbe Hon. Daines Barsington. This picture represents Lord Burleigh playing at cards with three other persons of distinction: the game is supposed to be Primero, which prevailed much in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, having been probably brought from Spain by Philip II. This naturally introduces three other essays on the Antiquity of Cardplaying ; by Mr. Barrington, Mr. Bowle, and Mr. Gough. There gentlemen, although in some particulars they may dissent from each other, all seem to agree that the Spaniards have the best pretensions to be considered as the original inventors of this amusement. The time of their firit appearance in this country is uncertain. A pafiage is produced from the Wardrobe Rolls in the fixth year of Edward the First, which mentions the grant of vilis. v d. to the King for playing ad quatuor reges; but whether these four kings have any relation to cards, or refer to some other diversion, it seems not possible at this distance of time to determine: the latter is, perhaps, on the whole more probable. It is very reasonably fupposed that they might have their origin in the days of chivalry: the first certain notice of their having been
known in England is from a record in the time of Edward IV. 1465, by which we learn that the importation of them was prohibited, and this', says Mr. Gough, is about fifty years after their probable invention.' He observes that the use of cards among the Chinese is evident, not only from a Chinese painting where their ladies are represented playing at a game with something much thicker in substance than cards, yet Naped and numbered like them, but also from a pack of Chinese cards in his pofseflion, made of the same materials as the European. However, the devices on these cards are very different from those known in this part of the world.
Observations on our ancient churches, by the Rev. Mr. Ledwich, form a more learned and laborious article, and furnish some useful and agreeable information. The Britons, befide their wattled and wooden churches, had, even more lately, only fome poor ftone fabrics, so that we are not to look among them for any thing curious in the arts of masonry or architecture; nor did the Anglo Saxons greatly excel them : it is certain, says this writer, that what are called the Saxon ornaments, and the Saxon style, have not the most diftant relation to that people, as inventors ; it was truly the Roman style; and for all the sculptures which adorn our capitals and arches we are indebted to foreigners. After the demolition of the monuments of ancient architecture in the time of Constantine, a new style of building and ornament commenced, which was a corrupt imitation of Eastern, Grecian, and Roman models. Hence the origin of what this gentleman terms the Saxon feuillage; the most perfect instance of this style, we are told, is the capitals of the French church at Canterbury; which, from the account here given, we conclude to be the same with the crypt or substructure of the cathedral in that city, and which is of very ancient date. It presents a number of these capitals, consisting chiefly of Egyptian bieroglyphical figures, of which here is a list taken from the Antiquarian Repertory,
All this occasions some pertinent and ingenious remarks on the superfticions which prevailed about the ninth century, when the decay of learning and the corruption of religion reduced Christianity almost to semi-paganism. In the close of this paper, Mr. Ledwich adds some strictures on what is commonly called the Gothic arch; but he tells us sufficient evidence remains to evince that the pointed arch was known and used many centuries before the Gothic power was establithed, or the romantic expeditions to the Holy Land commenced.
We shall finith our present account by taking notice of the 20th Number of this collection, which is, A circumflantial Detail of the battle of Lincoln, A. D. 1217, 1 Henry III. This was the battle which put an end to the pretensions of Lewis the Dauphin of France, who was compelled, after some other lofles and dir
appointments, to leave the kingdom in that year. Mr. Pegge compiles, from our ancient historians, a detail of what pafled at Lincoln on this memorable occasion. Matthew Paris, he regards, with reason, as the most authentic teftimony, by whom therefore he corre&ts other writers. He confiders Rapin as having had a just and clear idea of the business; and accordingly inserts the general and concise representation of the conflict as given by that judicious and impartial historian, and then adds farther illustrations on the subject, suitable to such a memoir. The gallant defence of the castle (for the King) by the Lady Nicholaa de Hara, widow of Lord Camvile, renders this historical event yet more remarkable. This lady was three times Sheriffefs of Lincolnshire. The city, which had fided with che Barons against the King, was abandoned, after the battle, to a general plunder ; the foldiers found an inestimable booty, and therefore called it Lincoln Fair.
[ To be concluded in our next. ]
Art. III. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. By John Aitken,
M. D. Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, &c. &c. 8vo. 2 Vols.
125. Boards. Murray. 1786. OTWITHSTANDING the many valuable works on
anatomy and physiology which are already in the hands of the Public, Dr. Aitken thinks that a book, exhibiting, in a concise and perspicuous manner, and in a portable form, the prina ciples or rudiments of the science, is still wanting. Allowing this, it is the part of a critic to determine how far the present performance is calculated to supply the defect.
The Ofteology (which part of anatomy every systematic writer has judiciously placed first in order) is briefly comprehended in 70 pages, not of the closest print. It is not however too short : the bones being accurately, though not minutely described. As this part of anatomy is chiefly subservient to surgery, it has been usual with ofteologifts, when describing a bone, to give an account also of the diseases and accidents to which it is liable. They have even gone farther, and have detailed the method of cure in such cases. Thus three diftinct branches of medicine, Anatomy, Nosology, and Therapeuticè, are blended together, to the no small embarrassinent of the ftudent. Dr. Aitken has in some measure, though not altogether, avoided this inconvenience, for he seldom introduces practical remarks, while he is engaged in describing the parts.
Myology follows Ofteology. This arrangement is perfectly natural. The order which our Author pursues is not that in which the muscles appear on diffections. He begins with the face and head, proceeds to the trunk, and thence to the extremities. This method is, in our opinion, better than any other; because the muscles belonging to any particular part come into one view; whereas, in other methods, part of the muscles of the abdomen is first considered; the other being left till the end of the dissection. With respect to the particular description of each muscle, Dr. Aitken has judiciously followed the example of our best anatomifts, and divided each article into three parts, shewing the origin, insertion and use of the muscle described.
Angiology is next considered. After describing the heart and pericardium, the Author follows the ramifications of the blood vefsels through the whole body. In this part he is very concise; especially with respect to the venous system. We should have thought he might have enlarged his account of the lymphatic system, which is placed at the end of the Angiology, like an appendix, and is comprized in less than three pages, though Mr. Cruikshanks (See Review for June Jaft, p. 500.) could write a quarto volume on the subject.
The Neurology forms the first part of the second volume. Here we discover nothing new. The descriptions are short, but accurate, and easily comprehended.
Splanchnology, the most important part of anatomy, is largely and judiciously created. Dr. Aitken appears to have carefully avoided entering on any controverted points, his business being to describe the parts, and not to perplex the ftudent with opinions concerning their uses, except such as are evident, and easily discoverable.
Having finished the anatomy of the human body, Dr. Aitken subjoins a short and comprehensive summary of the principles of Physiology. He has made much use of Dr. Reid's Inquiry into the Human Mind, in describing the senses, and endeavouring to account for the mode by which external objects affect the sensorium; we say endeavouring to account for, because no explanation, however plausible, hath satisfactorily accounted for the a&tion of external objects on the nerves of sense, nor shewn how these nerves convey to the mind the ideas excited by the impressions received. The great difficulty rests on this question; How do the body and soul act reciprocally on each other? The one we know to be material, the other, we are taught, is immaterial. The anatomist and physiologist must confine his thoughts to the former ; when he comments on the latter, he is generally bewildered. Dr. Aitken judiciously leaves all farther enquiries on this dark subject, to the metaphysician.
Before we conclude our account of this useful performance, we must not omit mentioning the great number of explanatory plates, which, though not very elegantly engraved, are good representations of the several parts of the human body;