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or other emergency, to join the army. The regulations which were observed in forming the army, are minutely described; to, gether with the armour and weapons, and the manner of giving bacie.
The introduction of the feudal system by King William, made a considerable change in the military establishment of the . Pation. By this system, all the lands in the realm were divided into certain portions, each producing an annual revenue, called a Knight's fee*. Every tenant in capite, that is, every person holding immediately from the King the quantity of land equal to a Knight's fee, was bound to hold himself in readines, with a horse and arms, to serve in the wars, either at home or abroad, at his own expence, forty days in a year; persons holding more or less, were bound to do dury in proportion to their tenures, The service being accomplished, the tenant was at liberty to return home; and if he and his followers continued with the army, they were paid by the King.
Our Author enters into many particulars respecting this feudal service, which being to be found in several former works, do not now require to be laid before our Readers. The feudal troops however were only one part of the military force of the kingdom ; the other consisted of the polle comitatus, which was composed of all the freemen between the age of fifteen and fixty,
Although the cbief destination of this establishment was to preserve the peace, under the theriff, yet they were liable to be called out in cases of invasion, either to defend the country or repel the enemy,
Captain Grose proceeeds to enumerate the special laws relating to each of these species of troops, and to describe their arms, &c. with the changes, which from time to time took place, both with respect to the army itself, and the several modes of offensive and defensive war,
After the Reftoration, the feudal tenures were abolished by act of parliament, and a national militia was established, wherein house-kuepers, and other fubftantial persons, were bound to find men, horses, arms, ammunition and pay, each according to their real or personal eftates. The Captain here gives an abstract of 12 Car. II. c. 21 & 29. and of 13 & 14 Car. II. c. accord. ing to which the militia were occafionally muftered and exercised, but being found expensive, and troublesome to the coun, try, it was by degrees neglected.
• Our ancient lawyers do not agree as to the quantity of land, or fum of money, of which it confilled. Perhaps it varied in different periods. In the reign of Hen. II. it was fated at 20 l. per ann. and their number in the kingdom was 60,000.
About the year 1756, the nation being much alarmed by the threats of an invasion, many leading persons resumed the idea of inftituting a well-disciplined militia, which after some opposition was at length carried into a law, 30 Geo. II. c. 25. and by several subsequent acts reduced to its present form; which the Author minutely details through several pages.
Beside these conftitutional forces, there were in the English army, at all times, from the Conquest downward, ftipendiary troops, both natives and foreigners ; the firft were hired by the Kings, with the money paid by persons commuting for feudal service; the foreigners were paid out of the privy purse, or fuffered to live on free quarters: they were known by the various names of Ruptarii, Routers, and Ryters, and were, in reality, a set of freebooters of all nations, ready to embrace any fide for hire. These are separately described, and an account is given of the services they performed, and the Kings by whom they were employed.
The ftipendiary forces, the garrisons and castle-guards excepted, were kept up only in time of war, and though mercenary, were not a standing army. The first standing forces which were employed by our Kings, were their immediate body guards, such as the sergeants at arms, the yeomen of the guard, and the gentlemen penfioners; yet there seem to have been calculated more for supporting the splendour of the court, than for actual feryice in the field.
During the troubles under Charles I. a number of troops were raised by both parties, without any attention to law or custom, which Captain Grose pasles over as not coming within the scope of his work. Many of the regiments raised by the Parliament, were, on the Restoration, disbanded, and on the fame day relevied by Charles II. for his service. Two regiments of guards, raised by him in 1660, one of horse and one of foot, formed the two first corps of our present army; which was afterward conGiderably increafed.
The Revolution, which succeeded, caused the military conftitution to be new-modelled: and the army is now voted from year to year only, by an act styled the Mutiny Bill.
After thus giving a general account of the army, Captain Grose goes back, and thews how the national forces were anciently affembled. In this part of the work, the reader will meet with many curious particulars, among which the manner of fummoning the ecclefiaftics, and their services in the army, are not the least remarkable. It seems difficult to reconcile the practice of the ancient ecclefiaftics with their principles, or even with their laws.
: We every where read,' says the Captain, of Bishops ferving in, and sometimes commanding armies; and frequently of their fighting, like private troopers, in the ranks of a squadron, and that not in crusades or religious wars : at the same time Canons, Councils, and Popes unanimously forbid ecclesiastics of all degrees to use the fword, or engage in any military operations. An instance of this is Thewn in the case of Philip de Dreux, Bishop of Beauvais, who, as Matthew Paris relates, being taken prisoner by King Richard I. in complete armour, was confined in prison ; the Pope, interfering in his behalf, folicited his release, under the ticle of his son, and the son of the church. In answer to which, the King sene him the coat of mail wherein the Bishop was taken, with the following question, “ Is this thy son's coat or not?” To which the Pope ingenuously an. fwered, it was neither bis son's coat, nor the coat of the son of the church ; thereby disavowing him, and declining to intereft himself for an ecclesiastic so improperly employed. This Bishop, in order to avoid offending the letter of the canon and other regulations, did not use a sword, but fought with a mace, of which he made so powerful an use, that, at the battle of Bovines, he beat down Long-Sword, Earl of Salisbury; how he avoided the spilling of blood, is not so evident, since it would be next to impossible, to beat out a man's brains, without caufing the prohibited effusion.'
The methods of railing the ftipendiary or mercenary troops are next described; thele were either by commiflions, in substance like our present beating orders, auchorifing persons to enlift voJunteers; or by indentures, by which certain persons engaged to provide a certain number of able men, properly armed, to serve the King, for a stated time, at a ftipulated pay. In these agreements it was usual for the King to advance part of the pay before-hand *, and to give securiiy for the regular payment of the remainder : in one of these indentures, specimens of which are given in the notes, Henry V. pledged all his jewels, which were not redeemed till after his death.
The Author proceeds to describe the present modes of recruiting, and preffing. On these subjects he offers some excellent remarks, in his usual manner, mixing humour with serious and just observation.
An act for impressing soldiers took place in 1779, when all the thieves, pick pockets, and vagabonds, in the environs of London, too lame to run away, and too poor to bribe the parish officers, were apprehended and delivered over as soldiers, to the regiments quar. tered in the very towns and villages where these banditti had lived and been taken ; these men being thus set at large in the midst of their old companions and connections, immediately deserted, whereby the whole expence, by no means an inconfiderable one, was thrown away: nor did the soldiers of the regiments on which they were imposed, take the least pains to prevent their escape, or to retake them; as they justly confidered being thus made the companions of thieves and robbers, a most grievous and cruel insult, and loudly complained of it, as such, to their officers. Indeed it seems to have been a very
* This advanced money was afterward called imprift money.
ill-judged measure, tending to destroy that profesional pride, that esprit du corps which ought molt asliduously to be cultivated in every regiment. The profeflion of a soldier has long ceased to be lucrative, if ever it was so. If it is likewise made dishonourable, where shall we get soldiers on whom we may depend? When the exigencies of the times make it necessary to take such men into the service, they hould at least be sent to regiments quartered in a distant part of the kingdom, where they and their characters are equally unknown, or divided among the regiments on foreign service.'
After the Captain nas embodied his army, he reviews the ca-valry and infantry; the armour is minutely described, and a variety of plates, representing separately the weapons and armour, illustrate what cannot be properly expressed in, or thoroughly understood from, verbal description; together with these are given figures of the soldiers, both horfe and foot, with all their accoutrements. In this part of the work, the reader is presented with all the changes that have taken place in the army with respect to dress, arms, method of fighting, &c. from the Conquest to the present time.
Having thus taken a general review of the army, Captain Grose proceeds to particular corps, of which the first that he de
scribes is the band of gentlemen penfioners, instituted by Henry - VIII. for an honourable body-guard, and to form a nursery for
officers of his army, and for governors of castles and fortified places. After enumerating the many laws, ordonances, and regulations issued for the fupport of archery, and describing the bows, arrows, dress, &c, of the archers, he proceeds to the inftitution of the artillery company, which was incorporated by a patent of Henry VIII. in 1537, granting to persons therein mentioned, licence for them to become overseers of the science of artillery, videlicet for long bows, cross bows, and hand guns.' Succeeding Kings renewed the charter; and although both long and cross bows have for many years been laid afide, the company still continues to exercise in the artillery ground. The Prince of Wales is the preseot Captain General : there is also a President, Vice-president, Treaturer, Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel, and Major (usually chosen from the Court of Aldermen), with an adjutant, engineer, furgeon, chaplain, clerk, sergeant-major, drum-major, and messenger.
Captain Grose next confiders the introduction of fire arms. By his account, it does not appear, that the invention of gunpowder, and its application to artillery and small arms, produced that sudden change in the art of war, or in the weapons, which might have been expected. He attributes this delay in the adoption of fire arms, to the almost fuperftitious reverence that man. kind generally have for old profeffional customs. "This arises (says our Author, in the character of a moral philosopher) nos only from a ftrong prepofleffion in favour of opinions, which
they they (profesional men) have been taught all their lives to con: fider as uncontrovertible, but because improvements tend to thew that the rising generation is wiser than their forefathers and se. niors,-a position old men will never willingly allow. This dilike to innovations is peculiarly found in old soldiers, becaule by adopting new weapons, and consequently a new exercise, the old and expert soldiers find themselves in a worse state than new recruits, as they have not only a new exercise to learn, but also the old one to forget: for the truth of this observation, I appeal to every military man, who has seen any alteration made in the ordinary routine of duty or exercise.'
Fire arms of various kinds, which are discharged with the hand, are described. They were first introduced into this kingdom in 1470, when Edward IV. landing at Ravenspurgh, brought with him, among other forces, 300 Flemings, armed, as Leland says, with “hange * guns.” Our narrow limits will not permet us to transcribe the history of the improvements made in fire arms fince their first introduction, and it will be imperfect if it be abridged.
It was found neceflary, on many occasions, to embark a number of foldiers on board of our ships of war; and mere land-men being at first extremely unhealthy, and, until they had been accustomed to the sea, in a great measure un serviceable, it was judged expedient to appoint certain regiments for that fervice, who were trained to the different modes of sea fighting, and also made useful in some of those manoeuvres of a ship, where a great number of hands were required. This corps, from the nature of their duty, were distinguished by the appellation of maritime foldiers, or marines. The precise time of this institution, like many other points of military history, is involved in obscurity. 'The oldest corps of this kind which the Captain has been able to discover, was the third regiment of infantry, in the list of the army for the year 1684.
The marines proving a very useful corps, have been much increased since their firft establishment. At present, they confift of seventy companies ; and are formed into three divifions, ftationed at Plymouth, Portsmouth, and Chatham, where they can easily embark on any emergency.
Captain Grose next describes the invalids, fencibles, and independent companies. Of the London train'd bands he gives an ample account; they originated from the artillery company, and are wholly intended for the defence of the city and its suburbs"; their numbers at present amount to 24,621 men.
The sergeants at arms were first instituted by Richard I. in imitation of a corps of the fame name, formed by Philip Aus
* Hand guns, we fuppose.